Unit 3 Organizational Behavior Assignment - CAPCO Ltd
Organizational behaviour in general can be referred the way employees either as an individual or group communicate in and towards any organization. There behaviours in combine help in creating a kind of working atmosphere within the organization that eventually will either reinforce or erode its success. The Unit 3 Organizational Behavior Assignment CAPCO Ltd would be carrying out a comparison between the structure and culture of the organizations. Performing within an organization’s structure, it is difficult for both the employer and employees to recognize the behaviour patterns and understand how extremely these patterns can leave its impact on the performance of the company. In order to ensure that the positive impact is left, leaders or managers should guide the employees in grasping the relevance of organizational behaviour so that they get a better understanding and help in shaping the internal conditions of the organization. The usefulness of organizational behaviour relies in understanding how an individual employee, teams and the structures of an organization are connected and influence each other. A précised reviewing of behaviour in workplace, culture of the business environment and organizational process helps one to have a better understanding concerning patterns of communication and conflicts allowing figuring out solution-oriented policies and organizational change.
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation of your choice. Show the differences and similarities in these two organisations.
The nature of CAPCO’s organizational structure is hierarchic are encompasses of multiple layers in between the management at the top most level and the employees at lower level. The organizational structure of CAPCO further resembles a pyramid structure where supervision on employees is done by the immediate top managerial level staff who eventually reports to the management at the topmost level i.e. CEO or MD. The hierarchical structure includes more than one individual at every level. For making a comparison of CAPCO’s organizational structure the example of Barresi Restaurant has been considered. It has been observed that flat organizational structure is pursued in Barresi that includes fewer levels amid the employees and the management and basically is uniform with no presence of middle level management. (Schein, 2010)
Compare and contrast of the organizational structures of CAPCO and Barresi
Hierarchical structure of CAPCO
Flat structure of Barresi
CAPCO has been benefitted from the implementation of hierarchical structure within the organization by establishing roles and responsibilities of jobs that are clearly defined and is eventually useful in originating power and leadership. (Schein, 2010)
The employees at CAPCO are served with abundant opportunities of growth and performance based promotions to higher levels in the hierarchy which eventually keeps them motivated.
CAPCO’s organizational structure inspires the employees in gaining additional professional skills in their areas of specialization escalating job interests.
A major drawback of the hierarchical structure is that multiple management levels in CAPCO often leads into indecisive communication and also gives rise to competition amid all departments where each department is only concerned about the individual benefit. Also it lacks the ductility of accepting any kind of change. (Schein, 2010)
The flat structure practiced in Barresi has prepared the employees in playing more than one job role and is an advocate of very limited supervisory control eventually emboldening higher coordination and open communication across employees of different departments
Barresi’s flat organizational structure lets the employees sharing and discussing their ideas and suggestions with the superiors and they are also encouraged for participating into decision makings.
Barresi’s has costs effective operations as a result of absence of middle level management. Also the need of reporting manager has been erased which at times bring a situation of chaos in the managerial authority. (Schein, 2010)
Due to flat structure at Barresi, the nature of employees’ roles and their responsibilities have become a little more generalized and lacks focus on the need for acquiring more specialized duties.
The organisation culture of CAPCO focuses on furnishing customer satisfaction and value to its employees by providing them with equal opportunities, fair work practices and cultivating mutual respect for each other. In compared to CAPCO’s organisational culture, the nature of Barresi’s culture is employee centric which focuses on acknowledging and rewarding the employees for their outstanding contributions for driving the restaurant towards its goals. It has been observed that Barresi focuses on providing its employees with diverseness, resources development, scope for better training and invaluable learning experience. Barresi firmly believes and maintains that employees are the core asset behind its success and thereby, is more focused on employee welfare both at personal and professional levels. (Schein, 2010)
1.2 Explain how the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of its operations.
The structure and culture of CAPCO play the functional role in smoothening the execution of its operations further enabling the company in effectively running its business. An organization’s structure and culture are indivisible and help in shaping spontaneous employees behaviour and making them performance achiever. The culture at CAPCO is more communal and clan oriented whereas the structure is hierarchical. It is proven fact that organisation structure and culture are closely inter-related. There are times when the hierarchical structure practiced in CAPCO leaves a negative influence on its culture. (Zheng, Yang and McLean, 2010). Discussed below are the impacts of CAPCO’s culture and structure on its operations performance:
CAPCO’s organizational structure and culture has helped in constituting firmness in the overall performance and productivity of the business allowing fulfilling of customer requirements. This has been achievable as a result of CAPCO’s focus on goals transferred quality, excellence and customer engagement further ensuring repeated purchases of financial services and lifelong customers’ adherence. (Zheng, Yang and McLean, 2010). Moreover, the structure and culture of CAPCO has helped the management in cultivating a proper communication follow allowing and helping the employees in understanding their job roles and related responsibilities simultaneously restoring clear and open interaction between management and the employees. In addition to these, both structure and culture help in instituting diversity and advocating cultural beliefs engendering cooperation and coordination amid employees at work. Also motivational levels of the employees enhance and they willingly work together as a team sharing their interests and values.
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO or in any organisation of your choice.
The employee’s behaviour at workplace is directly or indirectly influenced by several factors. As a result of which CAPCO focuses more on cultivating a working atmosphere which promotes positivity and is growth oriented keeping the motivational levels of employees high so that they can perform more efficiently and conclusively. The factors influencing employee behaviour at CPACO are:
- Relation with leader/manger: an employee’s relation with his/her manager can either leave a positive or negative influence on workplace behaviour. There are many cases where employees are dissatisfied with a strict and rude leader or manager whereas if the manager is supportive and stands with the employees whenever needed and guides and helps them in acquiring new skills and knowledge, making the employees feel important, in return employees are also loyal towards such a manager and are ready to take any challenges for their sake and walking an extra mile to meet the manager’s expectations.
- Work Culture: the kind of work culture CAPCO promotes must allow the employee to get the feeling of convenience helping them in staying elated and positive. It is also equally important that company’s rules and regulations are equivalent for every employee and avoid having an intricate reporting system and transparency should be maintained at every level. One of the most imperative aspects stirring employee behaviour is job security. As a manager it is important to stand with the employee at crisis times and in return can win their trust.
- Job Responsibilities: a change in employees’ behaviour can be seen when they are forced to do a task they are not good at or are overburdened. Manager must allocate tasks according to their skills and simultaneously encourage them time and again to upgrade their personal and professional skills.
- Family and Personal Life: employees’ behaviour at workplace also gets influenced by their relations with family. In case, an employee comes to work after having a fight back at home, he/she remains agitated the entire day and the impact can be seen on the performance. Personal life troubles creates stress and an incoherent behaviour in an employee
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leaderships at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice
According to Kevin Kruse Leadership is a process of social influence which maximizes the efforts of others towards the achievement of a goal. The kind of leadership style adopted by the manager surely influences and shapes an employee’s behaviour at workplace including his/her professional aspirations. Employees’ perceptions towards their leader or manager can either be positive or negative depending on the relation with the manager. (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010)
Effectiveness of different types of leadership styles at CAPCO and Barresi
- Authoritarian: this kind of leader is not a dictator but has a clear approach in establishing the team’s performance objectives and is capable of providing a structure and at the same time is proficient in clearing an employee’s perception towards his/her role. If a situation demands, such a leader even leans towards micro-managing. The effectiveness of this kind of leadership at both CAPCO and Barresi might be negative as employees’ suggestions and feedbacks are not valued which eventually will leave them de-motivated. (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010)
- Democratic: this kind of leader is friendlier, easier to talk and sensitive in nature. He/she is always concerned for employee and deals them with dignity which cultivates a sense of care and value within them and whenever a change is implemented, employees trust the manager for helping them managing uncertainties. This style can be very useful for Barresi because of its flat organizational style where it is important the employees are creative in their work whereas in CAPCO, the tasks involved are more straightforward and use of this style will be wastage of time and might even disturb the process of decision-making in case employees adopt irresponsible actions.
- Participative: this kind of leader prefers involving team members in every process including decision-making and eventually focuses on developing healthy relations and compatibility with them. It helps in enhancing the involvement of the team as a whole and feel empowered and valued. Both CAPCO and Barresi can be benefitted from this style as it is counts on team’s input and will bring different new ideas and measures to solve an issue or for the growth of the business. By eliciting ideas from the team will also help in developing their strengths that can be used collectively in driving the company’s creative decision making. (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010)
- Transformational: this kind of leader has a belief that the team can always perform better than what they did once and pushes them in reaching higher levels and encourage continued progress and are confident of employees’ ability. Success is celebrated with the team and setbacks are analyzed and improved. The leader is a risk-taker and never shies from learning, teaching and mentoring the team. The effectiveness of this leadership style can be positive in CAPCO as both the employees and managers are highly skilled and committed whereas it might be risky for Barresi as employees are not very skilled and lacks mutual respect.
- Laisse Faire: this style of leadership allows complete liberty to followers for making crucial decisions with leaders having minimum guidance and interference. It has both merits and downsides. When followers are highly skilled, knowledgeable and self reliant to accomplish goals then laisse faire can be effective. Whereas, generally this is seen as least effective as its results into lower productiveness and team cohesiveness. Hence, this style is not appropriate for both CAPCO and Barresi.
2.2 Explain how organizational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management
Over the years, researchers have evaluated numerous theories which clarify the dynamics of an organization including how decisions are made, power is distributed and controlled, conflicts are resolved and promote or repel to an organizational change known as Organization Theories. These are used to provide an integrative focus on the
- impact of an employee’s characteristics and action on organization
- organization’s performance, success and its survival
- environmental effect which includes resource and task, political and cultural environments on organization and the other way round
Management is defined as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the people working within organization to achieve its purposes and goals. This process is underpinned by organizational theories which focus on studying organization structures, designs, patterns and relationships to cope with change and achieve its purposes. Organizational theory researchers suggest merging of various theories stating that an organization will be in need to adopt different organizational strategies for dealing with changes in competitive prospects, structural design and experiences. Organization theory has a very crucial role to play in underpinning the management practice in CPACO. (Jones, 2010)
- Scientific Management: they theory of Frederick Winslow Taylor is helpful in optimizing and simplifying of jobs resulting into maximization of employees productivity. However, much importance is not given to human factor of the employees and is considered as machines needed to carry out the work. Importance to technology is given over labours. This theory is relevant to any kind of industrial businesses across the globe as it largely include quantitative analysis like process designing, cost accounting, ergonomics, quality control and planning further influencing the a business’s general practice. This theory can influence CAPCO’s management practice in areas of organizing, leading, planning and controlling its operational activities and will also be helpful in facilitating the evolution of processes and business policies. CAPCO can easily relate to the theory as it encourages creativity and innovation at work. (Jones, 2010)
- Human Relation Theory: they theory of Elton Mayo conveys the contributions made by employees in driving an organization towards success instead of machines. It further determines the psychological and social factors influencing an organization’s productivity. It emphasizes on the fact that people want to become a part of supportive team facilitating expansion and growth and when employees are made to feel valuable, they tend to be motivated and become more productive which culminates into a high quality output. CAPCO has adopted numerous HR policies and engagement programs for its employees to keep their motivational levels high so that they give their best in enhancing the overall productivity of the business. The employees are also provided with various opportunities of growth and development for making more contributions in the organizational success as a whole. (Jones, 2010)
- Contingency theory: this theory underpins that different situation faced within organization demands different approaches to tackle with them according to the needs of the situation. Thus, it focuses on flexibility or adaptability to the environment, influencing the practice of management to evaluate capabilities of different leaders or employees who can cope with different changes as it is a matter of fact that one who may be good in dealing with a single situation may not be capable of another.
- System Theory: this theory underpins that an organization is a system which combines of different parts such as employees, resources, assets, products and information that together forms a complex system. It is a man made system and has two parts, internal and external. The internal part achieves set goals whereas external part interacts with environment. This theory helps the management in making quick perception and better planning.
- Behavioral theory: this theory underpins the human aspect of work by focusing on human relations and behavior emphasizing that factor such as motivation, expectations, group dynamics and conflict management helps to improve the productivity of employees who are viewed by management as assets to be developed and worked with.
- Quality theory: this theory underpins the quality management aspect within organization to improve efficiency of process and profitability. It empowers the management to encourage the employees to use variety of knowledge resources and tools for continuous improvements, build a cohesive team atmosphere and focus on facilitating customer by delivering quality products or services.
- Quantitative theory: this theory underpins to focus on mathematical and statistical models and process to deal with management practices and situations within organization. This influences the management to make effective decisions and undergo problem solving with better applications and information’s as understanding and awareness for complex situations and process is increased and hence control is easier.
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your chosen organisation
According to George R Terry “Management is a distinct process which consists of planning, organising, actuating and controlling which uses both the art and science to achieve pre-determined goals.”
Different Approaches to management:
- Contingency Approach: this approach underpins the fact that management concepts can be developed and applied within an environment only when the various features of environment are taken into consideration. The environment can be both internal and external. Internal environment include structure, process and technology whereas external environment includes social, economic and political factors. The advantage of contingency approach is that management appropriateness depends on situation and thus uses if-then approach. The primary disadvantages being its complexity to analyse different variables the managers should apply in different situations, difficulty of empirical testing of the theory and its nature which is reactive and not pro-active to environment.
- Decision Theory Approach: this approach underpins that manager and the members of the organization are the decision makers and so they are responsible for problem solving. The control is in the hands of the management and the quality of decision making decides the efficiency. Various tools such as MIS and decision making techniques are applied. The advantage being it applies various technical tools to make suitable decisions within organization whereas disadvantages are it does not include total view of the management and is limited to decision making aspects.
- Socio-Technical System Approach: this approach underpins that effectiveness of organization can be maintained when social and technical systems interact because social laws and psychological forces govern the organization whereas technical systems are modified in organizations when social aspects gets modified. The advantages being change in technology and social interactions within work dimension whereas disadvantages being lack of total managerial view, more focus on production aspects which results into lack of other contribution factors.
Different approaches to the management used by CAPCO and Barresi
- Scientific Management Approach: Taylor’s approach is been followed in both CAPCO and Barresi for accomplishing a task. CAPCO and Barresi understand that increasing of production will eventually give rise to productivity. The theory when applied in CAPCO allows it to complete a task in a way that will optimize the cost and allows in identifying the most suitable techniques for carrying out a process with minimum wastage of resources. At Barresi, implementation of this theory has been helpful in delegating responsibilities in accordance to employees’ skills and experiences allowing an improved productivity level. (Harmon, 2010)
- Administrative Approach: the theory of Henry Fayol emphasizes on discipline, unity in direction, remuneration, scalar chain, equity and initiative. The use of this theory in CAPCO has helped in ensuring a stable operational process and establishes a structured remuneration, discipline, unity, initiative taking and proper flow of communication whereas it has allowed Barresi in creating an environment that is both systematic and formal by establishing a well defined organisational structure and a line of command.
- Social Systems Approach: the theory of Hicks and Gullet gives more consideration to the relation with the internal and external environment of an organization and focuses on grouping sub-systems for generating one large system for accomplishing the project. The use of this theory in CAPCO has helped it in categorizing teams into numerous groups under a head for successfully completing a project and gaining customer satisfaction whereas at Barresi, the theory has helped in identifying the environmental factors and forces influencing the business. (Harmon, 2010)
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change
According to Peter Drucker Motivation is a process which is used to instigate inspiration, enthusiasm and increase capability to work by providing satisfaction to employees. It drives them to work self intentionally to achieve result based objectives. Leaders have the capability and persona of influencing others with their skills and talent apart from owning a broader knowledge range, experience and expertises needed for the concerned industry. Furthermore, an employee’s motivation is relatively linked with the leader and the kind of leadership styles practiced by them, affecting their confidence levels. (Salahuddin, 2010). Recently CAPCO decided to implement staff rotation in the workplace which will help the employees in expanding their scope of knowledge and be preparing for playing any role in a crisis situation. For making it easier for the employees accepting this change and keeping them motivated CAPCO can adopt:
- Autocratic leadership: in this style the leaders maintain complete autonomy to decide, control and hold the employees who are not encouraged to share their views even if it is meant for organization’s interest. Generally they are not empowered to criticise or question the leader who decides all alone. The only advantage being that in crisis situation it can be applied as it results into speedy decision making and greater productivity under leader’s supervision. Whereas, it results into employee’s absenteeism and high turnover. So it is not feasible for CAPCO as the change is short term.
- Bureaucratic leadership: this leadership style underpins following rules and procedures even if they do not bring much change to environment. It follows top-down hierarchy and attempts to solve problems following layers of control and information. The only advantage being that leaders maintain strict and systematic discipline whereas as it is a rigid structure it is not suitable for change situations and quick adaptation. Also, it affects employee’s creative thinking, motivation and confidence, hence, not feasible to be followed by CAPCO.
- Democratic or Participative Leadership: this style will allow the management to directly approach to the employees and make them aware with the changes to be implemented along with its benefits and encourage them to clarify their doubts, if any and listen to their views and opinions about the change. While execution of the change, employees are encouraged in openly discussing the issues they come through in a general meeting where solution for resolving the issues will be determined. Use of this leadership style will help CAPCO in reducing the number of employee conflicts and cultivate a healthy work atmosphere. (Salahuddin, 2010). McGregor’s theory of motivation can be related with this style. Employees who are motivated tend to take more responsibilities and give added efforts in completing a job by outperforming and inspiring the co-workers in giving their best performance.
- Transactional Leadership: this style will allow the manager to convey the information of change to the employees and further enable the provisions of rewards or punishment. The manager clearly communicates CAPCO’s objective behind the change and the process to be adopted for completing a job. To keep the employees morale high the manager introduces certain schemes of incentives and other perks like discounted lunch coupons, awards based on performances. (Salahuddin, 2010). Herzberg’s Two Factor motivational theory can be linked with this leadership style. Employees craving for incentives and recognition will automatically escalate their productivity and become committed towards their job responsibilities eventually possessing greater satisfaction at work.
- Persuasive Leadership: this style will help CAPCO in establishing transparent and open communication where the manager will be authorized to aware or convince the employees about the impending change well in advance ahead of taking a final decision. According teams will be created and small tasks will be allocated for creating an interruption free operation. Clear communication will be helpful in employees’ doubts and confusions related to the changes. (Salahuddin, 2010)
McGregor’s motivation theory can be related with this style allowing the dissatisfied employees falling into the category of Theory X to get motivated and get transformed into Theory Y employees under the strong and visionary leadership of the manager making them understand the need of the change.
3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories (e.g. Maslow’s & Herzberg theories) within organizational setting
Motivation theories are of two types:
- Content theories: Maslow, Herzberg, McClellands, Alderfer ERG Theory
- Process Theories: Goal, expectancy, equity, reinforcement
Content Theories: Maslow’s theory emphasizes on understanding the factors which motivates employees and states that an employee is motivated for achieving a certain need and once the need is fulfilled, he/she seek for the fulfilment of next need and it goes on. (Parker, Bindl and Strauss, 2010)
- Herzberg Theory focused on two factors i.e. those that satisfied employees and others that dis-satisfied them. Motivators were related to growth needs and job satisfaction which includes achievement, recognition, work, responsibility and advancement. The others factors that were related to deficiency needs were called hygiene factors like company policy, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationship and working conditions. The hygiene factors when fulfilled helps to create less dis-satisfaction only but has no impact on motivation whereas the motivator help to push motivation.
- McClelland’s theory emphasises on three needs i.e. achievement, affiliation and power. High performing people are driven by achievement and less driven by affiliation and power. Thus they remain highly motivated compared to others which can be used to gain benefits in working situations and conditions.
- Alderfer ERG Theory reduced Maslow’s five levels of hierarchy into three needs namely Existence, Relatedness and Growth. His theory revised Maslow’s concept of one way progression and said that if any of the lower level needs are no longer met then regression occurs which is more realistic approach.
- Goal theory helps to motivate employees by driving behaviours that stimulate needs to fulfil set goals. As employees feel more need to participate in setting a goal, this feeling helps to keep them pushed to objectives.
- Expectancy theory relates employee’s efforts to desired outcomes once its feasibility is assumed to be successful by them. Thus, it emphasises that once an employer is able to create perceived expectation and predict outcomes then employees use all information to turn them into reality. Thus this motivates them. Further, expectancy theory relies on three variable i.e. valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Valence focuses on expected rewards, instrumentality on repeating actions to achieve desired outcomes and expectancy focuses employee’s capability.
- Equity theory emphasises on motivation by measuring the skills of employees and the investments on employer’s behalf in terms of salary, promotion and worker benefits. When an employee is assured that both employer and employee have made equal investments in each other then this drives motivation.
- Reinforcement theory emphasises to change employee behaviour by using reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Rewards stimulate positive reinforcement whereas punishment is used to prevent undesired behaviour. Extinction on the other hand is used to stop someone from putting leaned behaviour to practise.
Application of Maslow’s motivational theory in the organizational setting of CAPCO: employees basic physiological and safety needs at CAPCO are satisfied by giving employment and job security enabling them to arrange for the very basic needs of a human like foods, cloths, shelter for their loving ones. CPACO needs to take care of the employees’ psychological needs which are based on relationships for keeping their motivational levels high. It is important for developing amiable and healthy professional relations at workplace allowing the employees in giving their 100% best performance. For motivating the employees CAPCO has introduced performance based appraisals, rewards and recognition events and incentives based on targets. Arrangement of a stable incentive structure keeps the employees motivated with the fulfilment of their needs eventually enhancing their productivity levels. (Parker, Bindl and Strauss, 2010)
Application of Herzberg theory at Barresi: change in Barresi can bring a certain amount of confusion amid employees which might even make them resistant towards the change. Thus motivator factors have a significant role to play in accepting the change that has been implemented in the workplace as it will result into increased learning, more responsibility, higher recognition and growth in career. Thus implementation of Herzberg theory would be more useful compared to Maslow because Barresi has hygiene factors at place so there is no need for reinforcement of these needs. Hence, focus should be made on strengthening motivator factors that have influence on work motivation. (Parker, Bindl and Strauss, 2010)
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace
According to Maehr and Meyer motivation theories are conceptual framework that stimulates behaviour of individuals and drive them to achieve the set outcomes thereby enhancing their productiveness.
- Herzberg two factor theory emphasises on motivator factors that are significant to stimulate satisfaction in employees such as advancement, growth, responsibility and recognition. The other factor is hygiene factor which has no influence over motivation but their absence creates job dis-satisfaction among employees. These are salary, promotion, administration, working condition and working relationships.
- Instinct theory of motivation relates individual behaviour with inherent biological tendencies. Thus, inherent behaviour is governed by instincts which drive towards goals and keeps individuals motivated. It says that this behaviour is not governed by learning or experience.
For improving employees’ performance within workplace as a whole it is essential that managers evolve and possess their knowledge revolving around the motivational theories and its application in the workplace. A manager must understand that with the use of motivational theories, he/she can not only motivate the team members in improving their knowledge and upgrading their professional skills but it will also inculcate a sense of sincerity towards workplace. Several factors are involved in employee motivation and hence, manager must identify the driving factor of every team member. To implement an organizational change within workplace for overcoming competition and changing market demands, it is essential that manager keeps the employees motivated and gain their trust as it is a well known fact that employees who are motivated prove to be more useful for the business growth, productivity and more revenue generation. Also they will openly and willingly accept the changes in the workplace which is fundamental for its long-term success. Moreover, as there is increase in productivity and profitability within workplace, better remuneration is provided to employees which helps to increase job satisfaction and work motivation. Thus there is a closed circle relationship between motivation, performance, productivity, profitability and remuneration within workplace. (Lussier and Achua, 2015)
4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
According to Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander group is a social collection of individuals that is interdependent and inter-related to one another for some common interests. Group behaviour is defined as the behaviour that originates from the causes that governs the effectiveness within group such as good leadership, well defined roles, proper delegation of tasks, group cohesiveness etc.
The nature of group: this can be viewed from four different approaches namely:
- Perception approach where individual view themselves as part of a group such as Team which constitutes of a mature group that come together for achieving a common purpose and hence often have a level of interdependence and motivation.
- Organization approach where groups are formed viewing certain characteristics that bring a group collectively connected with one another.
- Motivation approach that emphasises on group as a collection that exists for the satisfaction of certain needs.
- Human relation approach that emphasises that individual comes together as groups in order to interact with each other to achieve a common goal. This group is governed by size, interaction and purpose.
Roles in group: Task oriented role are those that are performed by groups to ensure that tasks assigned to them are achieved. Maintenance role are those that are performed by members with a group to ensure good interpersonal relationships. The organisation that is being discussed in this segment is CAPCO. A group is a collection of people with common beliefs, interests or principles. They engage together either due to specific common tasks or due to familiar interests. Groups can be both formal and informal.
- Formal groups are classified into task and command group. The employees such as entry level, middle level, workers come under task group who carry out regular functions within CAPCO. Whereas, command group constitute of chief level executives who make strategic decisions and planning for CAPCO to make it sustainable to market environment and business challenges. The members of task group usually follow the instructions and directions specified by command group. (Griffin and Moorhead, 2011)
- Informal group are classified into friendship and interest group and are formed due to personal relationship, social networks etc without any management directive. At CAPCO, these constitute of employee forums, clubs, associations which are formed by employees, shareholders and even customers. (Griffin and Moorhead, 2011)These groups focus on issues running within organization or on functions that could be incorporated for improvement and profit generation.
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO or your chosen organisation
According to Scarnati, teamwork is defined as a cooperative process that allows ordinary people to achieve extraordinary results. In other words teamwork depends on individuals who work collectively in a cooperative environment to achieve common team goals by knowledge sharing and skills. Effectiveness of team work is essential component for success and performance of any organization including CAPCO. This development of team effectiveness is guided by many factors that can either promote or inhibit its growth which are:
- Communication: Clear and proper communication between team helps to promote clarity of information and understanding of roles and different shared objectives, thereby improving collaboration, transparency and performance. (West, 2012). When communication gaps are less it builds team cohesion and trust thereby achieving positive outcomes for unified objectives. Also, frequency of confusion or disagreement gets limited.
- Governance: Effective governance gives direction within team and promotes orientation, dedication and control to achieve common goals of CAPCO. This visionary leadership helps to bring discipline and coordination among team members else few may be influenced to achieve self interests.
- Relationship between members: Strong working relationship between team helps to promote bonding, mutual interests and adjustments of understanding or behaviour. So, at CAPCO various team exercises or role plays are practised where employees learn to simulate behaviour and knowledge. (West, 2012) Also, it influences respect for shared beliefs and attitudes and employees learn to deal with conflicts.
- Equal opportunity: roles and responsibilities within team should be delegated according to skills and talents of members and not on preference of interest. This helps to provide a fair opportunity for all based on merit without any division which promotes motivation and performance.
- Diversity: diversity of culture, social beliefs, talents and personalities promote effectiveness of teamwork as it results into creativity, innovation, increased awareness and respect for differences. Also diversity leads to better problem solving as various members think on different aspects due to difference in experiences which helps to draw better conclusions. On the other hand, diversity may rise to potential conflicts within team which can be damaging when not properly managed.
- Physical factors: factor such as team size can have considerable influence in deciding effectiveness of teamwork. When size of team is large then more resources are available which result into higher productivity and team performance. In contrast, it can also result into potential conflict, decreased cohesion and inefficient productivity. So, it is necessary that to consider the size of team factors like effectiveness and harmony among group members be considered to achieve set tasks.
- Background: when individuals from different backgrounds come together as group then on one hand this may promote effectiveness of teamwork as scope of diversity in knowledge, ideas, concepts increases which leads to higher innovation, creativeness and better decision making to solve problems. Whereas on other hand, this may inhibit effectiveness of teamwork by creating communication gap which can be damaging.
- Skills: individuals possessing different skills on one hand result into effective teamwork as diverse experiences gives freshness of ideas and problem solving ability. On other hand it may lead to difference of opinion which can inhibit teamwork by damaging group cohesiveness.
- Organization structure and culture: well defined structure and culture of organization can promote effectiveness of teamwork by proper delegation of role, power and control. Also, inherent organization values helps to maintain group dynamics. Whereas, when both structure and culture within organization is not well defined then it results into lack of team focus, performance and misinterpretations.
- Difference in age: this factor on one hand promotes effectiveness of teamwork as individuals within group who are older than others tend to behave maturely due to more experience and learning. On other hand, it may lead to un- acceptance of new ideas, new thinking of employees who are young in age which can lead to disagreements within team.
4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO or your chosen organisation
Technology advances can be defined as new inventions that have influenced development by bringing in new improvements as well as new risks. Automated systems remove the need of human intervention to accomplish a task. This is mostly used in production lines and industries to increase productiveness and reduce operational cost. Example: Automated Teller Machine which eliminates the manual work of teller
Technological advances have lead to various advantages such as improvement in communication, processing and access to information, organised work, improved productiveness, innovation and creativity. Whereas, there are also disadvantages such as less human interaction which has resulted into social isolation, loss of jobs due to increased automated systems and more dependence on artificial intelligence. Technology plays a crucial support in improving team functioning within organizations like CAPCO by making information and data analysis conveniently compiled, easily accessible and accurate. Also, it facilitates communication, visibility of information thereby saving time, effort and money. This can be evaluated as:
- Teams in CAPCO can communicate not only internally but also with consultants distributed geographically through emails, video conference, telecalling and groupware. This facilitates faster sharing of information, ideas and discussions on complicated issues. (Andriessen, 2012)Thus it improves coordination between different departments and teams making improved efficiency. If any member of team cannot work from office then these technology tools helps to get remote access thereby preventing time lapse and promoting flexibility.
- Secondly, intranet helps to distribute, access, store and retrieve enormous amount of data and information in fraction of time. Thereby facilitating record keeping of data and its management in a systematic manner. Large files and documents can be shared by various sharing applications which help to facilitate team work and coordination within CAPCO. Also, hassle of manually recording data gets eliminated thereby maximising time for constructive works. (Andriessen, 2012)
- Thirdly shared networks like Linkedin, Facebook, Pinterest helps to manage team and clients effectively by gaining their feedbacks and ideas. Also, data protection software’s helps to maintain privacy of information thereby facilitating team functioning.
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Thus I can conclude that this Unit 3 Organizational Behavior Assignment CAPCO Ltd has helped me understand the various aspects and the theoretical concepts of organization behaviour by providing practical application in respect of CAPCO. It has also enabled me understand the different structures, cultures and their impact on performance by gaining a practical insight on management theories. Moreover, it has helped me learn impact of leadership, motivation and working structure of groups that influence team work. Altogether, it has provided me with opportunities to successfully gain knowledge on this subject.
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The Unit 3 Organizational Behavior Assignment CAPCO Ltd would be carrying out a comparison between the structure and culture of the organizations, Locus Assignment Help in UK posting units solutions so scholars can explore assignment help and get review the quality of our work.