Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management Assignment Help

Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management Assignment Help

Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management Assignment Help

Introduction

This report is intended to analyse the importance of the cultural heritage of a country and its impact of business envionment on the tourism industry. The purpose of this report is to assess the influence of culture on the tourism industry of the UK.

The cultural heritage of a country attracts travellers, who travel to get glimpses of places, relics and actions which connect to tales and individuals from the past. The main factors that are included in the cultural heritage are the

1. Cultural resources

2. Historic resources

3. natural resources

United Kingdom has an extensive history which has led to the production of world renowned art, historic monuments and top ranking museums in the world and thus has consistently attracted travellers from the world over. Through this report an analysis will be presented that how the country is conserving its cultural heritage. Also analysis will be done on how different organisations are helping in preserving the cultural heritage of the country.

Methodology

For completing this report first we need to comprehend the enhancement of heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism, its impact and drivers. Further we shall analyse the potential disputes with regard to the preservation of heritage and cultural resources by using case studies in the same field of study. Further we shall try to explain the objective of heritage and culture as an aspect of the travel and tourism sector. Then we shall try to understand the functions, responsibilities and proprietorship of enterprises within the heritage and culture industry. Lastly we shall analyse the means and ways by which used by the industry to represent culture of the country to Tourists.

Task 1: The growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism

Over the history of travel and tourism culture has played a major role in its development throughout the world. However, this relationship has been said to have changed in the twentieth century by some, where they say that tourism is now culture. Cultural factors comprise an essential aspect of tourism at all strata, ranging from the global presence of cultures to the various differences that exist between different part of every nation or even region. For understanding the evolution of the heritage and cultural industry within regard to tourism, we shall assess its impact with a specific focus on the United Kingdom.

1.1 Growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry (UK)

The UK has a long and illustrious historical cultural significance in the world. It has been ranked the 7th from 50 nations in terms of its culture and with its renown most well known in the United States, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Poland, Argentina, and Russia.

Creation of English Heritage- The contribution of Government in the direction of the heritage had first emerged in the year 1882 (Timothy, 2011). Following steps were taken by the government to save the heritage and cultures of the country are hereunder-

1. The cultural properties were kept safe after the war of 1960.
2. The Secretary of the State for the environment decided to form a split union to handle the matters regarding heritage in the year 1880. Hence, the ‘English Heritage’ was formed.
3. The latest technologies were brought and developed to protect the heritage (Timothy, 2011).

Broadening hold up for Heritage- the 1990s
1. A survey was conducted on all the cathedrals of the country and £52.3 million amounted to repair them under the Cathedral Grants Scheme in the year 1991.
2. The existing heritages were renovated in the year 1993.
3. In the year 1996, the Joint Places of Worship Scheme had also repaired the devotional places (Timothy, 2011).

Various ad-hoc legislations governed museums and libraries in the 19th century but comprehensive legislation with respect to cultural heritage only came into existence in the 1940s. Also, the first national body for supporting arts, The Council for the Encouragement of Music and Arts (CEMA), was established in the year 1940. Following this development a number of other developments to place which are represented as follows:

2003 saw CEMA change its name to Arts Council England.

In the first half of the 2000s saw a considerable rise in the assistance from the central government, for compensating the underfunding prevalent before. However, days of austerity lay ahead since the year 2010 saw a reduction in the allotment of funds for the fields of arts and culture (FISHER, rod and Ormston, Andrew, 2011)

1.2 Potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources

Heritage is commonly considered a non-renewable and often non replicable resource. This opinion is most easily seen when commercial development poses a danger to sites and objects of cultural and historical significance. Such an idea has a significant contribution towards another major heritage tourism conflict - Stewardship.

Given that these things are unique to heritage and culture and have their own value then who reserves the right to make use of them?

The above question posed is the major contributor towards the conflict arising in the conservation of the heritage and cultural resources.

The conservation of the culture can help in developing the tourism of the country. The conservation of existing heritage can be of long term benefit to country. The cultural heritage influences and gets influenced by the different factors stated above differently and requires special attention to each one of them. The heritage conservation has led to few conflicts, which will be analysed based on the following cases:

Case Study 1: Central Jordan

Generally, there always arises a difference in opinion in all kinds of business and most of the time, these differences lead to conflict. In order to run the business activities smoothly, it is very essential to resolve these conflicts.

In the present case study of Central Jordan, all of its buildings and monuments that were constructed prior to 1700BC is a well known history. Heritage and history are used in same manner, but in the present case, the construction done before the 1700BC is a heritage. When the items of the cultural and heritage are displayed to be viewed by the customers, then a huge revenue in incurred by the state especially when the customers are from foreign countries. The government encourages this due to increase in the revenue of the state.

The difference in the present case aroused when there was a requirement to save the heritage and also to make revenue out of the heritage. If any development is made in the heritage for the purpose of increasing the revenue then the heritage will destructed. In various places the development has been proved to be destructive in preserving the heritage and sometimes is also constructive such as in Roman Theatres from Amman, Jerash and Uman Quasi. The local people are aware of the destruction and hence they are not in support of its development (Casey, 1996).

The conflicts between the local and national are also if the local centre of public rejects the official narratives if the tourist road and the rail network is not constructed. At Dhiban, there is an issue of preservation and development. The Town meetings are a useful way to overcome these conflicts and also through the proposals such as PIA frame that leaded to explore turath and tarikh for the particular site in Central Jordan.

Case Study 2: Giant’s Causeway

The Giant’s Causeway is situated in Northern Ireland. It is the most beautiful site which is popular for culture and heritage in England. Issues are always generated with the places which are popular. In order to generate revenue from this site, the local public attempted to exploit this place by developing zones, accommodation, and more resting places for the tourists. Though this one was a good idea to generate revenue, but at the same time the tourist crowd at this site will also create destruction. The government opposed these developments as it caused destruction to the site. This resulted into a major issue between the local people and the government (SMITH, 2005).

Apart from this issue, there was another issue about the Giant’s Causeway. There was a controversy about the construction of the site. The local people say that the site was constructed by Finn Mac Cool. But, scientists accused the locals saying it was a strategy to attract the tourists and have confirmed that Giant’s Causeway was constructed naturally by the cooling lava from the lakes. This issue was resolved and the contentions of the scientists were confirmed. To reach to an amicable solution, the government has set up the Special Economic Zone so as to satisfy the locals and also to generate revenue from that place (Strinati, 1995).

 The differences among the biodiversity and the Geo diversity in the European Union failing to operate in according to the UNESCO on the subject of the particular supervision of the Giant Causeway may result to an appalled site. In addition, the Northern Ireland disposed economically in few regions. This lead the administration to develop the economy through the tourism since it would be a replacement for the security of the environment (SMITH, 2005).

About 50 million years ago this Giant Causeway was made through lakes of molten lava that cools slowly and evenly. Around 300 years back, the scientist claims that whether it was a man-made or whether it was natural. It was only during the 18th century that the myth was made about Giant’s Causeway that it was created by Finn MacCool in order to attract the local visitors. But now it is one of the most significant attractions as it is now an UNSECO World Heritage site and this popularity that endures the visitors has put huge pressure on the site of the causeway. Northern Ireland has struggled in order to find a way for maximising the potential tourists without making any destruction in the causeways magnificent settings.

Task 2: The purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector

The attraction in the tourism sector can be different for different travellers. The tourist can visit the places for purposes like:

1. to gain knowledge

2. to interact with different people

3. to understand and connect to the history

4. Spiritual purposes etc.

2.1 Assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers

Science Museum was founded in the year 1857 and today it is one of the most majorly visited museums that has attracted almost 2.7 million visitors every year. It is established in the Exhibition Road in South Kensington. It is the most visited museum in science and technology in all over Europe. There are 15000 objects on display. The Apollo 10command capsule and the Stephenson’s Rocket which are the famous all over the world are displayed there. The interactive gallery of Science Museum brings into the life first scientific principles and contemporary science debates. In addition, on can also experience what it is to fly with the Red Arrows into the space or watch films on a screen which are taller than the double-decker buses in the IMAX 3D Cinema. Science museum is great place to see, touch and experience science at first hand. It is interactive and thought provoking. The whole family can experience it right from space travel to psychology (VISITLONDON.COM, 2014).

Purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of customers at v.a museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum is the greatest museum all over the world. The Victoria and Albert Museum is all about art and design. It represents more than 3,000 years of human creativity, with collections unequalled in their scope and variety. In the years recently, the Victoria and Albert Museum has undergone a dramatic agenda of regeneration and reinstatement. The highlights of the Victoria and Albert Museum is inclusive of the Medieval new start galleries which contains a quantity of the greatest existing resources from the period, the breathtaking Jewellery gallery and the stunning British Galleries, which illustrates the history of Britain through the art and design of the nation. In addition to its outstanding free permanent collection, the Victoria and Albert Museum proposes a line-up of momentary demonstrations and a wide-ranging proceedings agenda (visitlondon.com, 2014).

Differences between the science and v.a museum

1. Science Museum is a science and technology museum which is in Europe, at the same time as the Victoria and Albert Museum is a museum of art and design.
2. The galleries in the science museum bring scientific principles and contemporary science debates to life at the same time as the Victoria and Albert Museum exemplifies the history of Britain through the nation’s art and design.

Types of visitors

The visitors at both these museums may be in common if they have interest in both art and design as well science and technology. Usually the visitors interested in the art and design sector visits the Victoria and Albert Museum and the visitors having keen interest in the science and technology visits the Victoria and Albert Museum.

2.1.1 Victoria and Albert Museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum is the largest decorative arts and design museum in the world and has a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. Established in 1852, it is named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and situated in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, which has colloquially been come to be called "Albertopolis" due to its association with Prince Albert, the Albert Memorial and the major cultural institutions linked to him.

The collection at V&A comprises of over 5,000 years of art, beginning from ancient times to the contemporary era, representing almost all continents. The holdings of ceramics, glass, textiles, costumes, silver, ironwork, jewellery, furniture, medieval objects, sculpture, prints and printmaking, drawings and photographs are arguably the most extensive anywhere in the globe.

Purposes for visiting V&A Museum

The museum is divided in four parts which are:

  • Asia
  • Furniture, Textiles and Fashion
  • Sculpture, Metalwork, Ceramics and Glass
  • Word & Image

So travellers’ need which draws them towards, V&A museum can basically be attributed to above four mentioned parts of the museum.

The purpose for visiting Victoria and Albert Museum can be listed as follows

1. Learning for arts and design provided at V&A, which is a attracting feature for the travellers to go to the museum
2. Learning for the arts and culture of different Asian countries
3. Understanding History, connecting to the past
4. Understanding the art and fashion that was prevalent in the historical era
5. The museum has equal targets for both the youngsters and the aged

2.1.2 Science museum

It was founded in 1857, and currently attracts 2.7 million visitors annually. It is a publically funded museum and does not charge the entry fee from the visitors. But in case there are temporary exhibitions they may charge the entry fee, but those are the exclusive events.

History

The first collection of the museum came from the Royal Society of Arts and extra items from the Great Exhibition as part of the South Kensington Museum as well as the Victoria and Albert Museum. This also consisted of an ensemble of machinery which formed the opening exhibits of the Museum of Patents in 1858, and the Patent Office Museum in 1863. The latter was then shifted to the South Kensington Museum, and the science collection was left behind and was renamed the Science Museum.

The museum presents the history of science, which has affected the life of the different individuals. The collection has more than 300,000 items, which include famous things like Stephenson's Rocket, Puffing Billy (the oldest surviving steam locomotive), the first jet engine, a reconstructed Francis Crick and James Watson DNA model, some very first steam engines, a functional model of Charles Babbage's Difference engine (and the latter, preserved half brain), the first prototype of the 10,000-year Clock of the Long Now, and documentation of the first typewriter etc.

Purposes for visiting Science Museum

The main drivers of the customer attraction to the science museum can be listed as follows

1. Learning

Learning for science and the early inventions, which is an attracting feature for the travel and tourism to go to the museum

2. Understanding History, connecting to the past 

Looking at the early inventions and items from past

3. The museum has equal targets for both the youngsters and the aged 

It has interactive systems that attract the youngsters

2.1.3 Link to travel and tourism sector

The museums are highly liked to the tourism sector. The museums stimulate the historical reading that a traveller has about his area of interest with the pictorial and live representation of the same. The museums thus attract a major crowd, which in turn helps in developing the tourism industry for the country and crates an environment for the sustainable balance between conservation of the culture and heritage, and current life eco system.

Task 3: Roles, responsibilities and ownership of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry

To understand this we shall evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites.

3.1 The impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites

The ownership of the heritage sites is with different types of organisations. The ownership can be divided into following three types, which are:

1. Public- A public sector are enterprises that are owned by the State and the government have control over it such as the British Broadcasting Company, which was a privately owned company and it later became a British Broadcasting Corporation which is a public corporation and operates under the Royal charter. Apart from this, TESCO is also a good example of public sector as it is operated by the government.

2. Private- A private sector is a small and medium sized enterprises as well as these are listed companies for instance, FTSE 100 and FTSE250.

3. Voluntary- Voluntary sectors are also known as the non-profit sector which is run by a social activity that are undertaken by the organizations which are non-profit organizations and are also non-governmental, for instance NCVO which is an umbrella body for the voluntary sector in England.

These different types of the ownership styles faces with problems like:

1. Different management problems

2. Economic issues

3. Human resource management difficulties

All three can be explained as follows:

3.1.1 Public sector ownership

These mainly included the government bodies, which are responsible for the       

1. Conservation of the natural or manmade heritage in the best way possible
2. Educating the people for
3. value of heritage and culture
4. need for protecting heritage and culture
5. importance and value of heritage and culture

This includes segments such as National park services, Department of culture that also comprises of national and local government agencies.

The public sectors preserve museums, national parks, historical buildings, archaeological ruins and forests and protect them from any kind of harm. The other purposes of the public owned sites can be

  • Facilitating public access
  • Deriving revenue
  • Developing tourism particularly heritage tourism

Instances of public institutions in UK are - the Historic Scotland in Scotland, the CADW in Wales, and Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Ireland. The UK government has invested over 4.3 billion pounds in the heritage segment since 1994 and also delegated more than 18,800 projects.

3.1.2 Private sector

This comprises businessmen whose businesses exist near heritage spots, for example the stalk holders etc. The primary objective of the people from this category is to make Profit.

As their primary focus is making profit their objectives are of short term in nature and the scope of thinking revolves around them (and their relatives). They have not much understanding about the conservation of the heritage site. For purposes of creating wealth and profit they develop areas for recreation near heritage sites like

  • History-themed parks
  • Museums
  • Wineries
  • Art galleries
  • Industrial plants etc.

Apart from making profits the other motives of the private ownerships can be entertainment and public image enhancement. An example is the Historic houses association, which is an independent organisation representing about 1500 privately owned castles, house and gardens and has certain works coming under the government indemnity scheme.

3.1.3 Voluntary sector

NGOs and international organisations fall in this category and this prime objective is

  • To conserve heritage sites
  • To preserve natural heritage sites

The scope of interest for these ownership styles can be especially the world heritage site and purpose can be preservation from damage of different types.

This particular sector is focussed on providing protection to historical buildings, heritage centres, trails and museums. This protection is devised by making the site self-sufficient in terms of funding by developing its resources to generate its own revenue so that it can look after its own maintenance. The volunteer sector makes extensive use of the local people and gets them involved in the conservation and protection of the site by making it a source of employment and commerce for them (ANDERSON, jon, 2009).

3.2 The role and responsibilities of heritage organizations in heritage and cultural industry

Heritage institutions and enterprises have a considerable effect on all related industry including heritage and culture and thereby tourism. To explain it further we have selected an organisation concerned with heritage conservation, to understand their roles and responsibilities, which is The English heritage.

3.2.1 The English heritage

The organisation looks after the heritage site in England, and is called the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commissions for England; its powers and responsibilities given to it by the National Heritage Act of 1983. It is associated with a number of other government organizations such as DCMS, CLG and DEFRA.

The functions and responsibilities of the organization can be discussed as follows.

English Heritage possesses the full lists of the buildings, monuments schedule and the register of the historic battle fields.

It also possesses the largest public archive for the historic environment and it has more than 10 million items which includes things like the photographs, documents, reports and there are more than four million aerial photographs.

  • English heritage is responsible for the preservation of Historic Environment Record for Greater London.
  • Its tasks comprise of overseeing upkeep and maintenance of list of buildings, the schedule of monuments, the register of parks and gardens, and of the historic Battlefields.
  • It also decides on new entrants to the list of Parks and Gardens as well as any changes therein.

Role in the planning system

  • English Heritage is a common point of consultation and its guidelines are used as a point of reference by local authorities when relating to development of specific planning, listed building or conservation areas.
  • The organization is also consulted by the Secretary of state on issues pertaining to communities and local government. It also has a role to play in the government’s decision making with regard to new laws by way of showing their impact on historic environments.     
  • It is the provider of funds for a number of organizations that develop and preserve heritage sites. Over 400 historic buildings and sites come under its care and each of these is opened to the public. Further, the organization is also responsible for the development of tourist and commercial opportunities at sites by way of developing visitor facilities, guides, shops, cafes etc. (ENGLISH HERITAGE, (n.d.)).

3.2.2 UNESCO

The functions and responsibilities of the organization can be discussed as follows-

UNECO played a very vital role in the cultural and heritage industry. It adapted the conception of World Heritage. It had legally framed the conventions and various declarations in the historic and pioneer such as –

  1. The convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the year 1954 (UNESCO, 2010).
  2. The convention to prohibit and to prevent the illegal import and export of ownership of the cultural property brought forward in the year 1970 (UNESCO, 2010).
  3. The convention in context with the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in the year 1972(UNESCO, 2010).
  4. The convention in the year 2001 was brought into to protect the World cultural as well the Natural heritage (UNESCO, 2010).
  5. The convention to safeguard the intangible cultural heritage was also introduced in the year 2003 (UNESCO, 2010).
  6. A UNESCO assessed the growth at the Bath Western Riverside in the year 2008 and the outcome was that the Outstanding Universal worth and reliability did not impact adversely in that phase of the growth.
  7. Dundee’s title has been launched on 30th Jan of 2015 to be the first UK UNESCO.
  8. UNESCO performs the five functions those are the “prospective studies on education, science, culture and communication for tomorrow's world, the advancement, transfer and sharing of knowledge through research, training and teaching activities, standard-setting actions for the preparation and adoption of internal instruments and statutory recommendations, expertise through technical co-operation to Member States for their development policies and projects, and the exchange of specialized information”.
  9. A mechanical feature of UNESCO’s effort encompasses connection by means of the matter of global harmonisation of data on culture and maintained through diverse agendas at the local level. In the year 1992, in assistance with the UNESCO, the Meeting of Experts on Cultural Industries was planned in Africa.

Task 4: The role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry

4.1 Methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for Tourists

The media plays a very important role in the heritage and culture industry. As the media has a capability to reach to the masses and communicate to them by a single medium, it can be efficiently used in building the image of a heritage places.

The different types of media can be used to communicate with the target audience by the tourism industry and communicate the message to them. The media selected should be of the same preference as of the target audience. Based on the consumer preference the media can be divided into following two parts:

  1. The personal media
  2. The non-personal media

4.1.1 The personal media

The personal media is the media with the involvement of the personal communication by a person to another person, to communicate or transfer the information. This includes the message communication by

  1. tour guides
  2. actors
  3. attendants

Tour guides play a very important role in the promotion of heritage sites and the propagation of information about the site itself amongst tourists and local residents alike. They are generally hired by tour operator companies and serve as a vital information source since they interact directly with the consumer so the, delivery from them can directly impact the visitor’s experience and they are in a position to amplify or sour the visiting experience for the person. For the most part, guides are locals who have been brought up in the area and thus have a large amount of information on the site, much of which may or may not be part of the history books. At the same time, they are helpful towards those

4.1.2 The non-personal media

The non-personal media is used for increasing the reach and penetration of the information. It may or may not include a person in delivering the information directly. The different sources or channels that can be used in the non-personal information media can be

1. printed materials
a. books
b.maps
2. audio, video
3. modern devices like phones, tablets, laptops

The non-personal media communication channels and methods are standardized and the communication is independent of the, person’s conditions. Some examples of the non-personal media channels used at heritage sites are as follows:

  1. Placards
    1. Used at many heritage sites for providing quips and info snippets.
  2. brochures
    1. can be sold separately or as a part of the entry fee
    2. contains information about the heritage sites
  3. scale models
    1. physical representation of the actual model
    2. Creates a copy of the object and scale is changed.
  4. A hand on display method
    1. new method being used in the non-personal media
    2. Miniatures are created of science museum, Natural history museums for tourists
    3. People are able to touch and take a feel of the museum
  5. Through movies
    1. The3 film industry can have a massive impact on the tourism industry by shooting scenes at heritage sites, thereby giving them exposure to a very vast audience (KNUDSON, M. et al., 1995).

Interpretation methods at V& A Museum

The learning Department of the V & A Museum manages a broad and wide-ranging agenda of performance and proceedings for visitors, as well as the formal education curriculum and gallery interpretation. Being a part of it, they show the way on do research into education and interpretation within the museum surroundings. This varies from research weigh up courses that they run, to give the impression of being at in progress musicological theory and methodology in stipulations of realistic submission within the museum. From time to time they carry out this research in firm with universities and other scholastic institutions (V&A, 2014).

Interpretation methods at Science Museum

Since 1700, the Science Museum has about 300,000 bits and pieces in its care, having meticulous power in the times gone by of western science, technology and medicine. They often finance bits and pieces from their collected works to museums in the UK and internationally, which enables additional persons to contact these only one of its kinds collected works.

Also the loan itself, their staffs provides professional matter knowledge skill, recommendation and regulation in relation to a numeral of performance, together with collected works care and administration, interpretation, process of exhibit and production (Astonishing Science Spectacular Museum, 2014).

Conclusion

This report has attempted to analyse the significance of heritage and thus the need for their conservation.  As the United Kingdom is a country with a very rich and vibrant heritage which is preserved for posterity by museums there is an acute need to maintain and preserve them. It also holds the title of having the oldest museum in the world as well as having the most distinct of them. We have tried to focus here on how various types of organizations help in conserving heritage sites and their specific roles and responsibilities in this regard. In this report we have also discussed the different types of media and it importance in the heritage tourism and it developments. The report has also sought to bring to light the conflict between cultures and protection and conservation of heritage sites as well as showing the advantage of having organizations and behaviour own such sites and the subsequent possible disadvantage of the same. In conclusion we can say that heritage is an essential part of every country’s identity. It is something that makes it distinct amongst all others and instils a national pride among its members by telling the story of the journey of the nation through the ages. It can also have a significant impact on the future of the nation by generating considerable amounts of revenue which can further be given over to the development of the country as a whole. Thus, there is an acute need for conservation and preservation of heritage sites by the government and volunteer bodies considering that private institutions are more often concerned with profits rather than preserving the historical development significance and symbolism that comes along with any heritage site.

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