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Tourism development is required to earn the competitive benefits for a country in the term of economic strength, global positioning and development in country for employment and services. The report will discuss how stakeholders can benefits from the planning and development of tourism in country. The report will also present the advantages and disadvantages with private/public partnership for tourism development. The report will analyse the feature of different tourism levels in Philippines and also will evaluate the significance of interactive planning in tourism. Different methods will be discussed to illustrate the impact of visitors on destination community. The report will present the conflict of interests resolving methods for future wellbeing along with implication of supply and demand balancing and ethical issues. The report will focus on current issues in tourism development in various context and provide the recommendations for further improvements in tourism development and planning. The work will be evaluated for the effectiveness and efficiency in context of Philippines. ?
Stakeholders for the tourism development in Philippines are employees and investors in tourism, suppliers, supporting authorities, customers and local community of Philippines. The benefits of development of tourism in country goes also to the stakeholders those are directly or indirectly supporting the business. Philippines tourism development can involve the stakeholders in development process so that sustainable benefits can be achieved.
Economic development: the development of tourism at destination will establish the employment for people along with opportunities to sustain and grow with economic developments. The economic development in tourism destinations will affect the local community and employees of tourism industry in term of high opportunities for employment. Philippines is achieving the economic strengths due to revenue generated from the industry with the help of visitors from rest of world (Waligo.et.al.2013).
Resource: development process will provide the resources and assets in country to accomplish the marketing and support of tourism services. Overall development is resulted into the process of enhancement in site planning along with better interpretation with visitors. The destinations are being enrich in availability and quality of resources.
Community: the local community and authorities will achieve high integration with tourism industry as the economic and social culture can be developed in community to enhance the services. The community will achieve benefits of marketing and resources at destination to grow personal goals parallel to development of tourism. Employments and competition through the tourism are two major considerations for the community of Philippines.
Competitive advantages: Philippines country can achieve the competitive advantages from the industry to develop the availability of resources and their utilization in country (Ashton, 2014). Employees as well as business also achieve the benefits from the tourism development as they will get the scope and chances to offer the better services along with effective control on new market.
Responsible culture: local community can get the benefits from the responsibilities of local authorities and industries in travel and tourism business. The responsive culture can help the country to move towards the sustainable development. The aware in community is increasing along with authorities are being more serious to enhance the services in naturally destinations in country to develop the sustainable environment for tourism.
Integration: the incoming of visitors in country can help to rise the economic values of the development destination as the better integration will enhance the revenue model and country can get the benefits form the visitors and outsiders (Getz and Timur, 2012).
Philippines is a beautiful country in heritage and cultural values but needs thee attention to develop the tourism industry. The public and private partnerships can enhance the destination with better collaboration. There are following advantages and disadvantages with public and private partnership to make the considerable planning for Philippines:
There are basically for levels of tourism development planning in county. Each level has effective feature to support the other levels in planning structure:
International level: the level has features like flow of tour programming and tourist from multiple country. It also helps to develop the attraction in country on the basis of the nearby developments in world. The marketing strategies and promotion programs in Philippines use the international standards to return the maximum throughput from planning.
National level: the level has strategies for the short term as well as long term objectives to achieve in tourism development. The accommodation and service control is under the pin of national level of Philippines tourism development structure (Mason, 2015). The implication of legislation, policies, connections and structure is govern with national level in tourism development planning.
Figure 1: levels in tourism development
(Source: levels in tourism development, 2016)
Regional level: the level has capabilities to develop the attraction in destination along with policies and strategies to promote the tourism. The transportation facilities and locations are considered by the regional level of Philippines. Accommodation and education at regional level are job and features at this level. Entire set of the destinations in Philippines are divided among the regionals to make the implication of national level strategies and plans.
Sub-regional levels: the functions and features at regional level are diversify in sub sections to make the implementation of policies and procedures easy and effective. Situational plans for strategic development and services are handled through the information collected from Philippines’s sub-regional levels (Murphy, 2013).
Philippines tourism development planning is being accomplished with the help of public and private partnerships so that the interactive planning systems and processes helps to understand the following things in development process:
However, there is not a single method to measure the impact of tourist on Philippines but two models and methods can be used to analyse the various impacts of tourist as economic models are used to determine the economic impact whereas steam model can be used to monitor economic impacts with trends.
The model is effective to analyse the estimated from the changes in value and volume of the tourist in country. The model is also used to estimate the income generated form the tourism in Philippines along with total employments supported by the industry to empower country. The model can analyse the direct impacts from the visitors those are spending in businesses. The model also consider the indirect and induced impact in which supply chain related and supportive services related earnings are considered. The model needs the information from the levels in development planning to reach the final decision.
The model is enhanced version of economic impact model as it uses the top down approach to analyse the impact on economic values through the tourist (Wang and Chen, 2015). The model of Cambridge economic impact uses the greater amount of low level data from the levels on visitors and value generated from the visitors. The model offers more sophisticated evaluation of economic impacts on Philippines. Within two stages of evaluation of impact, the model first determine the value and volume of the visitors and then analyse the impacts of visitors on local community in country.
Scarborough Tourism Economic Activity Monitor model offer the information about the impact by analysing the trends on day staying visitors. The model uses the four inputs to generate the effective results for almost every area:
With these four inputs of steam model, it is effective to analyse the impact of visitors on economic changes (Ruhanen, 2013). Pro poor tourism is not a method exactly but a strategic tool to map the changes in poverty on the basis of visits in country at destination location. The changes in community life styles and poverty ratio at special destination of Philippines are measured with number of visits in a month at destination.
Concept of sustainability in tourism development is defined as the process to meet the requirements of the tourists along with enhancement in opportunities for future survival along with protection. Philippines is a beautiful country with enrich resources in nature and culture. The tourism inside the country needs to prevent the socio-cultural values along with support to local community in employment and development so that sustainable tourism can be developed.
Tourism industry also has the issues in sustainability as other industries have but the conflicts of the interests must be resolve to ensure the future wellbeing. Philippines tourism can use the following methods to resolve the conflicts:
There may be conflict among the stakeholders in tourism for the objectives, profits and decision making. Conflicts may be in term of resource allocation, planning, decision making, politics and principles of stakeholders. The interpersonal communication and transparency in approaches can reduce the conflicts and lead the development of better accommodations at destinations. The country can generalise the process of communication and management to resolve the conflicts in effective manner (Yang.et.al.2014).
The approaches to conquer the market customer and benefits by ensuring the enclave on tourism. However the proper implication of legislations and policies can eliminate the use of enclave process on tourism. The stakeholders can use the approach to introduce the politics and to make the development at centric to dependency on their services.
Hotels in Philippines can use the host guest relationship to resolve the issues of conflicts as hotels are moving towards the traditional values of presentation in business. The food, services and support in hotels are acquiring the traditional approaches, arts, cultural values and social patterns to conserve and preserve the heritage.
Conflicts of interest among stakeholders may be due to demonstration on the changes and behaviour in industry at their side. The difference to lead the market changes are vary from person to person and it is also difficult to manage the determination the demonstration. The communication establishments and collaborative working can resolve the issues of demonstration effect in tourism (Weaver and Jin, 2016). The changes can be observe and then adopted to lead the market of tourism in effective manner.
The conflict of interest may be due to difference in culture of the stakeholders. The Philippines country is seamless presentation of a single culture but the stakeholders except the community may has differences in culture. Therefore the process of cultural neutralisation is required to meet the competitive advantages and to lead the future wellbeing changes.
Supply and demands must need to be balance to conquer the tourism sector. Supply means to reach the customers with desired products and services in effective time. The supply law of tourism in Philippines shows that the rise of prices at destinations and tourism services also raise the amount of services from the seller. In this manner, supply in tourism is defined as the process to market assets, services and products to be enjoyed or purchased by the visitors and also used in journeys of the tourists. The supply of the services and products in tourism of Philippines is based on the balanced use of supply and demand laws.
Figure 2: supply and demand balancing
The supply includes the services in infrastructure like the telecommunication, transportation and accommodation to visitors. The services are provided in superstructure as the services constructed to support the visit to destinations in Philippines. The supply services also may be balanced with the construction of theme parks, ski-slopes and museums in country. The country also uses the marketing and promotion of the destination through the images and quotes in public places to encourage the visitors to make the visits (Witt.et.al.2013). At other side, the term demand refers to the number of products and services are expected in market to be consumed. The proper balancing of supply and demand in tourism of Philippines can make the benefits to country.
There are basically four laws to implicate the supply and demand as if demand goes up and supply remain unchanged then the prices of the service rises due to shortage. It is also possible that demand may remain unchanged and the supply may rise. In such cases the imbalance can be seen in the form of surplus in which prices of the services will go down due to excess in market. The unchanged supply with the decreased demand also appears the problems in the form of surplus issues in which prices starts to go down. However, the decreased in supply with constant value of demand then the prices starts to grow up. Thus, the balance in supply and demand should be implicated appropriately to ensure the sustainable growth (Ghimire, 2013).
Enclave tourism means to serve the customer in all the inclusive services so that the local business does not get the opportunities to serve the customers. In this manner, the enclave prevents the growth of tourism in country and encourages the customers to use the services from the hotel for their every need during the stay. The enclave of tourism support the less contribution in economic values as per dollar less portion goes toe economy (Nunkoo and Ramkissoon, 2013). For instance, the tourist in ships and five star hotel of Philippines are enclave to meet their each need so that local hotels and restaurants do not get the chances to elaborate the cultural and social values with visitors. In this manner, the moral and ethical issues appears between the beneficiary big organizations and local community for the economic growth and survivability.
The moral issues also appears in the form of less integration with tourism in country as visitors also get not effective opportunity to feel the native environment. The business ethics become the reason of conflicts to serve the customers (Prayag, 2015). However in enclave tourism, there is high level of leakages of services as the hotel and restaurants imports the services and foods from the different cultures of various countries. There is only a limited portion of employment benefits for the native community from the visitors as they rarely leave the complex and make the purchase with local restaurants and food café. In big hotels and restaurant, there is little interaction as host and guest as they rarely meet with each other due to complexity in business operations. In this manner, the local community of Philippines also oppose the build of all in inclusive service providers in country for the destinations.
There are several factors which affect the development of tourism in developing countries and emerging tourist destinations. Comparison will be done between Nepal, a tourist destination which is developing and Hungary as emerging tourist destination. There are similarities and differences in the problems faced in tourism development in the two locations. Both the countries are under the influence of economic crisis. Due to slowdown in global economy, people are less interested to go to these places as these are not well known and famous palaces on global tourism map.
Environmental factors contribute immensely to tourism. Nepal is also known as Himalayan Kingdom and lies in the lap of Himalaya. The region is affected by earthquakes and landslides. Global warming is affecting Nepal immensely as snow is melting and leading to environmental stability in Nepal (Sinclair-Maragh and Gursoy, 2015). In comparison Hungary is rich in biodiversity as it has lakes, forests and mountains. There are no major environmental issue in the country.
The tourism infrastructure in Nepal is comparatively poor and tourists in Nepal face several types of problems like transportation, lodging facilities, language issues etc. In comparison, the infrastructure in Hungary is better; however the language problem persist in Hungary as people are not proficient in English and tourists find it difficult to communicate. In terms of policy implementation, Nepal does not have clear defined tourism policies which as a result have led to ambiguous situations at times. In Hungary there are no such issues and there are clearly defined policies for the tourism industry and government regulates the policies. As a result of these policies, investment has come in the local tourism sector and visibility has increased. Another notable issue in Nepal is that of skilled and quality labor. Due to the poor government policies, there has been little scope for developing the skills of the manpower in Nepal (Ekanayake and Long, 2012). In Hungary there is issue of retention of skilled manpower as the salary is low. Notable point about the tourism industry of both countries is that it contributes significantly to the GDP of both Nepal and Hungary.
Though currently there are issues in the tourism industry, however the situation is expected to better as the spending power of people is increasing across the world. With social media expanding, two countries are getting enough focus leading to the popularity of both the places. The two countries should focus on developing and identifying new places for adventure tourism and should organise extensive marketing campaign to showcase these places. Adventure tourism, nature tourism is the current trends in tourism and aligning the tourism policies in this direction would help in getting more business.
Another area for improvement especially for Nepal is the development of infrastructure. Government should take measures to develop local transportation facilities so that tourists can move conveniently in Nepal (Telfer and Sharpley, 2015). Also there is need to develop world class hotels and restaurants in Nepal so that tourists can enjoy their stay. Hungary has good infrastructure and needs to focus upon the human resources available in the country. Skill improvement program will benefit the industry. Both Nepal and Hungary needs to work on the language barrier so that the tourists can converse freely.
In the current global environment, terrorism is a threat to all countries. It is important for both the countries to make sure that the security measures are sufficient to ensure the security of the tourists. Government needs to make sure that there are policies implemented which are sufficient to regulate the tourism industry in the country (Edgell Sr, 2016). This will help in promoting tourism industry in the country.
The report has been discussed the benefits of stakeholders from the planning of tourism development. The report also has been identified the advantages and disadvantages of partnership in tourism development between public and private sectors. The report has been analysed the feature of tourism development at various levels along with evaluation of significance of interactive planning and system. Various methods have been discussed to measure the tourist impact along with evaluation of methods to resolve the conflicts on interests in tourism development. The implication of balancing of supply and demand has been discussed with the focus on issues in enclave tourism. The report has been compared the current issues in developing and emergence destinations. Recommendations and evaluation has been concluded for future development in tourism sector.
Books and Journals
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