Unit 38 Assignment on Business Event Management

Unit 38 Assignment Business Event Management

Unit 38 Assignment on Business Event Management

Program

Diploma in Business

Unit Number and Title

Unit 38 Assignment Business Event Management

QFC Level

Level 4

Introduction

This Unit 38 Assignment Business Event Management is a field of management that deals with creation of festival, events and conferences. The manner in which Olympic Games opening ceremony comes to life, the way is which Grammy awards are conducted or the way millions watch a firework at display require rigorous and tireless hands of event management professionals (Bowdin, Nelson 2005). Event managers take upon themselves the responsibility of creating the best experience possible for guests, sponsors, spectators, stars and stakeholders. Event management can be defined as the application of project development for creation of various events like conferences, meetings, trade fair, product launch etc. Event managers have become a requirement in almost every kind of business- retail, fashion, sports, music, entertainment, finance or government and as a result of this their daily jobs are filled with a huge range of challenges and situations (Mc Donnell 2005).

Event management requires study of details and related aspect of brand, identification of target audience, carving out a framework of event, planning logistics and co-ordinating technical aspects. It involves planning, monitoring and controlling of activities as well as resources that can be utilized as an event evolves from preliminary concept into an operational implementation. It is imperative to note that event management continues even after the execution of actual event (Lade, Jackson 2004).Figure 1 shows various aspects of event management.

aspects of event management

Figure 1

LO 1-Planning an Event

1.1 Carrying out a Project within agreed timescale

Organizing a networking event- HIV/AIDS Awareness Week

As a newly hired business event manager of a growing company, I need to organize a networking event for a pharmaceutical company named ‘Humankind Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd’. Since company has operations in India, China, Indonesia and other South Asian countries and wants to opens new bases in South Africa, it wanted to establish its brand name. When you are starting your own business, searching for perfect co-founder, transitioning to a new job- networking is life support. It helps an organization propel to next level professionally (Niblett 2010). In networking events to develop a lasting relationship, it’s important to be genuine in all actions. So, networking event was mode chosen by them to establish them in South Africa. It was also an opportunity to prospect for new clients and customer base. Managing director has also asked me to take help of a group of interns in organizing the event and explain them the complexities and difficulties in planning, implementation and arrangement of an event (Getz 2004).

An event is successful when the event manager commands all knowledge and skills required for handling the event. Thus, ability of event manager to carry out the task in a fitting manner is most important for success of event. But the task of event manager is not a cake walk. It comprises of lots of complexities and difficulties which need great acumen (Getz 2008).

Benefits of networking event:

  • Meeting international decision makers such as CEOs and senior executive in business development, licensing, R&D as well as director of marketing and sales.
  • Meeting various top executives of pharmaceutical firms from around 30 countries and create future growth through international partnership deals (Gardiner 2006).

Gantt chart for Event Management and Budgeting:

Management and Budgeting

1.2 Documentation for the Project

Event Name

HIV AIDS Awareness Week

Event Introduction

HIV /AIDS was discovered in end of the 20th century. Since then this disease has made its presence felt in many countries particularly Asian and African countries. Although government and NGOs (Nongovernmental organizations) are involved in educational and awareness campaign against AIDS, cases of new infections have been on rise in alarming rates (James, Taylor 2004). In spite of the fact that people have better access to information regarding this deadly disease has no effect on its existence in many countries. Thus, it has become clear that spread of HIV virus might be due to other reasons and not due to any ignorance (Steffenson 2004). This HIV awareness day is a mode to educate population in determining possible factors for rising infection. This will also be an opportunity for client ‘Humankind Drugs Pvt. Ltd’ to explore opportunities of strategic alliances, partnership and long term relationship with prospective business partners.

Event Infrastructure

  • Core people – Youths aged between 15 -35 years, local community, NGOs, renowned doctors and researchers as speakers, senior executives of Pharmaceutical companies. Also, there would be performance by world class musicians and international bands.
  • Core structure- awareness drive against HIV/ AIDS
  • Core concept- Spreading awareness and networking opportunity with prospective clients and customer base.

Event Organizers:

Humankind Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd along with

  • PharmaOne : Event support
  • Harpo : arrangements for classical music and band performance
  • Smile International NGO : skits and plays with assistance Noyonika Fernandes
  • Set Designing- Perry Scenic Creative International

Media

  • Pre- Event- All leading magazines and newspaper to inform and call for registration with registration forms
  • Electronic Media- International TV channels and local radio in South Africa to inform target audience about event coverage, date and time
  • Formal Invitations- To practising and retired doctors, researchers, professors of medical colleges, government health department, NGOs, executives of pharmaceutical companies etc.
  • During Event- Live coverage on prominent international TV channels.

Clients

  1. Main Sponsor – Humankind Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd
  2. Support Sponsors- Pharmaone, ReckittBenkiser, Sony Music, Fortis, Merck Pvt Ltd.,
  3. Johnson and Johnson Pvt. Ltd.  And NFL.
  4. Communication Convenience- Global telesystems
  • Main Purpose of the event: The main purpose of this HIV/ AIDS awareness week is to spread awareness and educate various communities in Asian and African countries on several topics related to this disease. There are various myths and misconception about this deadly virus that prevail even after various social campaigns, and this even aims to clarify these myths and misconception (Campbell, Maimane 2005). This event will bring together various doctors, scientists, researchers who will educate target population on facts about the disease.
  • Venue: This event will take place in Cape Town, South Africa and the venue would be Cape Town city hall. It is a beautiful auditorium having ample of space for various activities to take place simultaneously. The building is one of Cape Town’s iconic cultural gems having historical significance. Fig 2 gives an inside view of Cape Town city hall.

Venue

Figure 2

  • Duration of this event: This event will spread over a week time. The end of school year would be suitable time for this event to take place.
  • Theme: The main theme of the event is the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The slogan is “Be aware, you may get it!” to educate people that there are chances of anybody getting infected by this virus and it’s necessary to follow safe medical practice.
  • Feasibility of the Event: AIDS is a global threat and any event that can help in its eradication would receive financial support from Government, pharmaceutical companies, NGOs and even local organizations (Kalichman, Kaufman 2007). The physical resources required include decorative items, music and sound equipment, stationeries etc. Most of the support personnel will be volunteers and local youth. As a result of massive support from organizations, the miscellaneous cost will be achieved.
  • Format of the Event: This event would be unlike other events; this event will spread awareness in a very different style. Mostly events on any disease awareness are prone to be education oriented, wherein audiences have a feel of being in class or discussion groups about HIV/AIDS. This event will use the platforms of dramatics, skits, sports, music and other fun filled activities to appeal and make the audience aware on this deadly virus.
  • Speaker and other Program Participants for the event: An event like HIV/ AIDS awareness week requires speakers, discussion leaders, panellists, workshop leaders, game felicitators, trainers and experts. This event requires successful professional speaker who are not just speech readers. They should have an ability to engage audience; walk around and be able to look for audience squarely in eyes. This event just not requires educational classes on HIV/AIDS but a speaker who can relate to the subject and create awareness among the audience. Wireless microphones encourage movement. Speakers who possess knowledge and are able to engage audience are considered as entertainers. In fact, an event tends to fail when speakers are not able to entertain audience.

Also, for musical concert there would be a need of musicians who are expert in fusion and can appeal to a cross cultural audience. For various games and sports event there would be need of coordinators who can handle variety of audience.

1.3 Organizing resources to carry out the event

Human Resource

Efficient team which should be skilled and willing to perform is needed for the successful event organisation. The Team to organise the events is divided into different segments and each segment is assigned a specific task so that their working process do not overlap with each other.

  1. Top Management of the Company – Responsible to delicate the probable outcome to the event management team
  2. Event Management Team – Responsible for deciding the strategy of the event organisation by analysing the micro and macro environments and the feasibility of the event.
  3. Event Coordinators- Responsible for the task allocated to their department by the Event Management Team and then delegating the tasks to junior team members
  4. Independent Contractors – Responsible for the infrastructure of the event and the services like accommodation and catering.
  5. Media Spokesperson – Responsible for holding the press release.

Physical Resources

  1. Proper arrangement of the lighting and the other materials like projectors, Laptops, White boards
  2. Arrangement of the accommodation of the participants and the tables and chairs in the event room
  3. Stationeries which is required for the participants to make note of the meeting.
  4. Food and beverages for the event participants during the event and after the event.

Financial resources
Huge amount of finance is required for advertising, mailing, leaflets, posters, free gifts. This would not be possible without sponsorship. So, getting sponsors is vital for mobilizing all activities (Brown&James 2004).

1.4 Performing regular reviews and evaluations including the methods and resources

Budgeting
Budgeting is an important aspect of a robust planning structure. Budget helps event managers in prioritising the spending amount according to the requirement. Budget should be planned well in advance and visualization of the event must be done after that. It affects every aspect of event management and needs to be monitored on regular basis (Silvers 2005).

For HIV/AIDS awareness week in Cape Town, one needs to decide on budgeting limit. There is requirement of fund for security, marketing and promotion. Budget should be created on excel document that allows easy reading and understanding. Fig 3 shows a sample of event planning budget.

event planner

Figure 3

Review of the work assigned to the Event Co-ordinators: The event coordinators have to be very precise in providing the solution to the tasks assigned to them because the success of the event is dependent entirely on the arrangement of the various stages which are handled by the event coordinators. A Daily Status Report (DSR) has to be submitted by every event coordinator to the event management team which consists of the tasks achieved and the progress on the tasks which are in process. In case a particular team under one event coordinator is behind the schedule, event coordinators have to ask for the extra resources from the event management team to bring that team up-to the speed. All the event coordinators have to see of the team members working under them are performing well and if any issue is encountered, they have to help the team members to overcome that issue by providing needed help and support.

LO 2- How to effectively administer an Event

2.1 Setting up the Project, choose completion date and allocate responsibilities

Planning Schedule for the event: The planning schedule for the event will list all required tasks and steps, date of completion of a task, person, department or committee responsible for each. It’s a key tool in organizing and planning for the event.

Fig 4 is an Event Planning Schedule

Event Planning Schedule

Figure 4

  • Establishment of policies and procedures: It is important to have established policies and procedures in place for successful planning (Kerzner 2013). This helps further is effective management and handling the team working for the event. Event forms, registration starting and ending dates, payment system, penalties for cancellation, payment and salary procedure are few items that need to established and communicated in clear manner. In absence of policies and procedure event coordinators will have to keep on answering questions and handling disputes continuously.
  • Identifying people for various roles and responsibilities: There are hordes of people required for even management in design phase. An event manager needs to decide what he plans to communicate and how he will do it. After the topic and format is decided, there is need to recruit qualified people for various tasks. So, once event manager prepares a framework of his needs and event, he can begin researching, brainstorming, asking experts in field or colleagues with related experience to move further to resource allocation.
  • Resource Allocation: This is one of the most important and delicate work while managing and event as big as HIV AIDS Awareness Week because this event is going to hit directly the stakeholders of the company and its brand value as well as the revenue generation of the company. If a resource is allocated to a task for which he does not have the required skills, the whole purpose of the event could be lost in the shadow of one mistake done by the resource.

The next thing which needs to be taken care of while allocating the resources is the completion date of the event. Time Management has its own importance in an event management and the resources should be allocated in a manner that the assigned work to them is completed within the deadline estimated. The completion date of the event is finalised 20th December 2015 which could be seen clearly in the Gantt Chart provided in the previous section of the paper.

Preparation of functional sheets to clarify roles: Roles and responsibilities of various people in various tasks need to be clear. An event manager needs to define in writing what he wants each person to do. What is a role of each person in event? This all can be defined in form of functional sheets (Allen 2009)

2.2 Leadership, effective time management and skills of prioritising and delegating

There are many activities, roles and responsibilities to be executed to make such a large event a success. The roles and responsibilities are as follows as shown in figure 5.

There are many activities

Figure 5

Leadership is one of the most important traits required in an event manager. The Event manager has to choose from various leadership styles for the particular situation (Kotter 2008). He will not chose any particular style and organize the entire AIDS awareness week because that is not the best way. He or she should be flexible enough for every situation and deal with them as required. A project manager has to be part of every decision that is taken. This will motivate group and improve productivity.
Delegation of work is also important task of event manager. As manager cannot carry every task on his own, he needs to delegate responsibility and work. Event manager can delegate task to all group heads. In same manner, all group heads can delegate to subordinates working directly under them. This will ensure success of such a huge event.
Effective Time Management is a pre-requisite to the success of any event. How different activities in during the event management are scheduled and completed in time makes sure that an event has been able to adhere to the agenda set for the event. Although, the resources allocation according to the time given for each activity is given in the previous section, it is the responsibility of the event management team to see that all these activities are completed on time. If any time constraint appears during the implementation of the event management, it is the responsibility of the Head of the Event Management team to re assign the priorities and make changes in the resource allocation so that the event completion date is not affected.

The resources should be allocated as per the below schedule of the event management:

  1. Event Agenda Analysis and Strategy development– Jan 5th to Mar 1st
  2. Deciding the participants – Feb 2nd to Mar 14th
  3. Impact Analysis of the Event – Mar 14th – may 2nd
  4. Media Selection and Implementation of the Media Strategy – Mar 25th to Oct 20th
  5. Organisation of the Event – Oct 21st to Nov 15th
  6. Press Release and MOM distribution – Nov 16th to Dec 20th

2.3 Supporting and Monitoring the Project

Monitoring is an instrument used to keep check and track implementation of project. There are different techniques which are used to monitor progress like

Supporting and Monitoring

  • Reporting: Every task carried out in event planning and management should be backed by proper reporting. It is a useful technique to monitor progress like booking of a venue, if two or three persons are involved in checking different location. After checking and taking a look at various aspects, each one of them should send a detailed report containing venue details, price, availability and issues to the event coordinator or manager. This will help manager in taking an informed decision.
  • Meeting: From time to time, regular meeting should be conducted to discuss, brainstorm and negotiate on issues related to the event. In these meeting every aspect of management planning, implementation or progress should be discussed and monitored to check if things are on right track and things which need to be sorted out to gain progress. These meeting also help in idea generation and team building efforts.
  • Work Breakdown Structure: It breaks down the entire group which provides clarification of tasks and duties.
  • Risk Analysis: It helps in keeping track and tacking some major and minor issues and also alerts us for future events.
  • Questionnaire: It helps us in evaluation of various tasks and provides scope for improvement.

Quality Checks
Graphic presentation: 
Graphic presentation helps in comparison of two variables. Graphical presentation of time and work progress related to every task help us in determining our progress in the event.

2.4 Corrective action to keep project on schedule

Record keeping system: A record operating system facilitates organization, control and monitoring (Dooley 2005).  A huge event such as HIV/AIDS awareness week should have all the deadlines, forms and checklists in place to help the entire process and details in structured, usable and accessible manner as required

Project Schedule Chart: An efficient project management will allow for excellent organization and tracking (Raz 2004). This will help event coordinator have:

  • Better control and proper use of resources
  • Reduces complexity
  • Helps in early identification of problems leading to quicker correction.

Project schedule displays the time allocated to work and its shows the position and timing of milestones and specific events of the project. Gantt chart is a scheduling technique used most commonly. Fig 6 shows Gantt chart for an event

Project schedule displays

Fig 6

An example of how corrective actions could be taken to keep the event on schedule is to make the dynamic changes in the resource allocation if desired. Since there are many activities which are running simultaneously, the resources allocated to a particular activity could be reassigned to another activity in the overlapping timing if the first activity is completed before the deadline. For example, if the Event Agenda Analysis is completed before the deadline of Mar 1st, the resources in this activity could be assigned to another activity like Deciding the Participants if needed.

Another corrective action which should be considered in the initial phase of the event management is to have a backup resource for every activity whether it is a physical resource or the human resource management. For example, if the required numbers of room in the hotel to provide accommodation of the event participants are 120, it is better to book at least 150 rooms in case the participants exceed the original estimate. The same could be done to have a backup generator to handle any power outage when the event is in progress.

LO3 Organizing team work when organizing an event

3.1 Choosing an appropriately sized team with knowledge and abilities required for the project

To give shape to such a mega event, a skilful event management team is required. Broadly speaking, team should consist of decision makers and implementers. Decision makers are people who define parameters and are ultimately responsible for success or failure of the event as they take up the key decisions. On other hand there are implementers who are responsible for implementation of decision taken by decision maker. They carry the task of negotiating contract, inviting speakers, stage planning, ensure speakers are at right place at right time and even check microphone is working or not (Gray & Desai 2006).

Event Coordinator
The task of event coordinator will include:

  • Negotiation and recommendation of contracts for signature
  • Soliciting bids from hires and suppliers
  • Recommendation of policies and procedures for event.
  • Preparation and recommendation of budget for the event.
  • Monitoring expenses.
  • Supervising registration for the event.
  • Filing and maintenance of all documents and reports.
  • Preparation of personnel schedule for onsite activities
  • Maintaining communication

Technical Staff: There are various tasks that require technical expertise and a networking event with so many activities will require technical expertise which can be partially or wholly outsourced to fairground authorities and service providers. The organizers of the event must be in position to negotiate terms of reference with service providers and coordinate as well as supervise the inputs and other related activities. Most activities should be in command of organizers who are responsible for assigning require amount of qualified manpower (Toole 2012).

Support Personnel: Apart from technical staff there is a need of staff members who can handle clerical works like typing, data entry, computing, maintaining files and records, activity logs for registration, record of expenses and income, receiving calls and follow ups(Morgeson 2005).

Event Organization chart- Fig 7 gives a description of organization chart of event managing team

Event Organization chart

Figure 7

3.2 Team building for the event and how to diffuse anger

Team building is necessary for successful execution of such a big event. Team building is more than just a group of people with common aim who work towards a goal and where there contributions are contemporary; but it’s collaboration among creative people with different skills and specialities. An event like HIV/AIDS awareness week requires an efficient team to execute it properly. But building team for such an event is a herculean task. There are no two people with same thinking and attitude. Everyone has his own style. Thus, manager needs to analyse each team member on his strong and weak points and accordingly delegate work. Team member should also find their task challenging and interesting enough to give their commitment. Also, stress management sessions should be conducted from time to time for diffusing anger

3.3 Importance of effective co-ordination and Communication when liaising with team

Communication and use of communication is helpful technique in monitoring progress. Clear communication by co-ordinator and by coordinator to manager is essential for smooth functioning of the process of project management. Reporting, Gantt chart, Pert, Swot analysis, etc. further help in aiding communication
Such a large event requires various modes of communication. Verbal communication is best way to communicate when immediate feedback is required. But when figures, data are required written communication is more appropriate than verbal communication. Thus, event manager and team member should realize that there are different forms of communication that are required in different situation. They can also make use of mobile, instant messengers, notices, fax, posters, PowerPoint, videos to send across their ideas to each other

Motivation
An event like HIV/AIDS awareness week is demanding and can build pressure on workers. So, they need to constantly motivate in order to work hard and effectively for the event. Thus, event manager should keep on motivating his team member from time to time:

  • Delegating jobs and asking for their inputs
  • Involving them in decision making
  • Ensure a better fringe benefit
  • Praising them on good work
  • Bonus on successful completion of event

3.4 Action and resources required to achieve success of an event or project

  • Logistics: Logistics is one of the most critical parts of an event. There are lot of things under logistics, which include venue, equipment for the event, safety, security, P.A. system and other facilities (Liu, 2007). The main priority is logistics as it place around which whole event revolves. To decide an event venue for AIDS awareness week, we had to research on couple of venues in South Africa and we also requested for quotations from the venue providers with price and services being offered by them. After two months of rigorous search and looking for alternatives, long discussions with team we chose the best place for event in South Africa. The main motive behind choosing Cape Town was because we would be able to provide accommodation for the participants and various guest speakers.
  • Catering: Arrangement of food for around 5000 people for entire week on daily basis is a task in itself. Bidding should be invited from various caterers and hotels that can cater to food needs of cross cultural audience. There should be proper and timely arrangement of breakfast, lunch, supper and dinner during the festival. Also snacks or fillers should be available from time to time. We also need to make special arrangement for arrangement of food for people who feel hungry at any point of time during the event.
  • Marketing and Promotion: An effective coordinator is generally judged by effectiveness of his marketing efforts. An event like HIV/AIDS awareness week can promoted by materials such as letters, brochures, advertising and new releases. Since this event would be unlike other events, USP of the event should be highlighted. Also, there would be need to encourage sponsors to be realistic about attendance goal. You should always have enough time in advance to properly market the program (Yeoman 2004). We can also use public relation as marketing and promotion tool. This type of promotion can best inform participants and audiences about upcoming event. As word about the event is spread, we would be able to manage and complete the registration process well in time. We can also use Doctor’s Association in South Africa. Banners and posters can also be used. We can also advertise in newspapers, television, social networking sites, schools, colleges’ universities and public places.
  • Venue Booking: Cape Town city hall is centrally and strategically located, with an optimum distance from railway station, taxi stand, bus station and even airport, so it would be perfect and accessible for speakers and participants. The booking would be done a year in advance to avoid any clash with an event scheduled near the same date or time.
  • Arrangement for music concert: We need to shortlist and finally select two international bands for performance at HIV/AIDS awareness week.
  • Interior Designing: Cape Town city hall has a seating capacity for 4500 in major stadium and around 700 in minor stadium. Some extra lights and decoration would be needed to attain maximum visibility and ensure comfort for audience as well as participants.
  • Health and Safety: In an international scenario fear of terrorism cannot be ruled out. We need to make proper arrangement to ensure safety and security of audience as well as important guest and participant. A security check point, metal detectors, security guards needs to be ensured by a dependable Security agency having an experience of handling such events. Also, the resting place or hotels for guest need to be safe enough.

Another important issue would be health and comfort of people. We need to check working of Air Conditioners, Heating system, ventilation of auditorium and level of oxygen. We also need to ensure first aid system, fire fighters and ambulance availability during the entire week for any kind of emergency. We also need to check proper working of fire alarm, smoke detectors, security system and CCTV cameras.

LO 4 Use or range of business communication systems in managing the event

4.1 Communication system for event management

In event management mainly two kind of communication take place:

  • Internal communication- communication that takes place within group
  • External communication- communication that place outside the organization. E.g. negotiations with bidders or talking to sponsors

4.2 Role of Information Technology in Event management

IT or information technology has become an important instrument in management of various organizations. A number of software are being developed which ensure effectiveness of IT. Information technology is best way of processing, storing, protecting, transmitting and retrieving information as necessary in this ‘information age’ (Schwalbe 2013).
It will help in planning, scheduling and controlling the project to managing critical interfaces with user and vendors. A good use of information technology will help teams communicate easily and in planned manner. It will also help in increase productivity of worker, team members and the organization as a whole.

Conclusion

this Unit 38 Assignment Business Event Management is HIV/AIDS awareness week event would be an event with a difference which not only aims to educate audiences but also give them chance to enjoy and entertain themselves. There will be various events like sports activities, music, skit, fun games and other competitions to keep participants engaged. Since maximum participant would be youth, these ideas would certainly attract them. Thus, it can be said event management is more than just conducting event, It requires great acumen and creative instinct to conduct such an event on such a large scale. An event can be successful when it is planned, scheduled, executed and implemented in proper manner with contribution of entire team and its effort. Although, obstacles and glitches may arrive in the entire process but if they are checked and monitored constantly, damage would be minimal and event would be able to meet the quality and standard set for it.

References

Allen, J. 2009. Event planning: the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events. John Wiley & Sons.
Bowdin, G., Allen, J., Harris, R., McDonnell, I., & O'Toole, W. 2012. Events management. Routledge.
Brown, G., & James, J. 2004. Event design and management: ritual sacrifice? Festival and Event Management, pp. 53-64.
Campbell, C., Foulis, C. A., Maimane, S., & Sibiya, Z. 2005. “I have an evil child at my house”: Stigma and HIV/AIDS management in a South African community. American journal of public Kalichman, S. C., Simbayi, L. C., Kaufman, M., Cain, D., & Jooste, S. 2007. Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review of empirical findings. Prevention ScienceVol. 8 No.2, pp. 141-151.
Dooley, L., Lupton, G., & O'Sullivan, D. 2005. Multiple project management: a modern competitive necessity. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol.16No.5, pp. 466-482.
Etzion, O., & Niblett, P. 2010. Event processing in action. Manning Publications Co.
Getz, D. 2004. Bidding on events: identifying event selection criteria and critical success factors. In Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 1-24. Taylor & Francis Group.
Getz, D. 2008. Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research. Tourism management, Vol. 29 No.3, pp. 403-428.
Gray, C. F., Larson, E. W., & Desai, G. V. 2006. Project management: The managerial process.
James, S., Reddy, S. P., Taylor, M., & Jinabhai, C. C. 2004. Young people, HIV/AIDS/STIs and sexuality in South Africa: the gap between awareness and behaviour. Acta Paediatrica, Vol.93 No.2, pp. 264-269.
Kerzner, H. R.  2013. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Kotter, J. P. 2008. Force for change: How leadership differs from management. Simon and Schuster.
Lade C., & Jackson, J. 2004. Key success factors in regional festivals: Some Australian experiences. Event management, Vol.9 No. 1-2, pp. 1-11.
Liu, R., Kumar, A., & Van Der Aalst, W. 2007. A formal modelling approach for supply chain event management. Decision Support Systems, Vol.43 No. 3, pp. 761-778.
Morgeson, F. P. 2005. The external leadership of self-managing teams: intervening in the context of novel and disruptive events. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.90 No.3, pp. 497.
O’Brien, D., & Gardiner, S. 2006. Creating sustainable mega event impacts: Networking and relationship development through pre-event training. Sport Management Review, Vol.9 No.1, pp. 25-47.
O'Toole, W., Harris, R., & Mc Donnell, I.  2005. Festival and special event management. John Wiley & Sons Australia.
Pettifor, A. E., Rees, H. V., Steffenson, A., Hlongwa-Madikizela, L., & MacPhail, C. 2004. HIV and sexual behaviour among young South Africans: a national survey of 15-24 year olds.
Raz, T., Barnes, R., & Dvir, D. 2004. ACritical LOOK AT CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT. Project Management Journal, Vol. 34 No. 4, pp.24-32.
Schwalbe, K. 2013. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.
Silvers, J. R., Bowdin, G. A., O'Toole, W. J., & Nelson, K. B. 2005. Towards an international event management body of knowledge (EMBOK). Event Management, Vol. 9 No.4, pp. 185-198.
Silvers, J. R., Bowdin, G. A., O'Toole, W. J., &Nelson, K. B. 2005. Towards an international event management body of knowledge (EMBOK). Event Management, Vol.9 No.4, pp.185-198.
Yeoman, I. Ed. 2004. Festival and events management: an international arts and culture perspective. Routledge.