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Unit 42 Project Management Assignment Help
The Project management trend is forecasted to grow at a sharp rate in the coming years. It will move out with its different disciplines in different way. In order to maintain an economical discipline, different project management has its own array such as its own body of Knowledge, Research Standards, Application Methodology, Education System and Certification. The Unit 42 Project Management Assignment Help will discuss the basics of project management and then viability of project for its success or failure. Key principles and practices of project management will be discussed in report along with key factors to influence the project accomplishment.
LO1 Understand project management principles
1.1 Describe the background and principles of project management
Project management is the requisition of information, aptitudes and methods to execute projects viably and productively. It's a key competency for associations, empowering them to attach project results to business objectives and therefore, better contend in their businesses. Project management discipline has encountered an unprecedented development in the most recent decade. Dr. Martin Barnes, the president of APM Corporate has stated that, ‘At its most fundamental, project management is about people getting things done’
The concept of project management emerged back in the year 1950. Before the evolution of modern project management concept in the year 1950 projects were managed in an inferior or ad-hock way. Since then, the managers become able to manage and handle projects in a better way. The concept of modern project management as described earlier comprised application from different fields relating to engineering, defence etc. Various models of project management such as, PROMPT II, PRINCE and PRINCE 2 were introduced in order to help different organization in controlling their projects. The concept took new dimension in the 1970’s as the emphasis was made upon the control of project rather than just focussing upon time of completion of project. And for this purpose new technology was utilized in the form of integrated, computer based management systems. However, till the beginning of the year 1980 various organizations with their updated technology and management systems were experiencing failures relating to time, cost and quality of project management. Finally by the end of 1980’s in order to solve the issues relating to project management, the body of knowledge was formulated by the UK Association of Project Management that consisted 40 different requirements relating to competency for a better project management. The key principles of project management are as follows:
- The board has general commitment with respect to impact of project management.
- The parts, commitments and execution criteria for the impact of project management are unmistakably portrayed.
- Disciplined impact game plans, upheld by fitting systems and controls, are associated all through the project life cycle.
- A sound and solid relationship is demonstrated between the general business system and the project portfolio.
- All projects have an approval game plan holding authorization centres at which the business case is overviewed and avowed. Decisions made at authorization centres are recorded and passed on.
- Members of selected authorization bodies have sufficient representation, wellness, force and advantages for enable them to settle on suitable decisions.
- The project business case is upheld by vital and sensible information that gives a robust reason to settling on authorizing decisions.
- There are clearly unmistakably portrayed criteria for reporting undertaking status and for elevating of dangers and issues to the levels needed by the acquaintanceship.
- The board or its designated executors pick when independent project management schemas and venture administration diagrams are obliged, and finish such examination correspondingly.
- The acquaintanceship reinforces an overall population of advancement and of abrupt inside exposure of project information.
- The project stakeholders are secured at a level that is relative with their essentialness to the acquaintanceship and in a way that enables trust.
- The whole project is divided by different teams according to their ability of executing the work, thus the following work which is needed to be done on the priority basis is handled first by the subordinates who are responsible of execution of the task in a properly manner.
- The work done by the sub- ordinates are being checked by the Quality check control and being reported to the Team leader. The correction of the work is to be done by the subordinates and again reported to the Team leader. The Team leader on behalf of the whole team reports the overall performance of the team to the respective manager.
1.2 Appraise the viability of projects, developing success/failure criteria
The projects viability along with the Objectives of business and purpose of the organization also depends on the stakeholders. It depends on how the scopes and benefits of the organization are interlinked to reach a particular goal. It also focuses at skew schemas which are used to make the incremental benefits. Keeping an eye the main objectives and frame work, the success and failure criteria of the organization imply the following activities.
- User involvement: It is regarded as one of the key factors that leads a project towards success. User’s involvement is crucial for the success of a project without the presence of User’s involvement a project will experience failure. A project will be regarded as a failure if it fails to coincide with user’s requirement.
- Executive Management Support: the process of a project requires active support from the executive management in order make further progress. Without a proper management support a project will experience numerous hindrances.
- Excellent planning: For the growth development and successful completion of a project a proper plan is highly required. If there is no effective planning the project will face numerous issues.
- Smaller project milestones: Short milestones are required to be framed as this will enable the project to complete efficiently. Small milestones will lead to completion of project on a step by step basis.
- Staff efficiency: The staffs engaged for the completion of the project should be adequately trained and they should be highly committed for the proper completion opf the project.
1.3 Explain the principles behind project management systems and procedures
The principle and procedure followed for a flexible project management depends upon the Organization and its board of directors along with the support of the employees. Rigorous transparent procedure and maintenance of a balanced judgment of the company contributes towards the successful management of the project. The governance of project management follows eleven basic principles and procedures, which are described as follows:
- The success principles: The ultimate aim of a project is to produce a product successfully that will fulfil the requirement of the user. There is no requirement of framing a project if the product does not fulfil the requirement of the user. The success principle states that the successful formation of the product is of paramount importance over time of completion and budget of project.
- The commitment principle: The must be a steady commitment and mutual understanding between the sponsor of the project and the project team in order to complete the project successfully.
- The Unity of Command principle: This principle states that there must be a primary channel of communication and all communication must flow through that channel. There must be a single channel for communication between the project sponsor and the project team in order to avoid any kind of confusion.
- The process principle: There must be effective process for the project and the project will follow that process in order to complete properly. The process or principles will state the roles and responsibilities of different staffs, it will also state the process relating to delegation of power and also regarding quality standards etc.
- The Life-Cycle Principle: In order to be complete a project successfully it is required to follow two basic principles, plan first then do. The life cycle principle generally states the plan of a project with all the milestones that are required to be completed, it specifies the time of initiating a project, the time of completion and also the control gates relating to the project.
1.4 Explain the key elements involved in terminating projects and conducting post-project appraisals
A project is carried on for the purpose of fulfilling a particular need and with the accomplishment of that particular requirement the project is terminated. A project is often closed on accomplishment of the mission but sometimes it is closed at a earlier date with the early accomplishment of the objective. There are certain steps mentioned in the following paragraphs that generally apply to normal termination of projects. The person willing to shoulder the long term responsibility to extend the expected benefits to the will be allowed to take the business case. At the time of completion the project manager performs a detailed assessment of the project and accordingly reports to the project board in order to affect the closure of the project in a formal way. A checklist is provided below that will endure that the project can be terminated:
- Whether the objectives of the project were completed or not?
- Whether the information relating to the errors occurred in the project have been delivered to the people who were operating the project or not?
- Whether the people who are the provider of resources for a project are informed about the closure of the project or not?
- Whether the risks concerning the project have been informed to the owner of the organization?
- Whether the outcomes and lessons learnt from the project have been conveyed to the stake holders or not?
- Whether the documentation relating to project management has been filled up properly for future references or not?
On confirmation of the project closure by the project board the responsibilities of the project are taken back from the project team and they are dispersed.
LO2 Be able to manage a project’s human resources
2.1 Identify the most appropriate organizational structure, roles and responsibilities of participants within a project
There are several types of organizational structures that can be used for managing projects. There are a number of factors that are considered while choosing the organization structure used for a project. Within an organization the main factors that plays a vital role is the authority and responsibility that the senior management transfers to the lower level managers. The senior management of an organization plays an important role to frame a suitable organizational structure for the organization that will be supportive to manage projects. There are various types of organization structures that can be used for the purpose of project management, such as programmatic based structure, Matrix based structure, project based structure etc.
Programmatic based organization is an organization structure that is a conventional organizational structure for projects where the managers concerning the program sector usurps the major control over the resources of the project. The projects that belong to a single program sector and do not require people belonging to different program sectors with diversified knowledge require programmatic based organizational structure. Under the programmatic based organization structure the teams that are formed for the purpose of the project are manned by the staffs that belong to the same area. For example, a project concerning construction will include the required man power and resources from the construction sector. The ultimate benefit extended by the programmatic based project is that a programmatic based organization structure is formed with a single management and the lines of authority are also clear. The arises less conflicts under a programmatic based organization structure as the staffs relating to the project belongs to the same unit or area, as a result of this the bonding and understanding between the team members are also strong enough.
The responsibilities relating to the staffs under this structure and their roles are clearly stated and they report to the project manager directly. The project manager’s role will be carrying out performance appraisal of the employees and also monitor the progress of the staffs working in a project. The project teams performing within this structure shoulder the responsibility to develop an understanding relating to project identification and ownership. The staffs belonging to the project plays the role of handling the activities of the project in a proper manner do that they can fulfil the objectives of the project efficiently.
2.2 Control and co-ordinate a project
Coordination is a key for a business that courses of action with two or more related projects. Project control and coordination generally implies organizing and supervising various endeavours in the intervening time of project such as Recognizing evidence of suitable holdings and project parts, for instance, external suppliers, Making courses of action for staff security in the movement of the project, Ensuring that the game plan is taken after and that recuperating moves are made as critical, Ensuring game plan of longings, for instance, movement date and fiscal outturn between the client, and end customer.
Projects changes based on business goals yet may join dispatching an exchange thing or broadening associations into new zones. A venture organizer generally holds diverse parts and responsibilities, reliant upon the business, business size, and objective of the project. Venture facilitators can serve as pioneers or partners to lead manager. Project coordination engineers typically join making a general target, planning essential errands, despite executing and controlling the task. Make a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) or STEP (social, technological, economic, and political) examination all through distinctive stages to study drive force of the project. For example, associations may allocate separate project coordinators to handle nearby and overall endeavours; however, little associations may weave crucial project coordination commitments into an organization part.
SWOT analysis can be regarded as an analysis tool that helps in projecting the strength, opportunities, weakness and threats relating to a project. The SWOT analysis can be regarded as a tool that will be able to point out the strengths and advantages of the project the loop holes that can be regarded as the weak points of a project would be regarded as the weaknesses, while the opportunities of a project can be regarded as the chances through which the project can be improved and the threats are the factors that must be taken care of in order to complete the project in a successful way. The SWOT analysis can be regarded as a tool that will efficiently guide the project manager to operate the project in a successful way. Again, the STEP analysis helps a project manager to analyse the external environmental factors like Social, Technical, Environmental and Political factors that would guide the project manager to consider different facts such as technical development, cultural factors, and the environmental factors surrounding the organization and the different political measures and government policies that would affect the operation of the project.
Project coordination can be regarded as the efficient management of the project by coordinating the activities of the different people involved in the project. Apart from the tools that help in coordination there are other factors that are required for efficient co ordination and control of project. There must be a person present in the project team who will act as a project coordinator. There are various software that help in increasing the efficiency of the project. Such software should be installed do that it will efficiently guide the team and maintain the efficiency of the project. Such software is able to detect the risk involved in the project and project the same to the management in order to implement control. The controlling part is being done by the co-ordinator who is generally associated to look after the project distribution and the support needed to the sub-ordinate. He accumulated the reports from the team leaders, and summarizes a brief to the managers. He is entitled with the task of handling the Team leaders. In case of any negative feedback the task is being taken of or it is transferred to another team who could execute the task within the deadline. However in case if the task can be completed by the same team and a time is required to execute the project in a proper way then the project retains in the same team.
2.4 Plan and specify human resources and requirements for a project
Human Resource Management can be defined as a key and complete practice to manage a people and the work environment society nature's space. A compelling director of HR enables delegates to help satisfactorily and productively to the general association course and the accomplishment of the affiliation's goals and ends of the line. Management of Human resources is similarly a fundamental and exhaustive strategy to regulate people and the work environment society nature. Influential Human Resource Management engages specialists in helping effectively and profitably to the general association heading and the accomplishment of the affiliation's goals and ends. Human resources recognize assets in worth as the time improvements for procurement of taking in and experience. They have trademark dynamism and potential for movement. Grow in huge advancement of the HR and recruitment of capable delegate to handle overall points of confinement of the affiliation is the best forceful driver for the undertaking project management. According to Lucia and Lepsinger “An action plan is the primary tool to manage the workload, review and appraise project progress, and communicate with project team members and key stake-holders about the work to be done. It will also be a useful tool for identifying resource requirements—people, time, money, and technological tools—needed to complete the project”(Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999, pg. 56-57).
L.C. Megginson defines human resources as, “From the national point of view, human resources are knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and attitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees.” The personnel or human resource managers are charged with the responsibility for carrying out the mission of the organisation. The HR manager acts as a leader, supervisor and director. The role of the HR manager may be enumerated below:
- Ensuring that the organisation fulfils all of its equal employment opportunities and other government obligations.
- Carrying out the project analysis to establish the specific requirements for individual jobs within an organisation.
- Forecasting the human resource requirements necessary for the organisation to achieve its objectives both in terms of number of employees and skills.
- Developing and implementing a plan to meet those requirements.
- Recruiting and selecting personnel to fill specific jobs within an organisation.
- Orienting and training employees.
- Designing and implementing management and organisational development programmes.
- Designing systems for appraising the performance of individuals.
- Assisting employees in developing career plans.
- Designing and implementing compensation system for all employees.
The Human Resource Plan
- Firstly, the names of different individuals and organizations that are involved in the project who is handling a leading role in the project. The management is also required to give a clear specification relating their roles and responsibilities in regards to the project.
- In the next step , the quantum of workers and staffs required for the project should be stated clearly. A specification relating to the initiation dates of the resources, the duration and the methodology that has been utilized in order to acquire them, and a separate sheet shall have to be presented including such information.
LO3 Be able to apply project processes and procedures
3.1 Prepare project plans and establish the project organization
For an effective and smooth running of the organization, various competence factors come into play. The Steps to prepare project plans and establish the project organization are described as follows:
Firstly, secure an endeavour aggregate whose rule commitment will be to help you in setting up the plan and regulating errand execution, interfacing with outside specialists (masters), chiefs and parts. Secondly, recognize everything assignments needed to accomplish each target: key human stakes, capital need and arrangement, formal risk analyse, programming test plans, planning plans, pilot and execution plans. Portray time and stakes for each. Portray and appraisal expenses. Dole out errands to individuals or social events of individuals. Thirdly, recognize all threat runs and consider measures taken to minimize danger. Fourthly describe references to other key documents that are needed: e.g. danger evaluation report, planning plan, programming testing course of action. And finally, make a support schema that is keep the manual structures running in-parallel all through the progression and testing stages. If something happens with the new system all through these stages, no data will be lost and accommodating business operations will continue operating effortlessly. Hence for an effective management the business goals should be properly defined with a time frame and implementation frame work to monitor the growth in actual fact.
The above diagram outlays the basic plans for project Management of APM Corporate. The project plans being followed by APM to establish the project organization are as follows:
- Project Management
- Portfolio Management
- Programme Management
- Project context
- Project Office
In a hierarchical sequenced pattern, the project plan can be set-up by collecting the information required. This will include the heads – objectives, output, task, activity, personnel and time that will ultimately lead to the objective of achieving the output.
The project plan is given below:
Technical information system
Install and function the system
Hardware and software purchase
Contacting the respective suppliers to get the ideal price
Install the computer network
Electric testing and wiring
Install parts and accessories
Install software according to the requirements
Plan and develop the training and arrange the training schedule
Timing and sequencing of these outputs:
Software and hardware purchase
Install hardware and wiring
3.2 Apply project scheduling, estimating and cost control techniques
Towards the beginning of the project, the project should be properly scheduled keeping a note on both the monetary prospect with size and time framework. The measure of surplus funds the supportive has available, the information of its labourers, and the effect of neighbourhood machine fittings suppliers will have an impact on wander size and time allocation. One huge explanation behind computerization wander bafflement is the penchant to start on too much extensive a scale. It would be judicious to proceed watchfully in a deliberate way; that way slips will be tinier and the cost of redressing them more sensible. Secondly, Perceive feasible and measurable objectives and targets should be fixed. Separate them into: wander objectives (for example, mechanize accounting records, growing rate of changing generous volumes of data, improving precision, access to an alternate business division, industrialization of things, et cetera) and business destinations (case in point, to extend profits by 20%, decline financial costs by 30%, augmentation parts by 10%). Thirdly, discuss from all stakeholders (parts, staff, everyone) on the targets and benefits of the endeavour. Endeavour to fulfil understanding. Stakeholders must be incorporated in the errand at the soonest fortune. Finally, make a method for watching undertaking execution progress. Describe measurable accomplishment pointers to screen propel. On the off chance that possible, select a financial quality to some. A couple of examples are as follows: fiscal store reserves, new parts, business profits, more clients, etc.
Time plays a major criteria since if the project does not complete at the provide time frame, it will result in a big loss both in terms of monetary prospectus and losing the client. Hence, the effectiveness of the project relies on the board of directors and a sincere project manager, who could readily deal with all the kind of situation. Cost should be studied with the consultation of proper stake holders and endeavours during the beginning of the project. To select and develop any new software, customisation and commercial software should be used.
Develop own software: hire programmers to design a customized solution
- Full control over features: software is manufactured to the specifications required
- It can be maintained, updated and extended as needed
- It can be developed in local languages
- Possibilities of replicating software, since intellectual property belongs to the cooperative
- Writing software is a complex process.
- Takes longer to implement
- One cannot learn from other organizations that implemented the software before
- Might end up being more expensive (programmers notoriously take more time than originally planned)
- Requires hiring computer system professionals on a medium term basis
Customize existing software: hire a software developer to adapt an existing software solution
- Faster than developing entirely new software from scratch
- Limited control over features and generally no control over the interface
- More difficult and might be more expensive to maintain (update)
Buy packaged software: acquire an off-the-shelf software solution from a known vendor
- Generally less expensive to buy and maintain (update), since it is mass produced
- Faster to implement: it is already developed and tested
- If the software was developed for other coops with similar needs, probably has more features than those you initially require
- Easier to support and maintain over a long term
- No possibility to modify the software; it can only be configured as the programme allows
- Limited availability in local language
- Cost of licences might be high as the system grows
3.4 Explain project change control procedures evaluate the completed project
Change control procedure is important for a project as it helps in implementing and evaluating properly the changes that occurs to the environment of a project. The change management procedures are used by an organization with an objective to define and approve the changes that are implemented. The change control procedures are as follows:
- Identification and submission of change request: It is a procedure that helps in enabling an associate of a project team to suggest a request for any change that he would like to get implemented in a project. The associate should:
- Detect the requirement for change at a particular segment of a project.
- Fill up a change request form, requesting the same and should also file the same to the project manager.
- Review of change request: The Change Request Form filed with the manager of the project will be reviewed by the project manager and he will also determine any further data that is required to be included in the CRF that might be requested by the project control board for evaluating the impact of the change.
- Approval of Change requested: The CRF filed by the requester of change to the manager of the project will be dent to the change control board by the manager for the purpose of review. And the CCB will analyze the facts relating to the impact of the change, the risk associated with the implementation of change and the cost of such change. And if it deems the change fit for the organization it will accordingly approve the change as requested for the organization.
As people, technology and the demands changes, the computerized project also changes and improves itself accordingly, so it is also called as project evaluation. This may be due to the competition in the market in regard to the change of any product on which they are dealing. So the company have to expend more on investment and should be trained accordingly to the related staff. This is required for the company to survive in the threat of competition. However some control techniques are there to initiate the updates required for the company. They are:
- Training – Regular and updated training and development is required for the staff for their personal enhancement.
- Software updates – Any bugs in the old version, any service improvement is required which can be done by producing new updates in the software.
- Hardware updates – Hardware needs to be updated as and when the machine slows down due to the use of it up to its expected life period.
All through times of fiscal crisis, for instance, the one we go up against without further ado betwixt the euro-zone crisis, chairmen and leaders are obliged to make viable business techniques to keep up progressive consistent quality, if not administer the affiliation forward. Remembering the finished objective to fight the challenges of the natural conditions, nonappearance of acceptably portrayed project measurement measures, control and execution procedures to assess Leader organization theory, the blanket falls on the endeavour leader to devise ways and means for progressive sustenance. Project Management focuses on specific ten areas: Human Resources, Integration, Cost, Stakeholder Management, Quality, Scope, Communications, Procurement, Time and Risk Management. Those with the desire and craving can rise to a position of leadership and make the contraptions to transform into an influential leader through a progressing strategy of study to oneself, preparation, planning, and experience. The people who wish to build leadership capacities should watch the frameworks and aptitudes of those leaders they reverence, or read the accumulations of journals from those unfathomable leaders they appreciate. Advancement of project management capability is directed by different segments, including the aptitudes and learning of project leaders, the commitment to endless taking in and making wellness, the benefits available to them with the gadgets and systems they can pass on to set up.
APM Corporate (2004) Directing Change: A guide to governance of project management Chris van Overveen “Project Change Control System”
New York: McGraw Hill
James S. Pennypacker “Top 10 Project Management Benchmarking Measures” published by Centre for Business Practices
Ruth Mayhew “The Three Types of Methods Used to Measure Performance” Published by Demand Media
R. Murugesan (2012) Attributes of Leadership for Success in Project in International Journal of Engineering and Management Sciences,Vol.3 (3), pg. 326-335
Timothy R. Barry “Top 10 Leadership Qualities of a Project Manager”
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