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Unit 3 Organization and Behaviour Assignment CAPCO & Tesco
Organization behaviour is the study of interaction of employees within group. Individual’s behaviour is analysed to prospect the future of organization. Unit 3 organization behaviour assignment CAPCO & Tesco report will compare and contrast the difference and similarity of CAPCO and Tesco about their structure and culture as well discus the factors that influence the behaviour of staff members at work. In the next part report will compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles and motivational theories to manage the practices as well evaluate the different approaches to management that used by both the organizations. Moreover, report will compare the applications of different motivational theories and discuss the factors that promote the team work to achieve the goals and objectives of organization.
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation. Show the differences and similarities in these two organisations
There are many differences and similarity between organizational structure and culture of CAPCO and Tesco. Analysis determined that CAPCO and Tesco are similar in the organizational structure and workflow. Management of both the organization receive the commands from authorities and regulate them with the help of leaders. CAPCO and Tesco use the different kind of performance management tools to measure the individual’s contribution and effort in the outcome. However, tools are different in CAPCO in comparison of Tesco. Tesco considers the quality and effort of employees to rate them for their work whereas CPACO also includes employee’s behaviour, punctuality and dedication towards work. CAPCO’s performance management is based on the overall performance rather than influenced by critical behaviours as in Tesco (Alvesson, 2012). Alongside structural similarities, both the organization provides the good quality workplace and flexibility in work.
However, there are some differences in CAPCO and Tesco due to which they present their different positions in market. CAPCO makes the use of diversity and groups to accomplish the task. Groups in CAPCO are more flexible than Tesco to execute different type of task. Therefore, employees can be rearranged according to need of organization. Other side, Tesco presents the group structure specialised to work on specific task. CAPCO supports the transactional and democratic leadership style to make the decisions on employees with the help of employees. Tesco implements autocratic leadership style in most of part to ensure the quick and professional decision making. Culture of CAPCO is flexible enough to connect all the employees in a professional manner so that together they can achieve more productivity. Tesco’s culture is somehow different in term of communication and diversity among employees. CAPCO’s culture allows employees to contribute in work by their suggestions and idea (Zheng.et.al.2010). In comparison of Tesco, culture at CAPCO is more inclined at employees’ satisfaction rather than productivity. In this manner, CAPCO and Tesco are similar in functioning with some differences in their culture and structure.
1.2 How the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of its operations.
Culture and structure of CAPCO organization have a dependent relationship and reflects impact on operations carried out in organization. Management strategies toward the behaviour, attitude, disposition and ethical values of employees, determines the culture of organization. Structure at CAPCO management is smooth to engage with employees for the organizational as well as personal growth. Effectiveness in management structure reflects the more freedom and power at lower level. Proper alignment of organizational goal with the personal goal of employees helps CAPCO to create the motivated and positive workplace culture. CAPCO’ management works to enhance the capabilities of employees so that more productivity and quality in execution can be achieved (Lee and Yang, 2011). Hierarchical distribution of role, responsibilities and information in CAPCO organization helps to create the well-designed, behaved and empowered culture.
Organization also manages the diversity in organizational culture which is necessary to make the proper use of skills and experiences of employees. Management respects the social needs and listen from employees to make the structure more adaptable. Culture defined with flexible nature to work, engage with others and to express themselves is at core of structure to enhance the performance. CAPCO encourages employees to learn and grow with opportunities and supports them to enhance their capabilities. Culture at CAPCO is based on the four pillars- opportunity for fast personal growth, performance and rewards to recognise and praise contribution, work to use skills and talents and experience and learning to achieve unparallel knowledge enhancement (Kotter, 2008). These four pillars are considered as the important parameters in decision making process.
Figure 1: Four pillars of CAPCO culture
1.3 Factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO
Mainly there are five factors that affect the behaviour of employees in employees in CAPCO organization. Employees’ behaviour may be driven by following factors: demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality.
- Democratic Factors: Academic and social background, race, sex, origin place etc can be considered as the democratic factors that influence the individual’s behaviour in organization. CAPCO management requires the young and enthusiast employees those are good in communication, to represent the business to customers. Management demands the attractive personalities with required skills to accomplish organizational operations (Krebs and Davies, 2009). In this manner, democratic factors play an important role in behaviour of employees at CAPCO organization.
- Abilities and skills: Abilities and skills of individual to perform the task perfectly reflect the behaviour and performance in organization. CAPCO analyzes the capabilities of individual to assign role and responsibility to employees in order to achieve organizational goals. Thus, the skills and capabilities of individual play a vital role to determine the behaviour in organization.
Figure 2: Factors affecting individual's behaviour in organization
- Perception: Perception is the ability to understand something with senses. Individual’s perception towards the organizational operations, responsibilities and role and at other employees determines the behaviour in CAPCO. Perception of management team impacts the management of employees. Employee’s positive perception towards the organization helps to develop positive workplace and to deliver good results (Daft, 2012).
- Attitude: Attitude of individual is formed by the social, family, cultural and organizational factors. Attitude of management towards the formation of interest and positive perception of employees in organization is necessary. CAPCO provides feasible team work and training programs to drive the attitude of employees into job profiles assigned to them (Robinson, 2009). Also, individual’s attitude towards job and responsibility determines the work quality and rate of personal growth.
- Personality: Characteristic and distinctions of individual are considered to assign the job profile and liabilities. CAPCO management measures the personalities of employees in term of effectiveness and behaviour with others to assign representative job profiles and responsibilities (Giltinane, 2013). Individual’s personality is determined under the several conditions and relations to enhance the behaviour.
2.1 Effectiveness of different leadership styles
CAPCO adapts different leadership styles to drive the human resources towards the desired functionality defined by organization. Effective leadership helps to direct the employees towards the achievements and has courage to face the exception situations of business. CAPCO and Tesco possess similar structure to arrange human resources at workplace.
- Autocratic leadership: Leaders at CAPCO possess the features of autocratic leadership style in critical situations. Autocratic nature of leaders helps to make quick decisions in critical time on the basis of their own observations, understanding to problem and experience to solve issues. Leaders at CAPCO do not demand the engagement of employees to make critical and quick decisions. However the quality of decision and affects solely depends on the leaders’ capability (Andersen, 2006). CAPCO supports autocratic leadership to handle critical business conditions whereas Tesco accepts the leadership style to keep the decision power centric to a single person. In case, Tesco’s strategy to apply leadership is more dangerous than CAPCO.
- DemocraticLeadership: CAPCO supports the democratic leadership style to make decision related to organizational structure and approaches to achieve the goal. The communication between employees and leaders at CAPCO are smooth to make decisions. Individuals’ opinions and ideas are considered as valuable asset to make a decision. However in case of disagreement on a single idea, leaders are liable to make the final decisions on their behalf. Tesco also adapt this leadership style in order to make the decision more acceptable at each end of implementation.
- Transactional Leadership style: Leaders at CAPCO, who are dealing directly with the workers, are liable to distribute the duties and role in employees to achieve organizational goal. They also need to govern the progress and performance of task. Proper distribution of workload and responsibilities is necessary to achieve quality and timely results. Effectiveness of transactional leaders plays an important role to optimise the use of available human resources and to deliver the services within time (Foti and Hauenstein, 2007). Tesco also focus on the quality of transactional leaders.
2.2 Organizational theories have had influence on the practice of management
Organizational theories have defined the several prospective of human resources practices to achieve the more productivity. Theories have also mentioned several factors need to be considered to ensure the employees’ behaviour parallel to the business achievements. CAPCO applies mainly three theories in organizational structure; administrative, scientific management and human relation management theory.
- Scientific management theory: Taylor’s scientific theory is earliest approach towards the analysis and synthesis of workflow. Theory mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum labour productivity to improve the economy. Scientific management theory considers the standardization in practices to meet the employees’ satisfaction as well as organizational goals. Scientific theory influenced the structure and processing of CAPCO. CAPCO provides competitive salary and benefits to employees. Organization set the high goals to accomplish with the minimum number of employees to get the maximum through put (Shafritz.et.al.2015). CAPCO focus on strategies to eliminate the unwanted steps in functioning to make the procedure simplify and directed at goal.
- Administrative theory: Theory focuses on the administration of defined rules in organization. CAPCO’s administration makes and governs the rules to be followed by employees at each level of organizational hierarchy. Organization assumes that high productivity in work can be achieved with the implementation of strict rules. Administration also makes the use of smooth communication to listen from the employees in order to improve the structure and culture.
- Human relation management theory: Organization supports the human relations at workplace to empower the team work. CAPCO allows men and women to work together in order to achieve organizational goals. Theory emphasised to improve the productivity of individual in the combination with other employee. CAPCO supports an open minded workplace for men and women (Bratton and Gold, 2012). Also, organization put efforts to protect the individual’s social image in workplace as management uses the professional ways to notify the mistakes or to appraise the work of someone.
2.3 Different approaches of management used by CAPCO and Tesco
Management of CAPCO and Tesco may implement different types of approaches to manage the resources. Some of approaches are discussed below:
- Classical administrative approach: Primary objective of classical administration approach is to structure the organization well in power, roles, goals and relationships with other employees. This approach mainly covers the aspects of business related to the administration as better administration can result the better through put from employees (Jackson, 2007).
- Bureaucracy approach: This type o approach is mainly used by CAPCO and Tesco like big organizations. CAPCO divides the each location of business in the form of sub divisions to implement the classical administration. However, the top authorities define the approach of bureaucracy to manage underlying organizations. Objective and responsibilities of the organization is distributed by the authorities among the sub divisions prepared according to their specialization in task. This approach helps to achieve hierarchical administration with minimum efforts (Guest, 2011). At the end, the outcome of sub divisions is combined to achieve the organizational goal.
- Human relation approach: CAPCO supports the use of human relation approach to establish positive working environment for employees. CAPCO respects the human tendencies towards the socialization and psychological needs. Therefore, organization provides the competitive and comfortable environment for men and women to work together. Organization knows that high productivity and quality management in work can be achieved easily with the combination of human relations (Ortt and Smits, 2006). Management tries to create the well behavioural workplace to create more values from employees.
3.1 Impact of different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change
Different leadership styles are adopted by organisation in order to improve productivity and attain quality of work. Organisations like CAPCO and TESCO are considering human resources as valuable assets that are helpful to attain goals and objectives. There are different leadership styles which can be identified at work place of CAPCO and TESCO such as autocratic, democratic, transformational, transactional, charismatic etc. These leadership styles are chosen at varying situation.
- Autocratic Leadership: The leadership style tells employees what they have to do and how to do. There are supervisor that observes activity of employees. They are also controlling decision of employees. The employees are not allowed to take decision at their end. Supervisor only can take critical decision that must be followed by followers. CAPCO is using this type leadership style but also takes suggestion from employees in order to satisfy (Plowman.et.al.2007). But final decisions are made on confidentiality and power of leaders.
- Democratic Leadership: This type of leadership style also includes individual views before taking decision. It gives more chance to participate in decision making task. For CAPCO and TESCO, both are empowering employees to make decisions. For this purpose, both are directly communicating with workers so that they can understand organisational goals and take decisions accordingly. But it has been analysed that it include different perception. Therefore, there are chances about idea mismatch and it would lead to time consuming situations.
- Transactional Leadership: The employees of organisation have to obey their leaders. It gives rights to leaders that they can punish or reward according to work. In case of CAPCO, leaders punish follower when they do not produce quality work. But it is not true leadership style (Walumbwa.et.al.2007). CAPCO follows such leadership for short term gain only else it motivates employees to correct errors and improve their skills.
3.2 Evaluate the application of two motivational theories
- Maslow’s theories: According to Maslow’s theory, there are several factors that motivate human resources at work place. Such factors are job security, physiological needs, love, technology, self confidence, good working environment and proper safety measures. All such factors are playing significant role to retain employees and reduce turnover. When all such factors become combining then it would highly affect individual performance and productivity. Technology factors make the task easy for employees and employees feel secure due to safety measures at work place. All such factors make comfortable zone for work. Then, they will give best effort to their job. Further, financial security, health and safety measures against illness or accidental situation would motivate to retain with organisation. Maslow’s theory also influences personnel behaviour with organisation. CAPCO identifies that positive relationship between employees and organisation also motivates employees (Noltemeyer.et.al.2012). Positive relationship is also necessary between employees in order to perform group tasks. Therefore, it motivates the employees to share their ideas to other in order make good relationship.
Figure 3: Need factors
Figure 4: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
- Herzberg theories: Another theory is Herzberg that motivates employees by providing promotions, opportunity for advancement and does challenging work. Such things are considered most important to motivate employees. For Example- CAPCO organisation is providing good salary amount it would result employees satisfaction. It motivates employees to generate quality output for organisation. Promotion is another bigger factor that motivates employees to do better as compare to others.
Therefore employees are applying their best efforts and being responsible regarding their duties. Apart from this, employees also start to work hard and ready to take challenges (Sachau, 2007). It has been clear that all these factors are most important to motivate employees at work place. Apart from this, challenging work and new opportunity also enhance skills of employees. This would be beneficial for future also. People love to learn something new at work place. Therefore, it is the best way to motivate them and use their capabilities in order to gain competitive advantages.
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace
It is necessary to understand and apply motivation theories by managers at work place in order to enhance capabilities of employees and achieve goals of organisation in timely manner. It has been analysed that managers of CAPCO organisation are focused on motivational factors in order to enhance productive outcome. By considering Maslow’s theory managers should fulfil needs of employees and trying to achieve define factor (physiological, safety, esteem etc.) at work place. Every human being has its personnel physical needs and it is necessary to meet physical in order to function properly at work place. Managers should make better communication between leaders and team members (Augier and Teece, 2009). In is also necessary to include employees in decision making procedures. It would lead to improvement in love, affection and self respect of employees. Managers should give respect to employees also.
Managers should observe work environment in order to analyse proper safety measures at work place. They need to include proper training about how to use components and resources safely. Therefore, it would improve awareness between employees. CAPCO managers set Bench Mark for task. Employees have to attempt the bench mark by standard quality work. Mangers are awarding employees who make quality work. Therefore, this motivates employees to get reward and promotion. This motivate employee for hard work and being dedicate at work (Damanpour and Schneider, 2009). Now employees of CAPCO start to take each task seriously in order to attain bench mark quality.
4.1 Nature of groups and group behaviour
There are majorly two types of groups founded with organizations that have own characteristic and behaviour that helps to maintain the flow of operations according to organizational culture. According to analysis following groups has been founded within CAPCO:
- Formal groups: Formal group refers to collection of persons who are come together for achieving mutual and specific goal of organization. These types of groups are created with the intention to meet the specific requirements. The formation of this type of group has been done by top management of CAAPCO and which follows systemic structure and hierarchy. As per the evaluation CAPCO has three major formal groups such as command, committee and tasks force that includes the managers, advisory and standing committees as well the staff members who were assigned with the specific role and responsibility. For example, Group leader receives commands from management and distributes the goal among group members. Group leader is liable to solve the issues of group members (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2013). In CAPCO, Activities of group members and their performance are under the supervision of leader. This is responsibility of a group leader to govern the progress of task assigned to employees in group. However, only leader is a communication channel between employees and higher authorities.
- Informal groups: Informal groups refers to collection of people that developed naturally within organization due to social and psychological forces are known as informal groups However this types of groups are good for organizational prospective that creates positive and healthy working environment at workplace but is also increase the conflicts between departments and staff members. Unlike formal groups, workers can join or leave the group as of their interest. Informal group helps them to achieve esteem and recognition at work place. Informal groups are useful for CAPCO to understand employees as well as to spread the brand image. Because informal groups are social in nature, better decision can be made on group (Hu and Liden, 2015). Also, management is beneficial from informal group as knows the demands of employees more accurately.
4.2 Factors that promote and inhibit the effective team work in CAPCO
For an organization team work is essential that helps to meet the organizational objectives by improving the efficiency in work as well fuller utilization of available resources. In spite of that, there are many such factors that may cause hindrance in the development of the successful team. CAPCO is formed basically from diversity of its talented employees in the organisation. It is recognized that the people with different ability, attitudes, experience, culture and background bring fresh and innovative thoughts and perceptions. To gain a complete advantage of diversity, a proper communication is required. Communication creates a bridge so that employees approach mutually to attain their common goals and objectives. Communication in CAPCO helps in making the correct and effective decisions so that an organisation can attain its desired goals efficiently. In building a good and effective team in CAPCO, motivation plays a vital role in it. Motivation energizes the employees to achieve their task with full dedication. The motivated people have a positive outlook and they also feel excited about their assigned task (Joo and Durri, 2015).
Therefore, the leaders of CAPCO are responsible for motivation of their employees to improve the qualities and capabilities of their employees for achieving the goals. For this purpose, proper training must be conducted which helps the leaders to enhance the skills of the employees. Technology also helps in making of an effective team. The various mechanisms and technology used must be appropriate in accordance with the capability of the employee so that they can make fuller utilisation of such technology. For developing the proper team in CAPCO, it is also required that the work allocated to them must be proper in such a manner that they can be more innovative to that and also helps in increasing the productivity too. Thus, it is observed that CAPCO is working to have better communication between the employees and the leaders are also trying best in enhancing the skills and abilities of the employees so that more innovation and production can be brought up and also to maintain the discipline and behaviour within the team.
4.3 The impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO
It has been noticed that now the organisation has to deal with the dynamic markets. To stand in this dynamic market, organisations are now provided with the latest technology and tools. CAPCO is also using the latest technology in their day-to-day operations with the motive of increasing the profit. These technologies have become the core and essential part for an organisation. The introduction of latest technology in CAPCO not only brings the profit but also lead to improvement in capabilities of the workforce and reaching the job satisfaction. This also helps in better control and coordination in the teamwork (Miller and Rice, 2013). Use of technology also helps the management to have better communication and control over the various levels of CAPCO organisation. Various trainings are also held by the CAPCO so that the employees can handle these tools effectively. Appropriate use of technology also helps in diversifying the business of CAPCO. It helps in expanding the business in diverse geographical region.
CAPCO uses various technical tools such as E-mail, computers, mobile phones, etc. These tools let the employees to communicate easily without any barrier such as in respect to their location. They can communicate easily by sitting in any part of the world. Computers help the members of the team to perform the task much faster and accurately as compared to the task performed manually. The latest online technical tools helps in storing the information about the staff, accessing easily the information related to the customers, etc. Online tools also helps to be updated with the demands of the public and to have a sustain position in the market (Miner, 2015). The database system maintained in the CAPCO helps the team in having a proper functioning without any delay caused due to lack of any information. Thus, all these technologies laid a positive impact on the organisation and on the team functioning.
The study has been concluded that organizational behaviour is necessary to manage the organization with analysis of individual’s performance on future of organization. Analysis is made on relationship among organizational structure, culture and performance along with the impacts of employees’ behaviour on organizational operations. The Study has been determined the effectiveness of autocratic, transactional and democratic leadership styles and scientific and human relation theories on organizational operations. The report also illustrated the application of Herzberg and Maslow theory and role of managers in organization structure. Finally, report has been concluded the impact of implication of leadership styles during the changes in organization.
Books and journals
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Andersen, J.A., 2006. Leadership, personality and effectiveness. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 35(6), pp.1078-1091.
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Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Daft, R., 2012. Organization theory and design. Nelson Education.
Damanpour, F. and Schneider, M., 2009. Characteristics of innovation and innovation adoption in public organizations: Assessing the role of managers.Journal of public administration research and theory, 19(3), pp.495-522.
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Hatch, M.J. and Cunliffe, A.L., 2013. Organization theory: modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford university press.
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Jackson, M., 2007. Systems approaches to management. Springer Science & Business Media.
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