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Unit 22 Impact on Human Research management Assignment
The main aim of the Unit 22 Impact on Human Research management Assignment is to get familiar with the practical issues which are faced by the employees and employers in different industries and organizations. Human resource management includes many practices like recruitment, selection, training, motivation, termination and many more which are not easy to handle. Different approaches of recruitment and selection will be discussed with the help of case studies and the motivation theories will also be discussed. The mechanism of termination or exit of the employs will also be discussed in the last task. These tasks will help to gain the information knowledge about the different activities which help an organisation to contribute to the success of the environment (Human Resource Management, 2015).
1.1 Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management giving examples in two suitable organisations.
Human resource management can be understood as a function in an organisation which focuses on the activities related to the human capital of an organisation. Its activities initiates from the planning and recruitment of an employee to the training, motivation, direction, appraisal and cessation of the human resource. The managers are appointed in every organisation to handle these activities properly. There is another term called Personnel management which is slightly same as Human resource management but not the same. The task includes the differentiation between these two terms in detail to know the meaning, objective and other functions of both the areas (Ariss, 2012)
HRM and Personnel Management:
To explain the differences, a company has been taken which has been ranked as the best employer in UK in year 2016. Expedia is a travel company which runs its business online and it is headquartered at Washington, USA but also has its offices in various countries. Expedia adopts friendly culture at its workplaces and provides support to the management team (Anderson, 2015). The points of differences between the human Resource Management and Personnel management are given below in the table.
Points of Difference
Human Resource Management
HRM is the broader activity which focuses mostly on the management of the human resource to contribute towards the attainment of the objectives of the organisation. Expedia appoints the best managers for managing its human resources effectively so that their objectives can be met properly.
Personnel management is focussed to manage the human resource so that they can work with the satisfaction. Expedia adopts many methods which satisfies its work employees and that it why it has been ranked as number 1 employer in UK in the year 2016 (Rodionova, 2015)
HRM is a modern approach which manages people and utilizes their strength for achieving organisation’s objectives. Expedia manages and supports its employees to achieve ultimate aims and goals of the company.
PM is a traditional approach is only focuses on the satisfaction of employees.
It is a management function.
It is an administrative function
Here, payment to the employees is made on the basis of their performance. (Alturkistani, 2015). Expedia make the evaluation of performance of the employees and then decide the payment for them.
Here, the [payment to the employees are made on the basis of Job evaluation.
The main motive of HRM is to manage the human capital of the company to achieve and complete its objectives. Expedia plans, directs, motivates, train and manage the employees of the company so that its objective can be achieved.
Here, the main motive is to satisfy the employees of the company which is successfully done by Expedia by providing them proper support and friendly culture within the organisation (Ariss, 2012)
1.2 Assess how human resource management functions help your chosen organisation in achieving its purpose.
The main motive of Human Resource Management as discussed above is to manage the human capital of the organisation so that the company can accomplish its own goals and objectives. Expedia also uses several functions for achieving its objective by managing the human resources of the firm.
These functions are explained and discussed below in points:
- Planning of Human capital: An organisation requires adequate amount of human resources which can fulfil the needs of the firm. Planning helps an organisation to assess that what are the needs of the organisation and how many human resources are required and for what purpose. It also assesses that what should be the methods for acquiring these human resources. So it is the initial function of any human resource management department (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015).
- Recruitment and Selection: Every organisation needs to acquire resources to fulfil its functions properly. For this, they need to plan recruitment in which they attract maximum no of talents which are suitable for the job and then by following certain methods like interviews, personality tests, group discussions, etc., the best candidates suitable for the job are selected.
- Training: Training is the method by which employer can enhance the skills and talents of the employee. The knowledge of an employee is developed to enhance the capability of the employee which will help the employer ultimately in achieving its objectives. Expedia provides best training possible to its employees to develop them personally and professionally (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015).
- Motivation: Motivation is given to the employees so that they get encouraged to work more effectively and efficiently. Motivation is essential and Expedia motivates its employees by providing strong and supporting culture to them and by providing sufficient pay to them.
- Relationship management: Relationship management includes management of relations with the trade unions so that no disputes can arise with them. This also includes maintaining relationships with the investors and the stakeholders of Expedia.
The functions discussed above are performed by Expedia UK in order to accomplish its goals in the most appropriate way (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015).
1.3 Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in your organisation or familiar organisation and how it supports human resource management functions.
Line managers are those who are responsible for taking the report of the subordinates and he himself have to report the higher management about the employees of the department or team.
The line managers in Expedia have following roles and responsibilities to fulfil:
- Management of people: The line manager has the main responsibility to manage the people working in the team of Expedia. The line manager maintains discipline among the employees so that an environment of work can be maintained and people can work by fulfilling and following all the laws and rules of the organisation (Dessler, 2015).
- Maintaining the operational costs: The line manager is responsible to manage the operational costs of the work done by the team members. Line manager of Expedia takes care that the operations performed by the employees do not exceed any cost limits for the project.
- Providing technical expertise: The line manager is experienced and he provides his technical expertise to the team. He often supports the members in fulfilling their own duties and supports them whenever they face any difficulties.
- Work allocation to employees in the team: Line manager has the main responsibility of allocating the work to the different members of the team. He takes care that which employee is best in which type of work and then allocate their duties and work. This is the very important task which can improve the effectiveness of the work and also decrease the productivity, if not done properly (Dessler, 2015).
- Checking the quality of work: the line manager is also responsible for checking the quality of the work done by the team members. He has the main role to guide and direct the team members and to check what quality of work is performed by them. The line manager of Expedia also evaluate the performance of the employees so that he can give feedback on their performance and can improve their quality of work by providing suggestions to them (Dessler, 2015).
Line Manger supports the employees
1.4 Analyse how legal and regulatory framework impact on human resource management.
There are many legal laws framed to protect the rights of the human resources in the organizations.
The legal and regulatory framework which impacts the human resource management of Expedia is explained below:
- Employee Relations Act 1999 and 2003: This act provides many rights to the employees like right to the National Minimum Wage, protection from the unfair treatment at workplace, right to get pay statement and more (Foot, et. al.,2016)
- The Equal pay Act 1970: This act explains that there should be equal treatment given to men and women at work and equal pay should also be received by both who are doing same type of work and is at some designation.
- The Disability Discrimination Act 1995: This act is applicable to those organizations in which 20 or more people are working and the organisation is required to give special facilities to the people who are disabled like transport, higher education or other facilities.
- The working Time Directive Act 1999: This act explains that Expedia has to guarantee all the employees that they only have to work for 48 hours in a week which is the maximum limit and workers can only work overtime if they voluntarily wish to do so (Foot, et. al.,2016).
- Health and Safety Act: The organization is responsible to provide healthy working conditions and safety during the course of employment to the employee. The employees are also responsible to function properly and not to create any dangerous situations at the workplace which can harm anyone at the workplace.
This task is based on a case study in which a given organisation is going through a high staff turnover and the reason is that the people for the organisation are not selected wisely. There are vacant positions which are to be filled with the suitable candidate who are committed to perform. The candidates are selected through the telephone interview and then by a face to face interview according to the current selection process but a new HR policy has to be recommended to the given organisation so that the candidates can be selected properly who fulfils the needs of the organisation. The organisation which is recommended for the recruitment and selection process is Expedia UK (Anderson, 2015)
2.1 Analyse the reasons for human resource planning
Human Resource planning is a very important function for getting the success in the Human Resource Management of the organisation. This process is used to assess the current and future needs of the organisation in terms of human resource and it also helps in doing the marketing strategic planning for the organisation. Expedia also plans for the human resources for its better performance.
The reasons for the Human Resource planning taken by Expedia are:
- To assess the need of human resources: It is important to do planning for human resources so that the current and future needs of the same can be assessed. It helps in planning that how many employees are required for a particular task and how many employees are actually employed which are not utilized properly by the company which in turn are increasing the costs of the company (Sundar, 2013)
- To utilize the resources properly: Expedia wants to utilize its resources properly and for this there should be optimum amount of employees for performing tasks of the company. Extra employees and fewer employees in the company can affect the cost benefit ration of the company. The resources available with the company should be utilized properly in order to get desired results.
- To hire efficient employees: Expedia needs talented and efficient employees for performing their functions properly so that an organisation can grow and succeed. Expedia needs staff for better customer service, back office operations, taking bookings from customers and more which should be performed efficiently for better position of the company in the market.
- To control costs: Human Resource Planning will result in controlling costs of the organisation because it analyse that what is the optimum level of employees which are required in the organisation and extra costs are minimised by this (Sundar, 2013).
Therefore human Resource Planning is essential for Expedia and for every organisation.
2.2 Outlining the stages involved in planning human resource requirements
Human Resource Planning is a process which is completed in steps. The following steps are followed by Expedia to do Human Resource Planning for better management of staff and work: Review
- Organizational Review: At first, there is a need to review the needs and demands of the organisation for human resources to fulfill the tasks of the organisation. The goals and objectives of the organisation should be identified and then the required workforce is determined. The quantity and quality required of the workforce should also be determined (Sivasankaran, 2016).
- Forecasting Human Resource Demand: The demand of the human Resource in the organisation should be determined which are required for completing the tasks and functions of the company and the type of human resources required should also be considered while forecasting demand.
- Forecasting Human Resource Supply: Once the demand of the organisation is known, the HR managers will forecast that what is the availability of the human capital in the company and how they can be utilized. It is also analyzed that how many human resources are to be acquired from the market to fulfill the demands of the company.
- Comparison between demand and Supply: Once the demand and supply for the human resources are analyzed, both are compared to know the required human resources. The comparison will let know the excess or shortage of human resources in the company.
The supply of HR is matched with the demand. There can be two results:
- Supply is equal to demand- When supply of human resources matches demand then no action is required to be taken
- Supply is not equal to demand- When supply of human resources does not match demand then actions need to be taken and there can be two situations again in which either there will be shortage or surplus of Human Resource. In case of shortage, Expedia will hire new employees or will request the employees to work for more than office hours and will pay for overtime to them and if there will be surplus then, Expedia will have to take actions to terminate the excess employees (Lunenburg, 2012)
- Monitor and control: Once all the comparison has been done, the Hr managers review the actions taken and look for any limitations or problems in the actions taken. Any gap, if found is filled up at this step to bring effective results from the whole process of Human Resource Planning.
Human Resource Planning Process
2.3 Compare the current recruitment and selection process in the organisation with another organisation you recommending.
This task covers the comparison between the given organisation in the case study and Expedia which is among the best employers of UK. In the given organisation, the recruitment and selection process has been given in which the candidates are called first so that maximum candidates can appear for the interviews.
At first, the candidates are allowed for the telephonic interviews in the given organisation and then those who get selected are allowed to appear for the face to face interviews. The questions which are asked in the face to face interview are about the life goals of the candidates, main motivation to apply for this role, what they want to be in life and about the past experiences in jobs. The candidates who pass the face to face interview are asked to pass a psychometric test with an aptitude assessment. This process is ineffective for the organisation and not able to select a proper and effective human resource team which is loyal to the company and give their best efforts for best productivity. The resources are called through advertisements in newspapers and online advertisements (Massey.ac.in, 2015)
On the other hand, Expedia is proved to be no. 1 for the best employer in UK as voted by the employees (Rodionova, 2015). Expedia follows a very fair recruitment system without any inequality or discrimination. Expedia mainly recruits from campuses which provides them with fresh talents and new blood which is excited to perform their best. Expedia normally takes an online test and then those who pass the test are allowed for the interview rounds. Three interview rounds are conducted where there is no elimination in between. All the candidates are given equal chance to prove themselves. The best candidate from the interview is selected for the company. By following this way, a candidate is tested on all grounds and it helps in improving the future performance of the company (Dessler, 2015).
2.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of the organisation recruitment and selection techniques with another organisation you recommending.
Both the organizations are selecting the candidates for fulfilling the requirement but the process followed at Expedia is more suitable and effective because it follows a very fair process where every candidate is given equal chance and they can prove them in every round of interview whereas in the given organisation, the candidates are eliminated at each round of interview which can also eliminate a candidate who is actually good but is not able to perform in a dingle round due to pressure or any other factor (Dessler, 2015).
Also, Expedia is focusing on the selection through campuses which brings in fresh talents which can be effective for the future plans of the company as young talents are more comfortable with technology and Expedia is an online business which needs people who are comfortable with technological processes whereas the given organisation is calling candidates through advertisements (newspaper & online) which brings lot of people but most of them are not even eligible for the position. (Anderson, 2015)
This task is regarding the motivational theories which help in rewarding the employees for their better performances. The task is done on the basis of given case study which is about Virgin Media which is a part of Liberty Global Plc and is a service provider of bale wires, mobile phone and home services. The questions below are solved keeping in mind the case study given.
3.1 Assess the link between motivational theory and reward at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation. Your answer must show if you think there is a link, what connects the two.
Motivational theories can be defined as a concept which shows that how the employees in the organisation are motivated. These theories help in increasing the efficiency of the employees by motivating them and could increase the sales of the company which is both beneficial for employees and for the company. Rewards are something which is given to someone to recognize the good work done by him/her.
Motivation is when the employee morale is boosted so that he is encouraged to work more and more effectively. The case study is about Virgin media where a link between motivational theory and reward has to be assessed. There is a link, if an employee is motivated, he will be rewarded because the work done by him/ her will be of high quality and vice versa when the employee is de motivated (Pinder, 2008).
There are different motivational theories which are founded by different people to show how the employees can be motivated to work more effectively for the company. Two motivational theories are discussed below to show the link between the theories and rewards.
Theory of Maslow Hierarchy of needs:
The theory of Abraham Maslow was propounded in the year 1943 and this theory is formed in five steps where an employee goes through all the five levels step by step to get motivated. The first level is of Physiological needs where the employee fulfills his basis needs like food, water and shelter. The next stage is of safety needs where a person fulfills his need of safety and security and comes out of danger. When this level is satisfied then the person fulfills his belongingness needs which are the third level of needs. After this level, esteem needs are aroused where an individual wants to achieve recognition in the society and in the last stage, self actualization needs occurs where one needs to realize its own potential to achieve this level. The stages are clearly sown in the below image which clears the theory (Burton, 2012)
Maslow Hierarchy of needs
Herzberg’s theory of motivation:
The theory was formed in the year 1959 and this theory includes two main factors- the hygiene factors and the motivators. The theory states that hygiene factors are those which are used to avoid dissatisfaction and motivators are those which boost the morale of the employees. The motivators and hygiene factors are shown in the below image (Burton, 2012)
Herzberg’s Motivational theory
Virgin media helps its employees by motivating them by the rewards and recognition. It provides training and development programs so that the workers can develop themselves and they can contribute to the success of the company. It provides god pay to its employees which is an attempt to reduce dissatisfaction and provide career advancement options so that employee can be motivated (Pinder, 2008)
3.2 Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation
Job evaluation is a term when the value of the job is determined by comparing it with other jobs in the organisation. It includes determining the structures of the salaries and the position and requirements of the job. Job Evaluation is a full fledged process which includes Job analysis, Job rating, the allocation money and finally determining the classification of job according to their pay scales.
Virgin media is one such organisation which determines the pay structures by considering the following factors:
- The size of the organisation
- Capabilities of the person
- Work quality and experience of the employee
- The legislations of the government regarding pay
- Qualification of an employee
These factors are used by Virgin media to determine pay structures in the company (Sundar, 2013)
3.3 Assessing different contexts (for e.g. attracting talent, retention, and motivation) how effective is the reward systems at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation
The reward systems can be used to attract, retain and motivate the employees in the organisations. The reward systems have to be effective in today’s business environment to be at a competitive edge in the industry.
Virgin media’s reward systems and their effectiveness are discussed in the following points:
- Virgin media adopts a recruitment and selection process which is effective in selecting the best suitable candidates for the company.
- The company provides effective Training and Development programs to the employees so that they can develop personal and professional .
- Virgin media motivates their employees by providing them extra pay for their good work. The employees get recognition for the extra efforts they put (Sundar, 2013)
- The company does not involve in any discrimination activities while giving promotions and payments. Every employee is treated equally in the company.
It is clear that the employees get benefitted when the company pays attention to their growth and development. In return, the company gets quality work and good amount of profits. The productivity of the company will increase and it will be able to compete in the market on the basis of its quality given by efficient employees. By adopting the above acuities, company can attract, retain and motivate the employees to work in the company and provide the best efforts they can give
3.4 Examine the methods Virgin Media or your chosen organisation use to monitor employee performance.
Monitoring the employee performance is necessary to determine which employee is working according to the company’s requirements and who is not following the requirements. Virgin media monitors the performance of the employees by using several methods which are examined below:
- Observation: This is one of the most effective method through which Virgin media watch the employees while working and observes their style of working and their quality of work. By this way an employer can easily notice what are the strengths and weakness of an employee and can recommend the further actions for improvement.
- Self monitoring tools: Self monitoring tools helps virgin media to keep a track of the actions of the employees. The checklists, activity logs can be referred for checking whether the work is done on time and the quality levels. Certain questions will answer the evaluation like the expectations are met or not, what corrective actions are taken to improve the work.
- Review the progress: the progress of an employee can be reviewed on the regular basis. Virgin media. The work can be reviewed by checking the quality and quantity of work depending upon the work of the employee. The sample of work done by the employee are taken to check what is the quality of work of employees (Human Resource Management, 2015)
By monitoring the performance of employees, Virgin media improves over its weaknesses and take corrective actions as soon as possible.
This task involves the discussion about different mechanisms by which the employee can be terminated or leave the organisation. The reasons of the cessation are discussed and the influence of the legal framework will be discussed. All these points will be discussed by referring a case of The Chicken Master which is a small restaurant and owned by Bob Jones (Human Resource Management, 2015).
4.1 Identify the reasons for termination of Faisal’s employment contract with The Chicken Master and generally explain other reasons for cessation of employment.
Faisal hired by Bob Jones for his small restaurant, The Chicken Master. Faisal was terminated by Bob after some time because of many reasons. The first one was that he was using the machines of the office for his personal use which was not permitted according to the rue book given to the employees. Secondly, he was involved in unethical activities which could have destroyed the reputation of the restaurant. Bob terminated him, which means he has to end his term of employment on the orders of the employer.
The employee has to end its term of employment by the following ways:
- Dismissal: It can be done by the employer due to unethical behaviour, unfair attitude or any other justified reasons
- Termination: This can be done by resignation by an employee or when asked by an employer, retirement of an employee, termination of a contract (Ariss, 2012).
There are many reasons for cessation of employment which are given in the following points:
- Inadequate efforts by the employee
- Poor performance in job
- When there are no positive relations between the employer and employee
- When there are no positive relations between the other members of staff and employee
- Due to some unethical practices in which the employee is involved
- Due to unacceptable behaviour
- Due to the conditions of business (Ariss, 2012).
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedures used by The Chicken Master and another organisation of your choice.
The exit procedures in the company are used to terminate the employees because of any of the reasons stated above. There are many steps which have to be followed while terminating the employee. These procedures are different in different organisations. The employee exit procedures used by The Chicken Master is explained below:
- Resignation by an employee: First of all the employee gives resignation and is asked to give resignation in case of firing
- Acceptance of the resignation: the resignation given by an employee (Faisal) will be accepted by Bob (employer).
- Discussion with the employee (exit interview): After the acceptance the discussion is to be done with the employer and the reasons for the resignation are to be given by the employee. In case of firing, no exit interview will take place like in the case of Faisal.
- Feedback: The feedback is to be taken from an employee for any improvement or any referrals are taken from the employee who served a good period in the company. But this is not in the case of firing just as in the case of Faisal because he got terminated due to unethical activities (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015) Bob will command Faisal to leave the company as soon as he can do it and the salary will be adjusted by all the dues and payments and will be credited in the account of Faisal after 40 days of employment cessation.
4.3 Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements with an organisation such as The Chicken Master if Faisal’s claim was proven to be true.
The legal and regulatory framework has been designed for handling the employment cessation. There are many rules and laws which are designed to safeguard the rights of the employees. Faisal in the given case has performed some of the activities which led to the termination of his employment and this it eh genuine reason for his termination. Faisal responded to his firing and filed a case in the employment tribunal that he has been discriminated in the company by Bob as Bob hired a female employee at his place (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015)
There are forums and tribunals which gives powers to the employees to gift against the wrong behaviour done with them. Bob has to be careful and to accumulate the proofs against Faisal to prove him wrong because according to the laws (Sex Discrimination Act, 1975), no employee can be unequally treated and cannot be terminated on the basis of discrimination which can be done on the basis of caste, colour, sex or religion. If Faisal’s claim is proven to be true then Bob will have no choice but to reappoint Faisal at his place again (Beardwell & Thompson, 2015).
It can be concluded that Human Resource Management is a very broad topic which is more or less similar to the Personnel management but is a modern transformation of Personnel management. Different cases are discussed in which the recruitment and section processes, motivational theories and the termination procedures are been discussed. It has been observed that the company has to put many efforts to keep its employees happy and satisfied in order to get better performance from their side and to reach the expected level in the competitive industry. Human Resource Management is a very broad term which includes lots of topics which can be studied for better management of human resources in the organisation so that the objectives of the organisation can be achieved.
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