Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 23 Human Resource Development
The human resource development about the training and development programs and their effectiveness considering the case of the UK based company known as Greenwood and Sharp. The first part of the unit focuses on different learning styles of the individuals with discussion of learning curves and its importance. The unit continues with the discussion of the relationship between the learning styles and theories with the events. Further, it talks about the training methods, their importance and evaluation to test their effectiveness. It also focuses on the involvement of UK government to support the organizations to conduct training programs to improve their performances.
Learning is the act of acquiring knowledge to improve the skills and mental level. It is a continuous process that has been conducted by the individual to gain something in order to enhance his knowledge regarding any subject. Learning brings change in the performance of an individual and enhances the potential of the same. It also helps the individual to change his behaviour in a particular fashion according to his learning. (Bhattacharyya, 2009) There are different theories given by different theorists to study about the learning styles of the employee relations. Leaning styles is about the way an individual absorbs the knowledge. The way of leaning and absorbing the knowledge differs with the difference in the individual’s personality. (HOLLAND, 2008)
Kolb’s theory:David Kolb has published this theory in 1984. He argued that leaning comes from experiences and individuals acquire the abstract concepts that can be applied to any of the situations they face. Following are the four learning styles that have been identified by Kolb in his theory:
Honey and Mumford also came up with their own approach of learning styles by modifying the concept of Kolb.
According to the above case, Greenwood and Sharp Company uses the theorist’s approach of learning. This is because the company has two-day induction programs that allow the employees to know about the company’s strategies and objectives. Theoretical knowledge has been provided to the employees in this case. (Kitching, 2008)
Hermann Ebbinghaus was the one who have first explained the concept of learning curve. Learning curve is the graphical representation of the performance of learning of an individual. It can be taken into account in two situations. It can be made to review the learning of the employee or to review the productivity of an employee performing the same task repeatedly.
The figure can be explained by taking an example. If an employee is a typist and having the training sessions of typing speedily than the above figure depicts that the employee is performing continuously good as his learning graph is showing growth with time.
Importance of Knowledge transfer: transferring of knowledge helps the employees to know about the company at initial level of their employment and later this helps in developing the skills of the employees in their fields. Every organisation has to make systematic order in transferring the knowledge from teacher to the learner. Training is the most common method to transfer knowledge among the employees. In the above case, induction program is the medium of transferring knowledge to the new employees. This program is very important for forming the strong foundation of the employees in the organisation.
Role of learning curve: learning curve is the representation of the performance of an individual. It helps the individual as well as the evaluator to know about the position of the employee in the process of learning in organisation. Transfer of knowledge is not enough to develop the skills of the employees; the learning process needs to be monitored by drafting the learning points at every step. The combination of these points makes the learning curve. (Mankin, 2009)
Learning styles and theories provides the organisation with different ways to transfer the knowledge and provide employees to the ways of gaining that knowledge. It is very critical to choose the learning styles as it depends on the employees that how they adopt the knowledge that has been given to them. It also depends on the type and period that needs to be required to transfer the knowledge. These are the reasons that suggest that it is very important to select the relevant and correct learning style to pass on the knowledge or to grab the knowledge from employee’s side. (Piskurich, 2009)
As discussed, it is very important for the organisation to choose a relevant learning style, however single learning style cannot be appropriate for every program. Organizations need to choose multiple options of combination of learning styles to transfer the knowledge to the employees. The choice of learning style determines the type of learning event. Design of learning event can only be conducted after choosing a single or combination of learning style. Learning styles are needed to examine how the people can absorb the knowledge. Learning theories provide assistance to know about the learning style relevant for particular purpose or for a particular individual according to his behaviour towards learning and his personality. As far as the organisation is concerned, trainer needs to identify the learning style of the trainees by observing their behaviour and then decide the learning event. The learning theories offer various types of styles of learning that are related to the behaviour and attitude of the learner. These learning theories provide an idea or base to design the learning event. In the above case, the learning style that has been adapted was theorists. This is because induction-training program has been designed as the learning event as theories can be explained to the employees at the initial level of their jobs in a classroom type lectures. (Mazenod, 2013)
Contribution of learning style and relationship between styles and designing event has been studied to make a clear understanding of the contribution of learning style in planning and designing a learning event. If pragmatic learning style have been considered than, it is obvious to design the learning event that compliments that style. The learning event that is conducted in this case would be role playing or on the job method of learning as the learner is pragmatic in nature and believes in practical implementation during the learning process.
Training needs of the employees differs at every level. The employees at management level have different needs than employees at operational level. It is important for the organizations to determine the training needs of the employees at every level and provide them with the same where required. Training needs is the gap between the present skills and knowledge of the employees with the future required skills that needs to be possessed by those employees. (Reid, 2005)
At management level:
At operational level:
Training methods: Training methods refers to the techniques by which training is to be provided to the employees. Multiple training methods have been used by the organizations at different levels to train the employees according to the requirement. In the above case, induction training has been given to the new recruits in terms of providing them with the knowledge about the strategies and culture of the organisation. There are various methods that have been proposed during the training course and have their advantages as well as disadvantages associated with it. Majorly these training methods have been divided in two categories that are, on the job and off the job trainings. The company in the case is mainly using on the job training methods to train the employees belongs to the family and some of methods are off the job. (Turner, 2007)
Simulation and role play
It provides the imitation of the real situation to the trainees. Trainees can learn better with this practical approach.
It is very expensive in nature.
It is a one on one training method that has been used to improve the skills of the employees.
Biasness by the coach may results in inefficiency of the training results.
It is also a one on one interaction. In this method, mentor teaches the employee to develop the attitude of working.
Employees may not listen to the mentor or mentor could be bias for some of the employees. (Werner and DeSimone, 2006)
Job instructional technique
This technique is used to train the employees about the process of the job. The trainer provides knowledge about every step of the job to the employees. It is beneficial for the employee to get in depth knowledge of the job process.
If any of the steps is missed by the trainer or the employee, it may results in repetition of the training from the inception.
Training and development planning: Planning for a training and development event required a systematic process to be followed by the T&D department. This systematic process involved a training design cycle. The scyclic process needs to be followed to deliver the training
Training and development plan for Greenwood and sharp company:
This case also discusses about providing training to the managers with new technical skills and strategic planning
Evaluation of training is very important in order to know about the effectiveness of the training program. Many questions need to be answered to know about this aspect. Training evaluation plan includes determining some of the factors like methods used to evaluate the program, approach to determine the need of the program and documents that needs to be presented in order to evaluate the outcome of the training event. (Trainanddevelop.co.uk. 2016)
Method of evaluation:
Documents used to determine the effectiveness: Improvement in the quality, productivity, change in sales and engagement of employees are some of the determinants that help in identifying the improvement of the performance after conduction of training program. The level of the improvement determines the efficiency of the training event.
Induction training has been evaluated by feedback method:
Evaluation of the induction-training event:Evaluation of the training program refers to estimation of the effectiveness of the training program that has been conducted in order to improve the skills and development of the organisation. There are four level of evaluating a training program. These levels involve reaction, learning, behaviour and results. (HOLLAND, 2008)
Reaction:At this point, reaction of the participants in the training program has been observed to determine their satisfaction level. According to the case, the new employees were very eager to know about the company and show their interest in the 2-day training program by keenly listening and practicing the training courses.
Learning:This is the second level that determines the point of learning or the progress of learning of the trainees. In the case mentioned, the new recruits learning graph has found to be progressive in nature. Feedback has been taken from the employees as well as from the trainers after every training event about their learning and the resulted feedback was positive in nature from both the sides. (Kitching, 2008)
Behaviour: Behaviour of the employees determines the effect of the training program on them. The new recruits have absorbed the basic knowledge of the company and were behaving according to the policies. This determines that they are adopting the training processes effectively.
Results: Results are the last step that finally determines the effect of the training program. These results include the practical performance of the employees. It has been observed that the new managers were working exactly according to their roles and responsibilities. Some of them have been found little bit confused about the functionality but they were also trying to adapt the policies as soon as possible by taking guidance from the seniors.
Most frequent ratings
Relevancy of training session
Review of success of evaluation methods: The five-tier approach of evaluation has been used to determine the relevant need of the training event. Many questions need to be answered in order to identify the need of training event. This method has been used to evaluate the real life implementation of the training events. In the above case, this approach determines that the induction program was important to be conducted in the organization to educate the new employees about the vision, mission, policies and structure of the organisation. This program has also effectively train the employees about their roles and responsibilities in the organisation. (Mankin, 2009)
Different methods like observation, comparison and feedback results in determining the actual performance of the employees to gain knowledge and the knowledge of implementation. Feedback from the trainer and trainees gives a positive result and helps in determining the drawbacks of the training program that can be improved later. Observation of the employees determines their learning style and position and comparison of the performance after some time helps in determining the effectiveness of the training event. In the above case, the trainees have filled the feedback evaluation form to evaluate the training event conducted.
Feedback from the trainees provides the overall information regarding the effectiveness of the method that has been used to deliver the training. The overall rating of the training event is calculated as 7.6. This is the above average rating. The fault in the training has been found as the duration. Some of the trainees felt that the duration of the training hours were so long that at times they get exhausted.
Government of UK plays a very important and significant role in training and development programs of the organizations. UK government not only supports the government but also helps the private firms to conduct training programs for the employees. Government involve themselves in arranging the training programs for the firm by providing them with the expert trainers that can give proper knowledge to the employees of the firm. The main aim of the government is to provide basic knowledge to each employee to reach at the minimum standard level. Greenwood and Sharp is the company with potential in the industry ad requires government assistance in conducting some of the training programs like apprenticeship. A national apprenticeship services assist the employers who wants to employee apprentice to their company. This government organization helps the companies to design the framework for apprenticeship and help them by conducting many training programs. (Mazenod, 2013)
Lifelong learning is an contemporary issues of providing learning and educating the employees by the employers at every stage to improve their skills. Lifelong learning UK is a Sector Skills Council in UK that supports the employers to invest in the development of the skills of employees. Their main aim is to increase the participation of the employers and employees in education and training. It is responsible for the professional development of all those working in community learning and development, further education, higher education, libraries, archives and information services, and work based learning across the UK. Lifelong Learning UK ceased to operate as a Sector Skills Council on 31 March 2011. Many of LLUK's responsibilities transferred to the Learning and Skills Improvement Service, but there is no longer a formal sector skills council in this sector.
It has some main strategic goals:
Competency movement is about getting a competitive advantage over others. This movement has affected internationally including many countries like UK. This movement forces the companies to attain the competitive advantage by training and developing their employees. Some of the factors need to be included in order to make the employees competent. Proper job description by the company allows the employees to understand their responsibilities. Job description is the overall explanation of the roles and duties associated with the job. Training need analysis is to be done before conducting training. Training need analysis is the process of assessing the requirement of training in the departments. Recruitment should be done according to the requirement and along with the professional skills, it is important for the organisation to develop the employees personally by improving their social skills as well.
Private companies found to be more affected by this movement as they were researching more about this sector and implementing the measures to attain the competitive advantage. (Reid, 2005) Private companies determines that fall in the performance of the employees results in insufficient production, poor service quality etc. this pushes them to conduct training programs for their employees. A private company like Deloitte makes huge investment in training their employees to improve the individual as well as organisational performance. They to develop the expertise of the employees have provided steeper learning curve. The learning through this is never ending and results in improved performance and enhancement in the confidence of the employees. By reviewing the performance of the private sector, public firm also gets motivated to implement the training practices in order to enhance their performances. Companies like “East Coast Trains” in UK have been working on providing training to the employees in order to improve performances. Higher success rates of never ending process of learning drives almost all the firms to implement this practice in their organizations. Employees are feeling motivated and getting diversified responsibilities. (Steffens, 2015)
Many training initiatives have been taken by the UK government in order to support the small and medium scale companies to improve their performance by training their employees. Some of the programs that have been initiated are Investors in people standard, National Vocational Qualifications, apprenticeships, National training awards and train to gain.
All these programs by UK government help the organizations to train their employees for resultant effective performance that in turn contributes in the national economy. The main aim of the government by conducting these programs is to provide minimum working standards to each employee in UK. Observing the present scenario of the organisation and identifying the needs of the future, government has designed many training programs and services to support these programs. Government of UK has been putting all its efforts in designing the programs that can fulfil the future training needs of the organisation at every sector. (Turner, 2007) . Contemporary training programs by the UK government help the companies like Greenwood and Sharp to engage them in apprenticeship business by hiring apprentice in their organisation behaviour.
Different individual according to their way and purpose of learning has adopted different learning styles. The training event is based on the learning style of the employees and the reason behind the conduction of training event. It is a planned process that needs to be conducted in order to get effective results. Various training methods have been used by the organizations to train the employees. This depends upon the training need, which needs to be analyzed before conducting training program. The effectiveness of training program needs to be evaluated by various methods like feedback, performance check, observation etc. UK government plays a very significant role in taking initiatives for training and development. It supports many organizations to implement training programs to motivate and train their employees.
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Mankin, D. (2009). Human resource development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Piskurich, G. (2009). Rapid training development. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Reid, G. (2005). Learning styles and inclusion. London: Paul Chapman Pub.
Turner, S. (2007). Learning theories. Chandni Chowk, Delhi: Global Media.
Werner, J. and DeSimone, R. (2006). Human resource development. Mason OH: Thomson South-Western.
HOLLAND, P. (2008). Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning. Learning & Behavior, 36(3), pp.227-241.
Kitching, J. (2008). Rethinking UK small employers' skills policies and the role of workplace learning. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(2), pp.100-120.
Mazenod, A. (2013). Engaging employers in workplace training - lessons from the English Train to Gain programme. International Journal of Training and Development, 18(1), pp.53-65.
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Steffens, K. (2015). Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning. European Journal of Education, 50(1), pp.41-59.
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