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Unit 3 HRM Training and Development Assignment
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 HRM Training and Development
2.1 Different levels in organization and training comparison
In an organization roles and responsibilities of all staff members are different and they required different level of training. An organization is divided into various departments such as marketing department, financing department, production department, logistic, etc. The business management in an organization is basically comprises of top, middle and low level management. Hence training required for different levels of management is different. The human resource department needs to conduct training sessions based on requirement of employees (Noe, 2010).
Top-level management: CEO, board of directors, president and vice president plays a vital role in development and growth of organization. The top-level management is responsible for maintaining the interest of all stakeholders; develop policies and strategies for all departments in an organization and encourage all employees to work for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Therefore workshop and other off job training programs should be organized for top level management executives. In order to increase the performance of organization top-level management executives must provide a report to all stakeholders and also prepare future plans and strategies. Therefore the training required for top-level management executives is different as compared to other management executives (Boxall& Purcell, 2011).
Middle level management: Middle level managers are link between top-level management and low level management staff members. The manager’s need of training is different than the training of other subordinates. For example the manager of finance and accounting department should have deep knowledge about financial condition of organization. The HR department needs to conduct training programs regularly to encourage managers in achieving goal of the organization. In order to develop decision making skills of manager’s proper training is required. The managers of production and marketing department need different level of training. Therefore the training programs for middle level managers should be decided according to the departments in which they work (Noe, 2010).
Low level management: Low level staff members are responsible for all operational work in an organization. Supervisors give orders to employees and instruct them work procedures. Supervisors inform middle level managers about the problems of workers and also provide on job training to workers, maintain discipline among workers solve problems of workers. Therefore the training for low level management staff is very necessary because they handle operational activities of company and they are image builders of organization. Hence the level of training of different for all staff members working in company and HR managers need to conduct training session for particular department (Grohmann&Kauffeld, 2013).
2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of training methods used for workshop
The training methods that will be used for workshop include:
The lecture method – It is the traditional and direct method of instruction where an instructor gives verbal presentation to large audience. The lecture method must motivate and create interest among trainees. This is one of the most efficient training methods because in relatively short time many ideas or strategies can be informed to employees (Lee, 2010).
- For instructing large groups at a particular time lecture would be convenient method
- Time required for preparation is less as compared to other training methods
- Effective method as it provide lots of information quickly
- Cost required for conducting lectures is also low
- As lectures are presented in oral form therefore trainees may forget useful information
- Trainees may pay less attention if material used for lecture is not informative (Noe, 2010)
Computer based training – It is also known as computer assisted instruction or computer assisted learning. In this type of training instructions deliver with a computer instead of human instructor, for example via internet.
- It is cost effective training, initially developing a computer based training centre would be expensive but after setup training would be given to employees at any time
- Trainees may feel more comfortable in doing exercises online
- It give relaxation to human trainers and managers because all activities are programed in computer
- Each employee have their own learning styles and preferences therefore employees who prefer practical training will not give full attention to this method
- Interaction and interpersonal contact is less
- Technical issues create problems (Bedwell& Salas, 2010).
Case study method – Trainees required solving problems which are based on case study or particular situation. This method is used to develop thinking power of employees.
- It improves decision making ability of staff members
- Less costly, employees can develop problem solving and analytical skills
- It is a subjective method rather than objective
- There is no fixed limits because this method depend on situation (Lamba&Choudhary, 2013)
2.3 Training and development plan
To plan training and development programs systematic approach is required so that effective results would be achieved. Systematic approach is comprised of various stages which come one after another. The various stages can be explained as:
- Stage 1: Analysis: The first step is analysis. HR department analysed whether training is required or not. During this stage organizations analyse working of all departments.
- Stage 2: Setting up training need: Organizations design training for those departments that do not perform well. For example, if staff members of production and marketing principles do not perform well then organization conducted training for the staff members to increase their efficiency and encourage them to work efficiently.
- Stage 3: Developing plan: As per the needs of employees the company has organized and designed training and development programs. For example, to improve production department efficiency practical training sessions would be conducted to aware employees about latest technology (Phillips & Phillips, 2016)
- Stage 4: Implementation: This final stage where company implemented training programs for employees. A complete framework is developed regarding dates, timing and place of training.
3.1 Evaluation technique
Organizations have used different methodology to evaluate the training programs initiated for improving performance of employees. In order to measure the effectiveness of training programs feedback form and questionnaire has developed by managers which are sent to the employees (Posavac, 2015). Feedbacks on training programs are important because managers can easily evaluate the outcomes of training programs. The main objective of evaluation of training programs is to find whether performance of employees improved or not and whether they get enough knowledge or not. For example, training programs conducted for production department of any company would be effective when efficiency of employees and productivity will increase. Human resource managers observed whole training program and assess performance of employees for near 3 to 4 weeks. The evaluation can be done through 4 stages:
- Identify the need –At this stage human resource managers recognize the basic need and necessity of training programs. Managers observe performance of employees and then decide whether training is required or not. Managers evaluate whole events and develop strategies for improvement
- Clarify improvement areas–It is very important to notice the changes that took place after conducting training programs for different departments in organization. How employees were benefitted is assessed or how they understood the importance of training program is necessary to be assessed. Therefore clarification and observation of overall training procedures should be evaluated.
- Event effect –Human resource managers also evaluate effectiveness of training programs, they whether events helps in improving skills and learning of employees. A training program is effective only when the knowledge of employees or trainees would be enhanced
- Adjustment –Management can identify the areas where modification would be required by comparing the actual impact with the expected outcome. Therefore organizations can organize training programs for employees through proper evaluation of existing events (Giangreco, et. al., 2010).
3.2 Carrying out evaluation of training program
Process of Documentation of training program – By observation and accumulating opinions of various customer groups, trainers, line managers, performance and output the documentation process of the program was done (Hogan, R. L. (2010). Therefore it is important to document each and every program for the assessment of employees.
- Feedback-When the training programs over feedback will be taken from both trainer and trainee for knowing what they think about program. In order to review the performance of employees’ performance management is developed by human resource team and they also give feedback to staff members for improving their performance. After completion of training programs observation forms and questionnaires have been sent to collect their ideas and opinions about training programs. Trainers also take immediate feedback by asking questions during training programs.
- Productivity variation – In order to check effectiveness of training programs, increased or decreased in productivity level is determined. If the level of productivity is increased then training program was effective. Therefore it is very significant to check productivity variation after each and every training program conducted for skill development of employees. The productivity level can show how effective was the learning for employees in practical (Obisi, 2011).
- Knowledge involvement- Organizing discussions and conducting interviews among management, employees and trainers can be significant for effective judgment of knowledge shared through training programs.
- Documents used for evaluation -Some core factors or variables need to be considered for the assessment of training. Some of the variables are:
- Trainee feedback – Training programs are organized for developing skills and knowledge of employees. Therefore it is also important to a check whether the message of programs were clear to employees
- Efficiency -Productivity change is associated with evaluation method. The training program is primarily focused on efficiency and inspiration in workplace
- Customer service – Organizations are always committed to provide quality services to customers. Therefore it is necessary to check whether customer service is improve or met core value of company (Cekada, 2010).
- Quality improvement – It is necessary to determine whether the quality of products and services be improved or not
- Analysis and evaluation of training program
After the documentation process of training programs, problems are identified from practical experiences and shared with management. In improving performance employees received guidelines from trainers and they developed decision making and analytical skills. Employees can apply knowledge gained through training in practical environment (Posavac, 2015).
3.3 Reviewing the success of evaluation methods
The human resource managers have used various methods for evaluating training programs. The evaluation process was done in four stages and all results obtained from all stages are analysed. In order to develop knowledge and skills of employees, companies conduct training programs. If the training programs would produce effective results then the organizational goals and objectives can be easily achieved. Human resource managers develop methods for evaluation and methods will get success if they provide complete picture of training impact on organization (Eduardo, et. al., 2010). Managers compared new data that has generated through training programs with previous training data and then analysed the success of methods.
4.1 Government role in lifelong learning, training and development
For development and growth of both private and public sector government’s role is very crucial. In order to overcome barriers of employability the government of UK has organized various initiatives for developing skills and also supports lifelong learning for individuals that have fewer opportunities (Fuller &Unwin, 2011). Government need to conduct various training and development programs that help employees to improve their performance. The government can develop human resource development policy for all the employees working in both private and public organizations to improve capability of employee. For industrial development government required to develop effective strategies and policies which helps companies in maximizing their profits. The government of UK conducts vocational training for employees to improve performance. For example, Mark & Spencer is a British multinational retailer performing very well globally, hence government should concern about firm’s performance (M & S, 2015). The contribution of government can be described as:
- Funding -For the development and progress of industries in country government need to give fund for HRD in both private and public sector. For development and training of state employees’ government provide fund to public organizations. In addition, private firms also required financial support from government for development.
- Developing HR policy for all - To improve the capability of organizations government can develop a human resource development policy for all organizations. Government should develop laws, rules and regulations for all companies regarding training and lifelong learning.
- Promoting HRD study –In order to help training and development government can promote HR study for all. For example, government can promote HR study by including syllabus of HRD in National educational system (Boxall& Purcell, 2011).
The purpose of lifelong learning is to:
- Organize world class training for the development of domestic market and the national economy
- Give opportunity to people to develop their skills so that they can improve their knowledge and work efficiently
- Using vocational learning to stimulate learning process (Sahin, et. al., 2010).
4.2 Competency movement and its influence on private and public sectors
Both public and private sectors are influenced by competency movement. Australia, USA (United States of America), UK (United Kingdom) and the Netherlands are the countries in which competency movement has taken hold. Competency movement was tightly linked with efforts of companies to create a setting of empowerment of their workforce in order to increase effectiveness and competitive advantage. Competencies are necessary in job because to achieve desired goals employees should be highly competent and skilled. In developing skills and knowledge of trainees and workers the idea of competency movement is very effective. The competency movement basically focused on skills, knowledge, performance abilities and capabilities of workers (Stanton, et. al., 2010). Government also promote competence based training and assessment for the development of management
To do a job properly or accomplish any given job competency is very significant. Competency movement has impacted both private and public sectors. To gain competitive advantage private organizations are participating more in competency movement to increases their competency. Poor service quality, inefficient production, etc. may result due to incompetency in employee performance and companies may fall in competitive disadvantage. Competency can be explained as ability of an individual to accomplish any given job. In both public and private sector competency standard should be maintained in order to improve performance. British civil service organizations has used competency frameworks for their maintain performance level (Osborne & Brown, 2011).
Deloitte is private firm which provides consulting and auditing services to its client has invested a lot in order to train its employees for better performance. The company has conducted various training programs according to the needs of employees in order to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals and objectives. In the same manner Public companies in UK such as ‘East Coast Trains’ also make continuous effort to improve performance and service quality. Therefore work competency is very important for achieving desired productivity.
4.3 UK government and contemporary training initiatives
The UK government has introduced various initiatives in the field of human resource development. There are various government institutions that look after human resource management such as department of health, department of work and pension and department of trade and industry. All these institutions have provided services to privately owned organizations. UK government has launched various programs for improving human resource in country. The government has recognized that skills and knowledge can only be maximized by conducting proper training sessions and as a result UK government has decided to give contemporary training to its workforce. The government has started National vocational Qualifications (NVQ) in order to trained people in particular industry. In addition, apprenticeships also initiated by government which provide work based training (Heyes, 2012).
Contemporary training initiatives - Small and medium sized enterprises have contribute to national economy so to support further development the UK government has started various training and development programs. Initiatives taken by UK government has helped people to find better jobs and also ensures that government is committed to help private sector. Government has designed training programs according to industry requirements and these programs are not common for all firms. The government has focused on creating standard workforce of specific sector by National Vocational qualifications (Fuller &Unwin, 2011).
Role of contemporary training initiatives in private of organization – Training programs initiated by government of UK has significantly contributed to the development and growth of private and public organization. Mark and Spencer which is a British multinational retailer can utilize training programs for further development and gaining competitive advantage. Mark and Spencer (M&S) has changed its strategies to for further development therefore company would require training facility for employees. This contemporary training initiative can be contributed to M & S training programs and also help employees to adjust in global environment (M & S, 2015). For achieving organizational goals and objectives Mark and Spencer need to support employees and required to develop effective training programs and also utilize contemporary training.
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