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Unit 3 Organisations & Behavior Assignment – CAPCO
Organizational behaviour is been considered to be an important aspects which helps in identifying the behaviours of individuals influencing the performances at the workplace. The present Unit 3 Organisations & Behavior Assignment CAPCO would be helping out in collecting relevant information about the organizations and the other aspects being carried out in the business. It would evaluate culture and structure of the organization along with the impacts of the relationship between both on the performances of the business. The report would also compare the effectiveness of leadership in an organization. Moreover, the report would also highlight application of motivational theories and understand the necessity of managers to understand the application of these theories. It would also discuss the factors which promote the development of team work in an organization. In order to acquire enhanced knowledge and understanding about various aspects the case study of CAPCO, a financial organization would be referred throughout the report.
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with Broadridge financial solutions
Acquiring a systematic structure is been considered as the most important aspects in an organization. An organization structure is been defined as a well established system which lines up the hierarchy at diversified levels within a business framework. With respect to the structure of CAPCO, it has been found that the organization follows a divisional structure in which the functional areas are been divided into different sub divisions and are operated accordingly. The divisional structure facilitates CAPCO in making optimum use of the resources and makes effective implementation of the same (Moerdyk.et.al, 2015). On the contrary to this, the Broadridge financial solution makes use of the hierarchical structures which is a pyramid shaped structure in which the flow of information is been carried out from the top to the bottom line. This type of structure helps Broadridge financial solution in making easy reporting and monitoring the activities within the business. This structure is been mainly considered as the most systematic structures in which the management and the activities are been carried out in a level of series in different departments.
In addition to this, culture is mainly a system of shared beliefs, values, assumptions, etc. which regulates the behaviours of the people at the workplace. It has been found that CAPCO acquires academic culture which helps the organization to focus mainly on the knowledgeable and skilled staff members in the business. CAPCO is been facilitated by the academic culture in the terms of carrying out a customer driven and innovative culture which supports the structure as well (Thornton.et.al, 2012). On the other hand, it has been found that Broadridge financial solution adopts process culture which is mainly concerned with certain regulations and procedures which has to be followed by the employees. However, the regulations are not much strict in process culture and are only bound to acquire systematic procedures and activities. In addition to this, there are some of the similarities among the organizational framework of the business. With respect to the culture, it has been found that both the organizations are focused towards the innovation, employee focus, teamwork in the organization, etc. Along with this the structures of both the organizations includes effective leadership tactics, stability in the environment, effective coordination, etc (Bock.et.al, 2012). These aspects depict the similarities among the functionalities of CAPCO and Broadridge financial solution.
1.2 Explain how the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of its operations.
As per the given case, the culture and structure of CAPCO are equally dependent on each other and conducts the activities accordingly. It has been identified that divisional structure which allows the organization to classify the functional areas into different divisions in order to make sure that the activities are been carried out in a proper manner. The structure of CAPCO facilitates the management in classifying diversified functional areas such as marketing, production, sales, etc (McShane and Von Glinow, 2015). However, it has been observed that the structure and culture of the organization are the backbone of all the functional activities in order to achieve the set objectives of any of the business. Both are mainly the bases which help CAPCO in formulating effective strategies and concepts which influence the business and assist to manage the overall activities of the business effectively.
Along with this, CAPCO ensures proper motivation to its employees so that to provide them with a positive environment and work culture and make them work accordingly. It has been found that the relationship of the culture and structure helps in bringing improvements in the levels of performances and establish an effective framework of the business. Moreover, the culture of CAPCO also represents an independent and trustworthy environment to the staff members and assists them in each and every situation faced at the workplace (John and Sarianna, 2016). It has been found that there is a positive impact of the relationship on the performances and proves to be profitable to the employees as well as the organization. In addition to this, the relationship also contributes in the growth of the performances and enables the management to achieve the desired objectives effectively.
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO
Behaviour is been termed as the reaction or response of the individual against any of the situation of act. It has been seen that every individual acquires different behavioural aspects towards the acts in the business. It is very much important to evaluate the behaviours of individuals and treat them accordingly at the workplace. It has been recognized that there are wide ranges of factors which could influences the behaviours of the individual in CAPCO. Some of the major factors are; environmental factors, personal factors, social factors, cultural backgrounds, perception, organizational factors, etc. at the workplace. In addition to this, the foremost factor which influences the behaviours in CAPCO is the environmental factor (Oliver, 2014). The environmental factors mainly involve economical, political, social and the legal environment which influences the individuals. These factors are comprised of wages, better opportunities, salary, development, etc. of the employees. It has been found that the behaviours of individuals could be influences if they are not been paid with the remunerations as per their work abilities or working hours and could leads them towards the negative respond towards the business.
In addition to this, personal factor is another major factor which influences the individual behaviour at the workplace of CAPCO specifically. The personal factors mainly involve the preferences, personality, beliefs, values and the characteristic of learning, etc. It has been observed that the capabilities of every individual differ from each other which could be utilized by the management towards the achievement of its objectives at the safety workplace (Pinder, 2014). In order to maintain a balance between the organizational standards and the behaviors of the individual CAPCO ensures that the staff members are being provided with the better development opportunities to enhance their skills and knowledge for the accomplishment of the set objectives and make better efforts as well.
2.1 Comparison of the effectiveness of different leaderships at CAPCO and Broadridge Financial solutions Inc.
There are various types of leadership styles being applied by the leaders of many organizations to provide direction and motivate the employees of the organization. The different styles of leadership have a different impact on the organization. Autocratic, paternalistic, democratic, laissez-faire, etc are the different types of leadership style. It enhances the performance of the workforce and helps in achieving goals in a best and profitable way.
The leadership styles used by the leaders of CAPCO are authoritarian, paternalistic and transactional leadership styles. Authoritarian style helps the leaders of CAPCO to fully focus on efficiency (Robbins and Judge, 2012). The decisions are taken by the leaders themselves and employees are expected to obey and give their best in accomplishing the targets of the organization. They believe in directing their employees through direct supervision. Another style used by CAPCO is paternalistic. In this, the leaders of CAPCO acts like a father to their employees and gives complete concern to them. By this, an organization believes in achieving the trust and loyalty of its employees. This it reduces the problem of employees’ turnover because they work over there for a longer period of time with full dedication, trust and loyalty. Using transactional leadership style, the leaders of CAPCO motivates its employees by providing a rewards and punishments system in the organization. This type of leadership improves the performance of its employees by giving reward or punishment with respect to it.
Democratic, laissez-faire and transformational styles are followed in Broadridge Financial Solution (Levi, 2016). In democratic style, the leaders involve their workforce in the decision making process. This involvement makes them happy and this in return increases their productivity. Laissez-faire style allows leaders of Broadridge Financial Solution to pass completely the decision making power to its workforce. It allows self-rule with the appropriate guidance and support of leaders whenever required. In transformational leadership style, leaders motivate their employees with a sense of purpose and excitement.
2.2 Organizational theories have had influence on the practice of management
The concept of organizational theory is to examine the means and patterns through which the needs of its stakeholders are fulfilled. Organisational theory is the study of organizational structures and organization designs, relationship of organisation with its internal and external environment (West, 2012). It has been found that if the organizational theories are applied correctly and accordingly it is beneficial not only to the organization but to the society as well. Organisational theories have changed the attitude and ideas towards management practices. Following are the various types of organizational theories which had influence on the practice of management:
- Classical theory
- Scientific management theory: This theory is based on the concept of planning of work in order to attain standardization, simplification, specialization and efficiency. It believes in increasing the productivity through mutual trust between the employees and management. This theory was developed by Taylor in 1917. The workers are motivated using reward and punishment motivators.
- Administrative theory: This theory was founded by Henry Fayol. This theory is based on the principles of management. The management is considered as a set of functions which include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordinating (Drew and Coulson?Thomas, 2013).
- Weber’s Bureaucratic theory: In this theory, the organization is considered as a part of broader society. Structure, stability, specialization, democracy and rationality are the principles on which the organization is based.
2. Neo-classical theory: This theory laid emphasis on determining productivity by individual or group behaviour and human relation. Individual and group work and participatory management are the main features of this theory.
3. Modern theory
- System theory: This theory was developed in 1981 by Scott. The organization is considered in this theory as a system consists of set of interrelated and mutually depended sub-system.
- Contingency theory: This theory says that organization system is inter-related with their environment (Salas and Iwig, 2016). For achieving effectiveness in the work, different organizational relationship with different environment is required.
- Socio-technical approach: According to this theory organization is composed of social system, technical system and its environment. For effective functioning of organization, it is necessary to balance them properly.
2.3 Different approaches of management used by CAPCO and Broadridge Financial solutions Inc.
CAPCO and Broadridge Finance Solution uses different kinds of approaches such as human relation approach, neo-classical approach, classical administrative approach, etc. Following are the approaches which are used by the CAPCO and Broadridge Finance Solution:
- Classical management approach: This approach is the oldest one and it concerns mainly on increasing the efficiency of the workers. The hierarchical authority is applied in the organization to define the various positions in the organization. This approach is found in many of the organization. CAPCO and Broadridge Finance Solution also use this approach (Maynard and Gilson, 2014). The main purpose of this is to achieve uniformity in actions and decision. For achieving the uniformity, various rules and regulations are established.
- Neo-classical administrative approach: This approach is the advanced version of the classical approach. This approach laid emphasis on the socio-psychological aspects of human behaviour in the organization. It mainly focuses on the human factor in the organization. Under this approach, the main attention was given in understanding the human behaviour at work and organization. The neo-classical approach considered the organization as a social system consisting group dynamics, leadership, motivation, sentiments and cultural patterns of the member in the organization, etc.
- Human relation approach: The human relation approach is also used by the CAPCO and Broadridge Finance Solution. This approach was developed in the 1930s. This approach was introduced with the motive to achieve cooperation between the management and workers and high level of production efficiency (De Guinea.et.al, 2012). According to this approach, an organization is a social system with inter-group and inter-personal relationships. According to this, management can get work done from their workforce by fulfilling their health and social and psychological needs.
3.1 Impact of different leadership styles on motivation within period of change
Leadership is the ability to lead and guide the individual or a team or organization as a whole. It involves establishment of clear vision and coordinating and balancing the interest of different stakeholders of the organization. Where else, motivation is the process of defining the behaviour of the workforce in the organisation. It describes the needs and desires of the workforce which directs their behaviour towards attaining the goals of the organization. Motivation helps in achieving full dedication of the workforce for attaining effectively and efficiently the objectives of the organization (Grint and Woolgar, 2013). The different functions of leadership include motivation, guiding, influencing and inspiring the people with the purpose of improving their performance and productivity. The management of the organization is responsible for effective and organized use of available human resources of the organization (Latham, 2012). The effective use of available human resources can only be achieved using motivation of the workforce by appropriate leadership style in the organization. There are many types of leadership styles and these styles have different impacts on motivation in work during the change taken place in the organization.
For example, during the change occurred in CAPCO, the autocratic and transactional leadership style helps in motivating their employees so that employees positively react towards the change implemented. The autocratic leadership style used by leaders of CAPCO make employees strictly to obey the change so occurred. The organization also uses transactional leadership style, which helps the organization to motivate their employees easily towards change by using the rewards and punishments system (Robbins and Judge, 2012). This type of system will encourage employees to work in more efficient and positive way towards the change occurred in the organization.
3.2 Comparison of the application of two motivational theories within the organization
To direct the actions of the workforce in CAPCO motivation is must required so they work in an efficient and effective manner towards attaining the goals and objectives of the organization. CAPCO uses two different motivation theories for motivating their workforce towards right direction. Following are the two motivational theories used by the CAPCO:
Maslow’s Motivation Theory: The Maslow’s motivation theory is also known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory was invented by Abraham Maslow in 1943. CAPCO uses this theory to motivate its employees by fulfilling their needs and desires in a hierarchy way. Abraham suggests that there is a hierarchy of five basic needs and they should be followed in a hierarchy order (Maslow, 2013). These include need of self-actualization, esteem, love and belonging, safety and physiological needs. This hierarchy describes the pattern in which employees motivation generally move through. CAPCO develops various strategies in order to identify their needs so that they are fully motivated and greater productivity can be achieved from them.
Figure 1: Maslow's motivation theory
Herzberg Motivational Theory: The Herzberg motivation theory is also known as Two-factor theory. This theory is applied by CAPCO for motivating its employees. This theory differs from the Maslow’s motivation theory. According to this theory, there are two types of factors which are present in the workplace that causes job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction among the employees. These factors are Hygiene factors and Motivational factors. The Hygiene factor essential in the workplace in order to motivate the employees and absence of this factor will cause dissatisfaction prevailing among the employees of CAPCO (Miner, 2015). The hygiene factors include pay, fringe benefits, physical working conditions, etc. The hygiene factors in the workplace provides positive satisfaction but for a shorter period of time. Where else, the Motivational factor includes growth, recognition, promotional opportunities, responsibilities, etc.
3.3 Necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace
Motivation is the process through which one can direct and influence the behaviour of an individual or a group in order to achieve the targets efficiently and with full commitment. Motivational is an important activity or a function which is required in all organizations with respect to attaining the objectives (Dwivedula.et.al, 2015). Management is all about getting things done through others. Motivation is must required in the organization for its existence in the competitive environment. Today, the organization understands the importance of motivation for fuller and efficient utilization of its available human resources.
It is said that if the internal factors i.e. the human resources of the organization is satisfied then external factors i.e. the customers are also satisfied automatically. Managers of the organization are needed to understand the motivation theories carefully and also apply them in the workplace accordingly. Lack of proper understanding of these motivational theories will lead to unsuccessful attempts of motivating employees (Pinder, 2014). For example, if the incentives are considered as the only factor for motivating employees then it will results only in unnecessary increase of the cost of organization. Thus, it is a manager’s responsibility to choose the motivational theory accordingly that brings enhancement in productivity and does not bring any burden on the organization.
4.1 Nature of groups and group behaviours in CAPCO organization
Grouping means that two or more peoples are involving together as according to their skills to accomplish a common task. CAPCO combines the employees with similar skills and abilities so that better effectiveness in work can be achieved in comparison of individual performance. Also, CAPCO get the benefits in proper management of employees whereas employees grab the opportunity to learn and enhance their skills with others (Northouse, 2015). Nature of group depends upon the skills and behaviour of employees within the group and the control of management over them. CAPCO organization has categorized the groups in workplace in two types: formal and informal groups.
- Formal Groups: Formal groups are officially designed to manage the workflow and quality. Group members have special skills and experience so that their abilities can be used to execute the organizational goals. The members of formal groups are liable to report their issues and progress to the team leader which is further responsible to report at management level (De Board, 2014). In this manner, the work flow and performance management is done in CAPCO. Group leader is at top to measure members’ performance and decide their appraisals and trainings. In CAPCO task group and command groups are formal in nature. Command group is required to decide the processes to be followed at task group to achieve organizational goals. Task group is liable to complete the assign task with desired quality, performance and time to execute.
- Informal Groups: Opposite to formal groups, informal groups are made by employees as according to their similarities in views and interest. Such groups are not liable to leader and free to make changes and decisions in group behaviour. CAPCO supports such groups in workplace to develop effective teamwork and communication. Informal groups pop out the issues in employees’ satisfaction and demands (Hogg and Terry, 2014). Also, individual’s additional skills come in knowledge of management. CAPCO’s interest groups are example of informal groups in which employees are grouped to meet their interest activities. Another example is friendship groups of CAPCO.
4.2 Factors affecting the development of effective teamwork
There are several promoting and inhibiting factors that affect the development of effective teamwork in CAPCO workplace. Several promoting factors are:
- Leadership: Leadership plays an important role to develop an effective team. They are liable to motivate employees towards the achievement of goals. Effectiveness of leadership reflects in the discipline, performance and behaviour of the team (Montano and Kasprzyk, 2015). Leaders at CAPCO govern and control the activities of group deliver the execution of task in quality and time period at upper level. CAPCO is focusing on the recruitment of leaders those are positive in nature and can lead the team in certain situations. Leaders are behind the employees to find the ways to keep the team survive and in action for organizational purpose.
- Communication: Communication is second factor those promotes the team to achieve the goal in efficient manner. CAPCO provides the flexible communication at all levels to ensure the efficiency in achievement of goals (West, 2012). CAPCO encourages the employees to express their ideas and thoughts related to task or organizational activities so that problems can be conquered easily. Communication helps them to come together on a specific solution rather than going on own approaches to meet the goal.
- Group norm: CAPCO provides the flexible structure within groups so that they can decide their own structure and rules to maintain the discipline and workflow. Group norm motivates the employees in group to be innovative and active for certain benefits, either in term of social image or growth in workplace. Group norms at CAPCO help to achieve consistency and performance in work.
- Lack of Trust: There are chances that group members may be working in separated manner because of lack in trust among them. Trust is necessary in workplace to share the information and progress of task so that it can be completed on time. Without the trust, group members may not take the risk to help others and behaves like an individual and isolate resource of organization. Trust can be achieved with motivation to employees in right direction (Drew and Coulson?Thomas, 2013.).
- Fear of conflict: This means that employees may suffer from a fear that their thoughts, ideas and approaches may not be significant for group strategies or conflict with other employees. As a result, they do not make proper use of their abilities to participate in objective. They only follow the given instruction to them. In such cases, team suffers from quality and performance in execution of task.
4.3 Impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO
Technology in the present times is been considered to be the most important aspect which had contributed in the development of the business activities to the great extent. It has been found that the technology plays an important role in the functionalities of CAPCO as it assists in lowering down the unwanted burden of the activities and makes the much easier (Cummings and Worley, 2014). Technology now a day had become essential aspects which help in carrying out the organizational operations conveniently and in fact in more effective manner. The new technological advancements in the communicational facilities and the other innovations had contributed in the improvement of the roles and responsibilities being assigned to the employees at the workplace.
In addition to this, CAPCO had also experienced the enhancement in the working procedures of the employee as with the development of managing communications sources like emails, mobile phones, wireless, etc. had facilitated the staff members coordinate effectively and carry out the team work more efficiently. Moreover, the computer system, laptops, tablets, etc. had also helped the organization improves the performances (Burke, 2013). For instance, with the help of computer systems, CAPCO could record the information of clients as well as the employees more specifically and ensuring any of the manual mistakes into it. The documents could be kept safe and secures in the computer system and could be used any time when required in future.
From the above Unit 3 Organisations & Behavior Assignment CAPCO it has been concluded that organizational behaviour is an important aspects which helps in identifying the behaviours of individuals influencing the performances at the workplace. The report has identified that CAPCO follows a divisional structure in which the functional areas are been divided into different sub divisions and are operated accordingly. Moreover, it has been found that it is important to evaluate the behaviors of individuals and treat them accordingly at the workplace. The report also revealed that CAPCO makes use of Maslow’s theory to motivate its employees by fulfilling their needs and desires in a hierarchy way.
Books and journals:
Bock, A.J., Opsahl, T., George, G. and Gann, D.M., 2012. The effects of culture and structure on strategic flexibility during business model innovation. Journal of Management Studies, 49(2), pp.279-305.
Burke, W.W., 2013. Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.
Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
De Board, R., 2014. The psychoanalysis of organizations: A psychoanalytic approach to behaviour in groups and organizations. Routledge.
De Guinea, A.O., Webster, J. and Staples, D.S., 2012. A meta-analysis of the consequences of virtualness on team functioning. Information & Management, 49(6), pp.301-308.
Drew, S. and Coulson?Thomas, C., 2013. Transformation through teamwork: the path to the new organization?. Team Performance Management: An International Journal.
Dwivedula, R., Bredillet, C. and Müller, R., 2015. Towards an Understanding of Work Motivation in Temporary Organizations.
Grint, K. and Woolgar, S., 2013. The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John Wiley & Sons.
Hogg, M.A. and Terry, D.J. eds., 2014. Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Psychology Press.
John, H.D. and Sarianna, M.L., 2016. Multinational enterprises and the global economy.
Latham, G.P., 2012. Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Sage.
Levi, D., 2016. Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications.
Maslow, A.H., 2013. A theory of human motivation. Start Publishing LLC.
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