This is solution of Sustainable Tourism Development Assignment, describes about emerging destination Dubai and its various perspective.
P1.1- Compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different.
The emerging destination chosen for this study is Dubai, which has high impact in terms of economic, social-cultural as well as environmental. The economic impacts are raising foreign exchange income and earnings for the country, with a rise in the employment level. However, there are potential issues related to the socio-cultural effects of tourism, namely:
- a) There is a harmful effect on the family arrangements and survival food production in Dubai.
- b) Disarticulation of Citizens of Dubai to formulate means for airstrips, hotels, accommodations, resorts, environment reserves, historical and other site seeing, and other tourism expansion ventures (newspaper article, 2004).
- c) Back-up of actions such as entreating, flaunting, and other stalking of tourists in Dubai.
- d) Support and progression of urbanization and mass departure.
- e) Resistance and bitterness among local citizens and tourists as a consequence of over-swarming and deficiency of entrée for inhabitants to entertaining regions and services.
- f) Boost in health risks by means of ailments like malaria, AIDS, influenza and hepatitis.
- g) Raise in drug exploitation and prostitution.
- h) Explicit rivalry and offenses in opposition to tourists.
- i) Commercialization of conventional greeting and hospitality traditions.
- j) Loss of civilizing individuality.
- k) Over-massing and harm to archeological and chronological locations and tombstones.
The environmental effects on the country (Dubai in this case) are also there due to tourism. It brings about a change in the use of land and raises the level of congestion and air pollution, raising the level of environmental issues. The tourism also brings in a lot of disorders and worsening of usual ecosystem, as well as of the historical archeological, natural and architectural places. When there are excessive tourists at a site, there is high impact on the pedestrians by raise in the foot traffic (Robert and Alastair, 2006). There is excessive pollution at beaches, rivers, lakes and underground water causing Visual untidiness with inadequate function services aptitudes.
The tourism-linked uses of amenities have 3 phases of impact:
- Before the departure, travelers buy travel linked clothes and utilities.
- While travelling to a distant place, the Dubai people (or any travelers) make noteworthy environmental harms and pollution to the environment.
- On reaching the travel destination, the travelers usually carry on their usual practices of utilization.
In the case of long distance tours, there is high emission and dumping of marine and aero drum wastes, thus leading to degradation of water and quality of soil into an ongoing series. The inhabitants get less water, land and other natural resources, with less houses due to land converted into hotels and lodges.
P1.2- Evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these destinations
The recommendations for the development of tourism w.r.t the above impacts are as below:
- The country can maximize the economic impact by heartening the substitution for the imports, and implementation of the incentive schemes. Dealing with the international business firms can also maximize the earnings for the host country (Dubai).
- The country-Dubai has to encourage eco-tourism and green tourism.
- Technological solutions to the tourism related pollution has to be derived and implemented.
- The travel and tourism sector in Dubai has all the prospects to establish the intentional proposals and self-directive to deal with the needs of the green tourism.
- Every business firm should have a prescribed EMS (environmental management system).
- There should be waste reduction programs initiated by the country’s government. The Dubai’s government has to lay some rules regarding the same, so that there is minimal or even no harm to the environment of the country.
- Waste management systems have to be introduced with proper infrastructure in place.
- The tourism business has to be maintained by the National governments.
P2.1- Evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination
Generally, the stakeholders like local landlords, industries, inhabitant societies and of course, visitors themselves, will have conflicting interests. So as to deal with the conflicts of interests and ensure the future well being of Casa de Campo, the local government and authorities function in accessible programs and arrangements is a main element of the place creation procedure. Though, it is practical for the Tourist Destinations executive to encompass an efficient model that helps in classifying the concerns that have to be tackled and the breaches in condition that necessitate to be loaded. The VICE Model has turned out to be launched as the mainly successful model by which to evaluate and deal with a sustainable tourist destinations. The VICE model recognizes sustainable destination administration as the reasonable interface among Visitors, the Industry that supplies them, the Community that hordes them and their combined effect on, and reaction to the Environment.
Another technique is team replacement method which can exploit opportunities for personal participation in the tourism sector. It is significant to understand that the finest decisions are attained when the entire the team constituents are occupied in building the decisions. The different stakeholders to tourism sector of Casa de Campo can change roles or assume the responsibilities towards green-tourism so as to have a sustainable environment in place.
P2.2- Analyze the implications of balancing supply and demand
The difficulty visage by the workers of traveler amenities is primary that of demand indecision sourced by arbitrary aspects worsened by inadequate data (A Guide for Policy Makers, 2005). Consequently the suppliers of facility are apprehended captive by big mediators with superior right to use the details and superior prospective to develop it. In Casa de Campo, the huge worldwide hotel chains conquer this trouble by balancing the demand and supply. This is achieved by the high merit of their balance and aptitude to pact openly with customers and examines their own statistics. This balancing in the Market formation generates influential inducements to under-cost the manufactured goods. Frontward sales of capability by promises are completed at contract prices submitting a great deal of the prospective earnings from customer surplus. Self-governing local hotel workers, yet of reasonable amount, are required by the nonexistence of direct marketing channels and the risk related with a need of certain retails to surrender revenues to mediators. Over-capacity in off-peak periods strengthens the market influence of huge mediators benefitting from oligopsony advantages.
The demand and supply balancing creates a supplementary fluid marketplace for agreements in potential sales that would authorize workers to circumvent demand ambiguity and keep hold of extra income (Manning and Dougherty, 1995)
P 2.3- Evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism of the Hotel resort Casa do Campo
The beauties of the Hotel resort Casa do Campo are exploited by the pollutants spread by the tourists on the beaches, throwing debris and wastes in the environment. The remains of the sea food are not disposed off well by the tourists and the seamen. This causes the tourism place to be impacted ecologically (Garrod, and Fyall, 1998).
P3.1- Discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to a current case study
Even though it is generally hard and prolonged to engage a variety of stake- holders in the planning procedure this participation possibly will have important repayment for sustainability. Especially, contribution by multiple stakeholders with conflicting interests and viewpoints may promote more thoughtfulness of the wide-ranging communal, cultural, ecological, financial and political concerns influencing sustainable development. Timothy (1998) disagrees that involvement in tourism planning by numerous stakeholders is capable of assisting in promotion of sustainable development by growing competence, impartiality and agreement. for instance, In the Olympic games, extensive stakeholder contribution had the prospective to amplify the self-dependence of the stakeholders and their responsiveness of the concerns, aid more reasonable transactions among stakeholders by means of contending interests, and encourage decisions that benefit from a better extent of ‘consensus’ and mutual owner- ship (Warner, 1997). Estimations can be prepared of the stakeholders who are impacted by a sightseeing project and who may contribute in joint tourism planning preparations. The role of these stakeholders is of noteworthy significance for technological, political and, ultimately, functional basis. Being predictable, or on the contrary, not being recognized, as a pertinent stakeholder is a vital initial stride that influences the entire procedure of concerning participants in joint planning in addition to the expected effects of this planning (McIntyre, 1993).
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P3.2- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
The advantages of public/private sector tourism planning are that the UK gained competitive benefits. The fundamental basis public/private sector tourism planning in Olympics is to advantage all stakeholders caught up, by the arrangement of their wealth and objectives. The benefits are:
- a) Cost reduction- The big projects construction like in case of Olympics can be benefitted in terms of cost and also in functional and maintenance services.
- b) Risk sharing- With the public/private sector tourism planning, the risk is shared and reduced. This risk is categorized as excessive cost, failure to meet the expected level of services, issues in complying with the ecological rules etc.
- c) Improvement in the level of services- public/private sector tourism planning provides with Innovation in delivering the services.
- d) Implementation in an efficient way- The Olympics might need to attain efficiency by combining the planning of tourism in terms of service creation, construction, acquisitions, hiring etc.
- e) Economic benefits- public/private sector tourism planning help and promote the higher employment level leading to the economic development in UK.
These can be categorized into 4 main categories-
- economic – maintaining fresh jobs and talents, cheering business, inner speculation and tourism
- sporting – ongoing influential accomplishment, growth of further sports amenities and hopeful involvement in schools games and broader
- social and helping – stimulating others to help and encourage community transform
- Regeneration – reprocess of sites, new residences, and better transportation, in East London and at different locations all over the UK.
However, there are various drawbacks of public/private sector tourism planning like:
- a) Loss of the government control over the prices, decision making and services being delivered in terms of Olympics.
- b) This requires a high cost in planning and execution in terms of high tax policies and entire costs.
- c) Labor issues and the political risks- The UK government’s collective agreements and the labor laws executed for public/private sector tourism planning may lead to unfavorable reactions of the government servants and unions.
- d) Insecure services- The public/private sector tourism planning might face issues regarding labor, finances and other areas where the Olympics administration might not be able to meet its commitments bringing a bad name to the country.
P4.1- Analyze features of tourism development planning at different levels
Tourism planning is executed at diverse stages from the universal level that might relate to UK or any constituency downward to the local level that might be applicable to comprehensive planning for particular remedy. The tourism planning and development have to be incorporated between each and every level to consider different levels and to circumvent replication of attempts and procedures. Each level engages diverse features as below:
- International level – It engages additional than single nation and comprises regions like worldwide transportation services, mutual tourism promotion, local tourism strategies and principles, collaboration among segments of associate nations, and other supportive businesses (Ding and Pingram, 1995).
- National level – It is regarding countrywide sightseeing guidelines, composition development, and transportation systems inside the nation, major sightseeing magnetisms, nationwide level service and service principles, speculation guiding principle, tourism instruction and guidance, and promotion of sightseeing.
- Regional level – sightseeing development planning is done by regions, states, or areas linking regional strategy and communications preparation, local access and transportation arrangement, and other connected purposes at the local level.
- Local or district level- It engages sub-regions, municipalities, townships, communities, resorts, rural areas and a few sightseer attractions. This level of planning might stress on sightseeing region preparations, land exercise preparation for resorts, and arrangement for other sightseeing services and attractions.
- Site planning level - Site planning submits to planning for detailed locality of buildings and constructions, leisure services, protection and countryside regions and other amenities performed for particular expansion places like sightseeing resorts and might moreover entail the plan of constructions, configurations, back dropping and persuading design founded on the location arrangement.
P4.2- Evaluate the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments
Interactive planning stresses on top-down, accompanied by bottom-up contribution, for the enhanced execution of plans. It means that the tourism planning ought to be “bazaar leaning, offering the correct creation for the customer - the traveler. It is a totally market-lead way that offers whether appealing sites, amenities, and services the traveler market may command could effect in ecological deprivation plus loss of socio-cultural reliability of the sightseer region, even if it conveys short-range financial profit. Sightseeing is extremely interactive among citizens as of varied civilizations (David et al.1995). It has appeared as a vigorous cause of alteration in a lot of of the societies in which it has been persuaded.
P4.3- Evaluate different methods available to measure tourist Impact
In the UK, from the time of the early 1990s, there have been 2 major model ways at confined influence level, each building guesstimates to fulfill the dimension of region sightseeing jigsaw dilemmas. Both forms integrate supply area and demand area gauges however they establish at contradictory conclusions and eventually have to be reviewed by the system from which they establish the assessment procedure. One assumes a ‘top down’ and the further a ‘bottom up’ system to the judgment of tourism dimensions and these are fundamentally unusual ways. Top down produces its approximates through segregating the information as of the yearly UKTS and other countrywide reviews of customer demand keen on first local and then confined influence estimations of every significant capacity information. Bottom up produces its major capacity approximations as of sample inspections of tourist streams calculated on a weekly and on the month by month foundation at regional dealings (moreover recognized as ‘deal surveys’). As the major approximations of quantity are completed, both ways pursue generally related processes for estimation of proceeds and scheming service. The best-recognized bottom up form is recognized and promoted as STEAM. STEAM is a profitable procedure possessed and promoted by Global Tourism Solutions (UK) Ltd.
P 5.1- Justify the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
Over the precedent 10 years, the impacts of sightseeing boast of rising awareness in dialogues and investigations on connected progress. The rising demand for sustainability was moreover an effect of augmented information and fear regarding sightseeing impacts and ecological matters overall. Loads of these matters imitate fears in terms of the impacts of financial and populace expansion and debates on the boundaries to expansion. Additionally, a north/south partition became apparent in the ecological dispute at the instance and was moreover echoed in sightseeing conversations. Even though these worries on the subject of the restrictions to development were actually comprehensive in range, they were largely conducted to destination stage psychotherapy of the impacts and queries of ways to describe the restrictions of development and avoid disadvantageous conclusions of improvement in destinations. In spite of stating ‘‘the restrictions to growth’’ in travel sector, the concerns were more apprehensive with subjects and procedures warning or disturbing expansion and the business’s prospect. The communication was the similar, on the other hand: a harmful result (fall down) was not foreseeable if expansion performers might alter their strategies.
At destinations, the expansion and impacts of group sightseeing specially were seen as challenging for the surroundings, and furthermore for the business’s expectations. The harmful effects became obvious in UK tourism sector quite premature in the group destinations on the coastal regions, for illustration (Teo and Lim, 2003). throughout the 80s at the most up-to-date, these alterations too appeared intimidating for the travel sector’s feasibility and representation. Besides the philosophy of sustainable expansion and augmented impacts, the renovation in forms of fabrication and utilization in Western culture in the way of post-Florist construction held unusual tendencies and effected in numerous new structures and phrases like ecotourism. This shaped markets for further single, hybrid, ‘‘environmentally mindfulness’’ creations. In the business and its promotion the disputes for fresh, unusual structures were robustly borne by the expression of sustainability.
P5.2- Analyze factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
There are a lot of diverse kinds of explorers as are the destinations. As each of the voyagers has a different kind of expectation, still some factors can prevent him from visiting a specific region. Even f he is quiet adventurous (Butler, 1993). The major factors are safety and costs. These two are the primary factors. The other factors that stop any voyager from a travel are: a) Recession- Cost is the major factor. Due to the recession there has been a dip in the global voyages. The domestic travel also becomes limited with the changes in the prices of the gasoline. The casual trippers prefer to be at houses rather than going to Madame Tussad’s just because of the high costs of travelling, fares going up and hike in the prices of tickets. b) Weather also is a major factor in choosing a destination and also deciding whether to or not to travel. The travelers in UK seek warm and mild temperature as mostly it is quiet chilly in UK. The sun is most sought by the people of UK, so people chose to travel when the temperature suits the body, or else they stay at homes.
- c) Services/facilities- The expectations of travelers are high. Still they look for the adventure. Some people prefer to go by luxury transportation modes, and the unavailability of such facilities also hinders the desire to travel.
- d) Safety is a concern in the countries. If there is any kind of communicable disease, threat or terrorism prevailing in a country, people would not want to travel to such a destination. They do not choose a place where the communal transportation is hard to identify with, untrustworthy or risky etc.3- Analyze different stages in planning for sustainability
The sustainability’s complicatedness causes diverse methods and applications to have a diverse effect on the stages of the planning process/ it is vital to know every stage is different and its effects are also different. These stages of planning process for sustainable tourism are: • Process to Conceptualize and visualize • Involvementory processes • introduction arrangement and optional improvement • examination of substitutes • Plan/strategy accomplishment • supervising and assessmentBy recognizing a deposit of queries and all-purpose deliberation from the beginning, the arrangement procedure can start to incorporate sustainability philosophy and achievement all the way through its whole.
- Butler, R. W. (1993). Pre- and Post-Impact Assessment of Tourism Development. Tourism research: Critiques and challenges. New York: Routledge. 135-155.
- David L . Edgell, Srand R. Todd Haenisch. (1995). Coopetition: Global Tourism Beyond the Millennium, 2.
- Ding, P., and J. Pigram. (1995). Environmental audits: An emerging concept in sustainable tourism development. Journal of Tourism Studies, 6 (2):2-10.
- Garrod, B., and A. Fyall. (1998) Beyond the Rhetoric of Sustainable Tourism? Tourism Management 19(3):199–212.