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Vast remarkable changes have been taken place in the field of human resource management. This has led to change in the perception of the public as to human resource management (HR) as a potential field for their career. The formation of strategic outfit leads the human resource management to secure a place in the mainstream business and has made it a specialized area. By this, HR has now become a significant part of the mainstay business. Labour welfare and dealing with them always remains a main issue and should be considered. The terms of business, once, were being dictated by trade unions. However, current way of management succeeds in giving this approach a new look where employer employee relations are looked from a more favourable approach. The different aspects of the said relations and trade unions role are discussed in the varied scenario.
New ways to observe employment relations are taking place in the modern time. These have result in such relation being dynamic and n formation of frame of reference. Frame of reference is the prism which allows the employers and managers to look the employment relations. Moreover, frame of reference is the view point or perspective which assists in looking at the difficulties of employment relation and that of industries, in given scientific research field or human resource field. It has been considered as credible true awareness. Three kinds of superlative frames of references are postulated by the recent researchers. They are pluralist, unilarist and radical frame of reference. Out of these first two are significant and last one is not usually as topic of discussion among researcher.
In unitary or unitarism frame of reference only single central authority or one cause power and one hub of reliability exists. In this frame a mutual, common objective is to be achieved and the conduct required from the operational team is dedicated to that objective only and perform their best to achieve that objective. The ultimate authority having control is the leader. Every member of team is supposed to listen to the leader or manager. Here, instead of opposing people follow the leader in a healthy way. At the same time the team is considered as one and stands alone. Adherence to team is required and commitment to leadership is mandatory and not optional. Hence, the trade unions, in the given case, are avoided. The values and loyalty as to company is considered at utmost and conflict are suppressed by the leader. Decentralization of power is adhered in the pluralism frame of reference. Here, power is distributed equally over the people. The private emphasis of power and authenticity needed to be changed with the viewpoint that agrees to obtain the way of challenging fundamentals of management”. (Dessler, 2000)
1970’s saw the peak of drive of trade union United Kingdom. It gave the sign of its being strong as it took new members from masses and went with policies of government. The British economy saw changes due to the extensive period degeneration as a result of not many fundamental changes. After this the fate of trade union in Britain changed. Traditionally, these trade unions are durable and its power is sturdier in industries like printing, coal, engineering, steel and docks.
In current time, trade unions are the body which represent the employee’s strength and provide backing to them. Trade union works to allow workers to express their voice, provides them togetherness and it termed as the Collective bargaining. For this trade union operates. They pave path where voice of employees are presented in an effective manner as against the voice of an individual employee. The reason is that unity shows power and provides strength to the cause.
However, after management and companies started giving interest in their employees the role and function of trade union started depleting. The employer started giving emphasise on improving the creation of formula for employee and employer relation. Some other factors also played role like expansion of business in terms of varied sectors and industries. The law also played important role as judicial provisions as to regulation and working condition etc has done more for the betterment of the employee and resulted in rise in level of relation they shared. The composite way of business and a democratic environment within the organisation also resulted in the association being weaker (Wood, 1999).
At number of instances the workers and the managers are not in a stand to perform the given task in concord. Issues and matters take place among employee and management due to miscellaneous intentions. Here employee relations has role to play. Employee relation is the relation between employee and management.
There are three most important players in employee relations scenario. The first player being the Employees, second one is trade unions and the third player being the management of the company. However there is another impactful and powerful player which is government; it has a crucial character to play in the entire gamut of employee relations.
The differences between employee and management are needed to be sort out as they are the two main players. If differences are not sorted out than role of trade union comes into the play. However, “operative complaint redressed” are the tools used to eliminate or to solve the issue before it becomes uglier. If workers/employees are given chance to participate in standard management taking decisions than this may act as a catalyst in solving the issues between these main players. If all these or possible ways fails than collective bargaining takes place.
If collective bargaining fails than the third major player has to come into play as balance is to be maintained between management and employees relation. This is also important as such relation should be boosted. The government is the most important player as it can maintain the healthy relation by making regulations and provisions to create basic and simple background. This would make a base for healthy employee affairs. (Lebas, 1995)
Two options are always there with the management to tackle the conflicts occurring at the work place. One way is to solve the problem and other is to suppress it. Nevertheless, to solve the matter is the prescribed way. Here firstly the situation is analysed and then the suitable style is applied which seems proper.
Step 1: Setting the Scene
It is always good and advisable to solve any issue by mutual understanding. It also makes it visible that whether employees are in line to resolve the issue mutually. Mover, basic rule of analysing the problem is to be followed. Here, management after listening makes the issue in presentable form. They restate the problem, paraphrase it, study it and trace out the reasons and then reach to the solution.
Step 2: Information gathering
In order to resolve the problem a better understanding of that problem is to be formed. This would help in better tackling the problem. For this information as to problem should be gathered from varied sources. To be neutral, opposing views are to be listened carefully and dealt with the utmost satisfaction. This would remove any sort of biased feel from the parties to problem.
Step 3: Agree the problem
While listening and analysing the problem situation, the impression on both the party should be equal. The solution may look easier and the conclusion may look even tempting and easy. But it is best to agree to the problem than conceiving any notion beforehand.
Step 4: Possible solution
It is easy to get a possible solution if variety of opinions or advices is there. A healthy discussion with expert or experienced people would add assist greatly.
Step 5: Negotiation
A decision accepted by both the parties is very difficult to achieve as each has its part. So, a midway is to be prepared where both the parties may land.
Explain the key features of employee relations in a selected conflict situation
Contribution of staff member in process of management has become a significant aspect at Employee Relations organisational level. This results in better employee relation and it also acts as working model of present day management process. It paves way for enough scope of making the employee and employer relation fancy. To make a strong, self-confident, self-reliant, steady and good labour force, cooperative culture is needed to be established as this assists in conflicting situations. To endorse employee participation in decision making at organisation level number of attempts were carried out that would affect both parties. After the legislative committee, ‘joint management councils’ were deployed. Proper and Important provisions were also deployed to move labourers and directors towards employee relationship process via constitutional planning.
Whatever may be the difficulties, conflict, in regards to financial, economic and environment areas should always be treated with great care. It must be remembered that, in organisation, there is broad space for employee relationship (Craig, 1987)
When it comes to conciliation as a procedure, an impartial person is needed to resolve the dispute by eliminating any kind of prejudice to any party. Such impartiality is the only reason negotiations are known for. However, it is also known as mediation process. Here proceeding took place before authorities which regulates like tribunal. Such regulating authorities generally have legal powers to regulate. Conciliation as a procedure assists in having a good understanding of the dispute. It is also a justice done to party. If party can reach to amicable settlement without going for any regulatory authority than the employee and employer would bypass the legal processes. Such bypass would allow them to have a less lengthy and less expensive and settlement in closed door.
The design of process of mediation remained unchanged as it remained unnoticed. This was let in ignorance. Such important aspects should not be ignored. ‘Cookie cutter methodology’ is frequently plunged by the mediators/advocates who are to mediate the conflict between parties. On size does not fit to all so there should be different size for different dispute. For a better design of mediation the person appointed so should be imaginative and radical in his approach. Such a person is very vital for good mediation design. The reason of dispute, behaviour of confronter, surroundings of the issues raised, the judgement creators and the defendants are other aspect to be keep in note while making a mediation design
Discussion and negotiations between party, where party representing employers is on one hand and employee on other hand to seek settlement is termed as ‘process of collective bargaining’. It is generally made up of negotiations and talks among group of employer and employees. These negotiations define the state of affair in employment and generally the employee’s process of bargaining is represented by trade union or labour organization. Outcome of collective bargaining is known as ‘collective bargain agreement’ (CBA).
Five steps are there in negotiations process. These steps includes-
The workers and the employers have ample space of benefit where they can have co-operation and this co-operation is apart from boundaries of collective bargaining. Te basic assumption behind resolving the dispute is to assist these groups where their togetherness can be best for the organization intact.
A collective agreement can be as a substantive agreement or can be a procedural agreement. In procedural agreement the relationship among managements and workers is dealt with along with procedure required to be adopted to solve group and individuals disputes. Negotiators can eliminate the varied opinions of the employee and employer as they can ward off the disputes. Negotiations are dedicated to have a stable outcome where goals can be meet easily. It is also helpful as it assists in portrays concern and significance of staff. Moreover, excellent circumstances of operations can be achieved by this for members and employees. Negotiation assists in arranging or paying covenants in regards to employees or for trade unions (Guest, 1987)
Different aspects related with operations of market prevailing in European countries like United Kingdom is controlled by European Union. The means of “expenditure and taxation” is considered as the first control step towards EU over UK industries. Even directions are given by EU regarding the industries in UK in order to make adjustments regarding different “regulations, directives, and laws”. A remarkable increase is noticed in regard with different actions of trade and even various subside and provisions are imposed because of EU with the help of different directive policies. Even a boost is made for the UK industries by EU by seeking help of provisions associated with “guidelines and backing to commerce”. A productive affect of EU directions and regulations is noticed in the employment policies framed by the UK government. the vision is created by EU in regard with balancing the inflation which is spreading in Europe supported by UK government by introducing course of action similar to this consisting of policies related to inflation. The regulations related with the different activities and sectors are covered by other mentioned regimes and policies by EU
For the development in the employee involvement, collective bargaining seems to be the basic conduct. In this methodology the practice and approach towards the engagement of employees in relation with collective bargaining proves to be very co-operative. This practice includes most of the important work requirement which will further boost the employment terms. Best results are seems to be seen when in a regular manner collective bargaining is used. Following are seems to be the main requirements for basic workplace, “guidelines, operational conditions of work, and occupation related state of affairs”. “Basic pay, pay for overtime, working shifts, length of shifts, vacation and retirement related benefits, leave policy and holidays, etc.” are considered to be the other factors affecting the employee relations.
There few more factors which affect the employees participation towards the work force. Over the company’s board there should be a proper representation been made regarding the employees and this work should be either perform by the management team or by the employer itself. Even the organisation should consist of a supervisory boards and management boards dealing with the benefits and welfare of the employees. Even a joint constructive board should be formed offering an interaction of employer and employee because of the same board so that a proper discussion is possible by raising different issues and subjects regularly used. There should be a scope for council of work provided by the employer in a situation where there is failure of joint council is noticed and that should deal in proving details related to employees priority.
It will not be validentirely to assume that the increasing effect of human resource practice leads towards a decrease in influence of trade unions in UK. There is a very high rate of trade union role noticed from 70’s till 90’s decades. Apparently, the membership for trade union becomes mandatory. Therefore, till the practices for human resource management last the results for employee relationship and employee management are better.
The factors like “increase in commitment, increase in involvement of managers with the employees, better management performance on a day to day basis” influence the employer’s relationship with other employees in a better way. Even the activities like “team working, formal evaluation of employment, team briefing, flexibility in job descriptions, better payment structure, etc.” plays a very important role in increasing the motivational spirit of employees required for development. Therefore it would be very difficult to judge whether the decline of trade unions are because of the HRM practices or not.
The factors like “diversity of work, efficiency of the work force, employee turnover, absence at work, and economic factors of work place” helps in determining the employee relationship in a thorough manner. A deduction in the business regulations, specifically in large businesses are introduced because of series of actions which is noticed as a result of the human resource developments made in economic reforms around the different geographies. Due to the fear of unemployment increase the liberalisation is noticed in economic rules because of the workers. The trade union act as the voice of employees in order to maintain a sterner control of government and the prevailing regulation changes. Therefore more concentration of the management department is now noticed towards the practice of “human resource management”. Presently it is stated that the human resource management more how deals the employee relations and tactfully dealing with the employees in difficult situations.
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