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In order to host Olympic Games, there is a bid held which was won by London on July 6, 2005 which assures that 2012 Olympics will be held in London. The decision of holding the events at the international level is really a big deal as it involves lots of things which require lots of analysis and majorly upon the social and tourism development sector. With the help of studies it is calculated that a positive results are on chart in UK’s economy as huge increase is noticed in international publicity and tourism along with this some industrial analysis and economists says that its consequences are not good as the negative impact is much more than the positive impacts. Somewhere the London Olympics are considered as a factor of business economic destruction in a wider sense. The report here elaborates different results of London Olympics in relation with UK’s economy with the help of tourism theories.
Further this report states the related problems of enclave tourism of CASA DE CAMPO of the Dominican Republic and even a discussion is made with suggestions in connection to the tourism industry of France and India.
Rationale – In order to achieve the desired objective stakeholder go for tourism and travelling planning. This may also result in increasing opportunities in employment for stakeholders. Stakeholders here involve wildlife conservatories, local communities. It also led in enhanced coordination between the public sector and private sector organisation
Stakeholders for development of tourism planning in the London Olympiad of 2012
Local Community – 2012 Olympics in London involved local community also results into their increase in development and tourism. It covers hospitality industry, local banks and established business etc. as they help in appropriate organization of the development of (CLARK, 1984)
Public Private Partnership - non-renewable resources were properly exploited and managed during London 2012 Olympics due to the partnership between the public sector and private sector bodies (STABLER, 1997). Benefits to stakeholders from the partnership is as follows-
Benefits to the stakeholders
1. Tourism sector boomed where extra revenue generated was £610m.
2. 3000 jobs equivalent to full time jobs were created in east London.
3. National reputation was also increased.
4. Sports requiring aquatic centre and stadiums were increased.
Following are the advantages-
Reduction of cost- Efficient management of resources and source, London Olympic 2012, by partnership in public and private sector for tourism planning resulted in greater cost reduction. The extra dumping was also restricted.
The sharing of risks- ‘Gain risk’ does not cover the capital cost and practical costs in London. So risk may be shared by government with private partners. The said risk is inclusive of deadlines not achieved in the allocation of services, issues arisen due to environmental control or other kind regulations and other costs.
‘Improved or maintained present services levels’- modernized way of allocation of resources so as to get maximum out of minimum.
Improvement in earnings- here, accuracy as to cost is maintained for particular service to set the rate of customers. Traditional ways of issuing services were replaced by the public-private partnership’s incentive income source.
Efficient application- capability may be increased by taking varied actions like development and formation of flexible method of procurement, getting enough capital funding in a speedy way and choice making etc.
Other types of economic benefits- involvement of private sector with government sector may result in enhanced industrial and job opportunities (Weaver, 2005).
Given below are the some of the disadvantages connected with it:
Loss of government control- The partnership resulted in the involvement of both parties as to decision making in regards to risk sharing, decisions at managers level, price setting etc. This has led them to loosening of governmental control.
Labour issues and Political risks- government with less experience in the field may lead to political risks.
Duty issues- public was not clear in regards to the arrangements of services. This causes the larger government involvement to ensure proper obedience and feedback to the demand of public.
Insecurity as to services- issues like labour issues, political, financial or other like issues restricts the private sector from completing their promises.
The lack of competitor- competition paves the way for low cost, enhanced operations and modernization.
Service adaptability or Decreased quality – such contracts may lead to lower service quality and inadaptability.
Inequality as to choice process- due to traditional modes of service, biased may take place in selection process (INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITEE, 2012).
Planning: When it comes to tourism destination then the integration of cohesive and coordinated approach is required for the tourism development and that’s so at varied levels (Jamal & Getz, 1995) Planning may be;
Environmental planning – on completion of the biding to hosting 2012 olympics games and plan of building the olympiad London analysed keenly and made a firm and courageous statement. The statement was for enviornmental effects in regards to games. London went for ‘sustainable olympiad’. They planned to began a marketing compaign “Towards a One Planet 2012” which was focused on reducing the negative impact on enviornment and for sustainable tourism.
1. ‘Renewable form of energy’ was used for zero carbon emission during the olympiad.
2. Plan to take on no waste level and recycling the waste.
3. Sustainable material was planned to use to reduce the negative effect of games on enviornment. (Chamberiain, n.d)
Economic planning - To secure economic growth in sustainable way and its benefits for a long period of time intensive planning was done while planning the London Olympiad. The Chairman of the games Sub Coe visions a sturdy plan to bring superb economic outcome.
1. With a boom of about £7.3 billion the construction industry secured a heavy benefit through London 2012 games. That was outstanding profit.
2. The rate of unemployment was reduced by 1.2% due to the games as games generated jobs and unemployed got benefits.
3. Round 46,000 people got employment during games because of London 2012 games.
4. The economy of the U.K was significantly affected by tourism inflow to a significant level.(Official Website of the Olympic Movement, 2012)
Social planning –
The Olympiad witnessed the planning where initiatives were taken to inspire and motivate people to become part of the social change. London 2012 was pointed as the probable and very significant for bringing the social change for instance raising concern for participation, sustainabletourism and providing approx. 32,000 new homes, by the Mayor of London (LONDON GOVERNMENT, 2012)
International and national planning-
Execution of easy plans was done at both international and national level. This was inclusive of planning to have the funding for the elite sport. The site of Olympic was later planned to convert into Queen Elizabeth’s Olympic park.
Regional, local and strategic
In the games the whole U.K was included and encouraged to take part in the event by hosting the games and assisting in the economic, social and regional growth. The vision was for the whole year
In the given section, focused is laid on stages included in the process of planning from the prism of tourism development. The task of management may be performed well, if organization looks to convince its objectives profitably, by taking assistance of market research. Desires, motivations and needs of the consumers towards services of tourism is very significant to be known. It assists in knowing the charisma of the market. Interactive planning processes and planning are inclusive of benefits, which are given below-
Importance of the ‘interactive planning process’
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Measuring Tourism Impact
For the purpose of evaluation the textual data is used in ‘Qualitative Evaluation Method’ on the other hand mathematical data and methods and statistics were used in the ‘Quantitive evaluation methods’. (Garbarino & Holland, 2009)
Quantitative Impact of the London Olympiad 2012
1. Approx. 32,000 newhomes were provided to people in London Olympiad 2012.
2. Around 46,000 people go employment (LONDON GOVERNMENT, 2012)
3. U.K economy was boomed with riseof £7.3 billion.
4. Rate of unemployment was reduced about 1.2% in United Kingdom. (INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE, 2012)
QualitativeImpact of the London Olympiad 2012
1. The games were result of the inflow of toursim by which UK earned revenue.
2. Social awareness was raised due to a deployment of renewable source of energy, recycling of waste. Concern, as to benefit and use of sustainable tourism, efforts towards eliminating ill effetcs on enviornment, were also the main concern.
Cambridge Economic Impact Model
The model provides a pattern regarding the value and the extent of volume of tourism as to local area. National surveys done annually gathered data and statistics which are analysed to state the volume and the value. Impacts as to local supply are studied by using this information it uses the information regarding local supply to study the impact. Being small in result of size the regional samples are not that reliable annually.
Sport Tourism Economic Assessment Model – the model allows evaluation of impact as to hosting process of an event. It works on the assessment of economic condition of the host country. STEAM was deployed to study the economic impact of London 2012 as STEAM recognize and assess the level of activity which can be maintained by host. (CANADIAN SPORT TOURISM, 2013)
Inflexibility-in situations of capacity, Inflexibility is the character of the tourism destination/industry. Even if sudden increase of the demand, the room booking of a hotel or tickets of air flight remains constant. Similarly, if demand is less, the room oozing of hotel and tickets of flights would remain idle. A periodic change in the tourism activity may provoke this problem (Morrison, 2013).
Permanent location-fixed locations are very significant. Hence, tourist destinations are needed to be concentrated to match the particular customer with a fix location/destination.
Hence, Liability level and return rate is required to be taken into consideration by tourism management.
In accordance with the UNESCO a definition of sustainable tourism states that a principled format of tourism working in regard with original population of local area and the related tourist population elaborates the cultural heritage and nation’s environment(UNESCO, 2015).
“Brundtland Report of 1987”:
In the above mentioned report a proper existence is given to the sustainable tourism. After “Brundtland Commission Report” the proper usage of this term is noticed. Basically this report explains the factors like “global environment and related developments”. Even recognition is given to the “Non-government organisations” concerned with the environment development (Redclift, 2005).
“Triple Bottom Line, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)”:
In connection with 2012 Olympic Games the process of “triple bottom line” is implemented. This process helps in framing the analysis for the development in regard with the sustainable tourism development and even manages the “Corporate Social Responsibility”.
“Sustainable tourism with reference to London Olympiad”:
With the help of given below factors, the sustainable tourism gains the basis in London Olympics:
People: In connection with the people the awareness is spread in regard with the sustainable living, efficient use of resources and advice for healthy living standards. An inspiration is given by “The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park” to the local communities in order to inspire them for sustainable lifestyle and advice regarding the preservation of their prevailing cultural heritage.
Places: “The Queen Elizabeth Olympics Park” was planned to be converted into a “green space with rich biological flora and fauna”. An encouragement is given regarding Zero Waste and recycling of waste products.
Performance: Planning was made in regard to attain high quality for the performance in the field of tourism. The criteria are set for maintaining the high standards in regard with the quality of performance and construction for the venue so that there is an attainment of “sustainable tourism and sustainable way of living(Corporation, n.d).
Following factors are achieved by adopting “sustainable planning in tourism for London Olympics 2012 brought :
1. “Benefits to the enviornment”
2. Even great benefit is urged by the host community because of the “infrastructure, creation of jobs, more houses, etc” for them.
3. A noticeable increase is there in the year 2012 because London host the Olympic games.
4. Development in the field of infrastructure including roads, parks etc is the another affecting factor.
Economic factors: Issues like “Global economic crisis” is covered under economic factors, as it hits the economy reducing the inflow of tourism in countries. The reason behind this is the inflation as it affects the savings of the people because of less earning which made them to spend less on tourism and travel related to sports.
Costs: High prices of “flight and allied products” neccesary for the tourist of London Olympic 2012 including accomodation, tourism package etc. will become an hinder issue for the sustainable tourism.
Whether: It becomes the another influencing factor as suitable whether like “cozy warm whether” will be a favourable condition for the tourists for enjoyment.
Safety: This is said to be the most important factor in relation to tourism. As the country visited by tourism holds the responsibility for tourist destinations safety. More safety measures are required to be taken by London as because of organising the London Olympics 2012 the threat ratio is increased. Even Medical safety is another important field to be taken care of. this is because the tourist rate decreased for a place affected with the “viral endemic and epidemic such as H1N1, Swine Flu and Ebola etc.”(Ben Block, 2009).
“Following are the stages in planning with reference to London Olympiad”:
1. In order to gain success in hosting the games, the “London Olympic Planning Authority” should adopt the development stratergies related to auditing and evaluating the requirements of the project.
2. Secondly an identification is required for settling the issues related to “infrastructure development, tourism and the heritage industry and development strategic plan” so that an ensurement is gained for sustainable tourism connected with Olympic games.
3. even an action planning is required for regional matters in order to host the event and along with this proper stratergies are required to be adopted for analysis (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2004).
4. The “enviornmental impacts, the host community and the visitors” related business plans need to be developed, as they will all considered as witness of the “Olympic games of 2012”.
5. for hosting the games in London an advanced planning is required related to the infrastructure.
6. A proper planning stratergies are required for the supplying of facilities like “food, accomodation, travel arrangements” with an aim of satisfying the needs of tourists.
7. Sustainable planning related with development is the another key factor in evaluating all the related available options.
8. Required encouragement is to be made for the participation of the available local communities in order to suceed for London Olympic Games and this can be achieved only by framming proper plannings for the same.
The resort does notallow much access of local public as much and the people with high background can afford this resort. Even a conflict is noted regarding the access of Dark local people as the resort does not allow access to them. The common people over there are afraid of getting into the resort because of their high level security planning.
The resort “Casa de Campo” is considered to be a playground for the people who are rich and white mostly. The tour operators in connection with Britain and America face some problems because of the “corruption and drug lords” which affect them in building packages. Even the issues like “corruption, fraud and money laundering” are been faced by the Local People.
“Social and economic problems”
A situation of “social discrimination and imbalance” is faced by the local people as the drug lords threaten them. Because of this the resort becomes accessible to only influential and rich people.
For eradicating the corruption issue government adopts various methods and along with this another concern for the government are issues inspired by the UNDP and UNHRC.
“Moral and ethical issues”
The police who are local over there are been penetrated by these available drug dealers. Even the awareness of health and education lacks ion the society over there(Fanjulbrothers, n.d).
Methods of resolving conflict in the region
1. “Promoting cooperation and coordination”:Maintenance should be done by the government in regard with the coordination and cooperation in concern with tourists.
2. “Legislation”:A proper framework should be done regarding the administrative and legal issues in order to bring sustainable development and manage the tourists and also take care of their protection and management of natural and cultural resources.
3. “Set policies”:policies should be framed for the tourists so that the reduction is notice in corruption and other related issues hampering sustainable tourism.
4. “Educating and training”:
Role of industry:
1. “Environment protection”:The duty of tourism industry is to maintain a protection towards the environment.
2. “Marketing protection”:In order to increase the business around the world framing and adopting of new strategies for marketing is been done.
3. “Education and trainings”:Importantly the employees to the industry should be timely educated and adequate training should be given to them.
4. “Local sourcing of input”: An active nature of local source should be available by the industry and along with this the industry should essentially take care that the input of these local sources should be done.
Role of tourists:
The reviews made by the tourists visiting the place a very important role, as the tourist getting dissatisfied with the services provided to them will hamper the tourism industry of the country which will further create a problem for establishing business at international level (Rao, 2013).
The problem faced by enclave tourism is that there is less interaction between the tourists and local people and the people are paid really less for their services.
“Moral and ethical issues regarding enclave tourism of Casa de Campo”
1. “The local communities do not benefit much form the enclave tourism of Casa de Campo as they have very restricted access and the Drug Lords have dominated the entire area this is highly unethical as the local community have no benefit owing to the development of the tourism”.
2. “The other moral and ethical issues were that the region of Dominion republic suffered much of political unrest, violence and threat of tourists contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, etc.”
3. “The culture and the heritage value of the region of Casa de Campo also has suffered the side effects of tourists’ evasion and now has a transitional culture.”
4. “There is a rise of prostitution and children being involved in prostitution, drug trafficking and crime rate has significantly become very high.”
5 “There have been serious environmental issues and problems because of poor water waste disposal.”
6. “The local community has been benefitted very less by the tourism development”(Fuller, 1999).
India is a country having cultural diversity and geographical diversity too. India is a country with varied tourism destinations and attractions like “red fort, khajjiyaar, gagotri, pnchmari, mandu taj mahal, gegotr, goa, islands and beaches etc.” These destinations are includes hills, natural and scenic beauty and attracts tourism from different parts of the world.
Sale of a product grows automatically if the marketing strategy is effective. Hence, in order to make a market in India, the good understanding of price, promotions, positioning, product and the people is mandatory.
Issues such social and economic in India as to tourism and travel
The system of application of dal tariff bothers the hotel agents/owner, travel agents/owner as well as the airlines. The Reserve bank of India (apex body regulating banking) has issued notice to eliminate the dual tariff but foreign tourists still pays dual tariff when the visit tourist destination in India (Morrison, 2013)
1. SWOT analysis should be done by each and every state. State should identify the unique selling destination and then state should target the countries to market their selling destinations. After getting known to the requirement of tourists of that country state should develop further and distribute effectively that product.
2. Blue print must be made of premium attractions and their marketing with persuasion would ensure a flow without interruption. Such flow would bear issues like terrorism or outbreak of and disease in any place of state.
3.Sometimes single unpleasant incident has very bad impact. So, to instil confidence in the tourists’ safety alertness campaigns should be deployed. They have positive effect over tourists.
4. Distribution network should be enhanced to cover more.
5. A desk in noticeable area in the Indian missions or embassy where ample information as to visa, tourist destinations and other similar requirement is available would assist greatly. (Bhatia, 2012).
6.An open sky policy is also needed.
7. NRIs’ and PIOs’ potential is to be tapped.
8. Internet should be used greatly for marketing.
9. Promotions on print media and television, street shows, events like trade fairs should be deployed.
10.Search engines in the world should be targeted by the ministry of tourism and tourism industry (Cooper, 2012).
From this report it is concluded that the tourism industry requires sustainability. As it is a duty towards us to maintain a check over the environment and along with this to maintain a balance in our daily activities. Even we should be aware regarding the happenings around us and an exploration is to be made regarding the rules and regulations and their implications. Our motive should be to maintain an ecological balance along with our progress.