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Unit 3 Human Resource Management Motivational Theory Assignment
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 Human Resource Management motivational theory
Human resource management plays a very important role as its helps to give knowledge of various concepts that helps in managing the work force in an organization. The main motive of this study is to give learners an understanding of many theories that helps under human resources management. Human resource management motivational theory study explains about the motivational theories which are very important in every organization. Under present case study, there are various human resource practices are explained like planning for the workforce, staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling etc. These given elements are the important elements of human resource management.
There is a particular mechanism named as cessation of the employees is also explained under this study. It plays a significant role in effective and efficient planning for human resource. Learners will learn various types of skills to attain a competitive advantage and contribution under present study.
1.1 Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management giving examples in two suitable organizations.
Human resource management
A management that acts as a mediator between employer and an employee and helps to determine the relation between the both is termed as personnel management.
A management that helps in efficient and effective utilisation of human resource in the organisation is termed as human resource management.
Employees act as a tool in an organisation. (Bondarouk,et.Al., 2011)
Under human resource management, employees acts as a human asset for the organisation.
Under this management, traditional approach is used by the manager.
Under this management, modern approach is used by the manager.
The flow of communication takes place in an indirect way. There is no free flow of communication under personnel management.
The flow of communication is direct. Hence, it results in free flow of communication.
(Chanda and Shen, 2009)
The daily work and routine task is determined and done by the personnel management.(Jones, 2008)
There is strategic planning and management takes place which is done by the human resource management.
Under this, the process of decision making is little bit slow in nature.
Under this, the decision making takes place in very fast manner.
The pay is dependent upon evaluation of the job.
The salary is dependent upon evaluation of the performance of the employees.
Performance evaluation- Performance evaluation is a process through which the performance and working of an employee can be examined by using certain methods of evaluation. It helps to improve the performance through training and development of the same. Many banks like HSBC bank use this process in their organization to decide the basic pay of the employees. They use the techniques of job evaluation under this. Basically there are two ways under which the procedure of job evaluation takes place-
- The qualitative measures(Kelly, 2008)
- The quantitative measures
TESCO is an organization whereby, managers provide various types of training and development programmes. It includes personality development classes, vestibule training, on the job training, etc to improve the performance of the employee. They also provide lectures for stress management in their organization. (Brewster, et.Al, 2016)
1.2. Assess how human resource management functions help your chosen organization in achieving its purpose.
Every origination has its own way of planning and functioning to achieve the goals of the same. As we know, that HRM is very important in an organization because it performs such functions like recruitment, selection, training, etc. Recruitment and selection is the most vital elements as they indicates the whole processing of the activities performed from the recruitment’s invitation to the final selection of the employees in an organization. Finally, the HR managers are responsible to provide training and development to the employees that consist of learning, lessons, knowledge about the job and company etc. (Bondarouk, et.Al. 2011)
Importance of human resource management in Harrods- Harrods is a departmental store in UK which believes in ‘all things for all people, everywhere’. Its food stalls and Christmas departments are the most famous departments of all. (Brewster, et. Al, 2016) Under Harrods, human resource management is the most crucial technique. They adopted very fair and specific policies which proved very effective. Their aim is to achieve a lucrative position in the market by adopting such policies in the organization. They believe in training that’s why they have some expert trainers who provides training and learning sessions to the employees.
1.3. Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in your organization or familiar organization and how it supports human resource management functions.
All the key functions of an organisation are performed by the line managers of the same. The roles and responsibilities of line managers are beyond the description as they are very important in nature. They are the supervisors who look after the functioning of all the levels work under them. Hence, the managers must be very disciplined and sincere in nature. (Chanda and Shen, 2009)
Today, Harrods reputation and the lucrative position is one of the results of their line manager’s performance and functions. They are on the top of all the departmental stores in UK’s market. It has become possible because of the strong and specific functioning and management of line managers of Harrods. Some specific functions of Harrods line managers are-(Jones, 2008)
- They have divider the roles and responsibilities into all the line managers.
- All the line managers have their particular responsibilities.
- They observe and supervise their subordinates in the most effective way.
- The line managers are very helping and cooperative.
- They help in problem solving and conflict handling.
- They maintain a strong relation with all the manager and subordinates.(Kelly, 2008)
1.4. Analyse the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management.
To safeguard the interest of the employees in an organisation, the government had passed various types of rules and regulations. There are many laws that provide a fair and legalised framework to perform at the workplace. This framework decides the work of human resource management.These laws act as a regulatory body for the employees. They safeguard the employees as much as possible. (Oecd, 2015) From 21st century, Harrods introduced the organisational framework of regulations to all the managers. Since then, they are performing according to these rules and regulations. The legal framework of Harrods is very effective and influenced by all the activities performed in the organisation. (Mondy,et.Al, 2005)
This organization is very sensitive and concerned for the discrimination that takes place in any organisation. So they had introduced some laws which are very ethical and work under the legal framework.
Some laws adopted by Harrods are-
- Dispute among labor
- Relations of laborers
- Rights of labor
- Compensation and pay
- Environment of work for employee
- Positive attitude towards the employees
- Fair opportunity for all the employees (Brewster, et.Al., 2016)
2.1 Analyze the reasons for human resource planning in organizations.
The meaning of HR planning is to ensure the right number of the employee’s requirement in an organisation and also to analyse the skills that are required in the same. It is a way through which an HR of an organisation fulfils the wants and needs of the workforce of a particular company. Under HR planning, there will be systematic analysis done by the HR through which the requirement can be judged. This analysis also consist the information and knowledge of the employees. According to this, the planning mechanism takes place in an organization. (Bondarouk, et.Al, 2011)
There are several task conducted by the HR which includes planning, recruitment, selection, training and development retirement, cessation etc. Hence HR planning is the most crucial task that needs accurate skills and knowledge of the same.
There are many other reasons due to which HR planning is important. It helps to calculate the number of workforce in the organisation. He has to use all the available resources in the most efficient and effective manager. An organisation can achieve progress through an effective planning. The satisfaction of the employees will also be achieved through a proper HR planning as it gives a chance to improve the mistakes and through training and development of the employees. Hence, it creates a positive impact on the cost, sales, production and income of the organisation.(Chanda and Shen, 2009)
2.2 Outline the stages involved in planning human resource requirements.
The planning of the HR requirement comprises of various stages that are required to manage the workforce of the organisation. Those stages involved-(Kelly, 2008)
- Collection of data- The first stage involves the collection of the data and information of the organization’s need and requirement for the workforce. It includes the number and the position at which there is a need for the same. It also includes the number of the workers who are in the stock of the organisation. This data depicts the age, number, location, skills, and knowledge of the current employees in a specific organisation.(Jones, 2008)
- Audit of the employees- It is the stage where the audit of the current employees takes place. Under this, there is a need to analyse the strategic objectives and strategic environment of the organisation. Audit means to analyse the old data and the current data and make a comparison between the two. Under this, Audit of cost sheets, payrolls, work turnover, retention rate, turnover of the employees, retirement etc. are analysed.
- Investigation of demand and supply- This is the anticipatory step under which the demand and the supply for the employees is decided by the HR of the organisation. The quality and the quantity of the workforce which is required in the organization are held under this stage. So the employees who match the requirement of the vacancy are selected and employed in the organisation.(Mondy,et.Al, 2005)
- HR resource plan- Under this stage, the HR needs to plan about the career planning of the organisationsas well as for the employees. It is very important because it helps to fulfil the organisation’s goals and objectives. The aim is to provide the possibility to achieve the goals and objectives.Thereby, the HR selects only those workforces who are very close to the same.
- Controlling and monitoring the workforce- It is the final stage of HRplanning whereby, there is a need to monitor the working of theworkforce so that improvement can takes place. It is the responsibility of HR to take care of the employees. They have to imply their skills in a way that the potential and the talent of the employees will be identified. (Oecd, 2015)
2.3 Compare the recruitment and selection process in two organisations.
Recruitment and selection under Tesco- Recruitment refers to the correct selection of the employees at the correct location or position. Tesco generally advertise the vacancies in different ways. They adopt internal and external practice of recruitment. In Internal recruitment, they judge the talent of the existing employees. They either provide them a promotion or sometimes transfer to fillup the positions. If they found that no employee is matching the requirement, then they advertise the invitation or recruitment. Tesco has their own website where they advertise the vacancies. Other media are like television, radio, magazines etc are also a part of advertisement in Tesco. (Gilbert, et.Al, 2015)
Tesco chooses only the most appropriate candidate for their organisation. They maintain all the rulesand regulations that are required. The screening part of selection is the most crucial task done by Tesco. They select the best employees only. This is done through screening of CV’s. Only those CV’s get selected who are bestwritten by the candidates. Then they conduct a test including team building, exercises, problem solving etc. At last, an interview is conducted to make sure that the employee is suitable for the origination or not.(Chanda and Shen, 2009)
Recruitment and selection under McDonald- McDonald is in food chain which also advertises the vacancies through job centres, career fairs and also from the local facilities available. The process of recruitment generally takes place through online applications. Those candidates who are unable to access the web can also apply through recruitment line or pre-paid reply card from the stores.(Jones, 2008)
The process of selection is little bit different from Tesco. As it is a food industry, it requires the candidates who are skilled enough to manage the workload of the same. First of all, an interview is conducted by the manager and then the selected candidates go through final round. Hence, in this way the new staff will enter in the premises of McDonald.They also provide a welcome meeting which includes the information about the industry, health and safety and the rules and regulations followed under the same.(Vanhala and Dietz, 2015)
2.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in two organisations.
- The HR of the organisation has the responsibility to recruit and select the most appropriate candidate in the organization as it plays a vital role. In every organization, whether its Tesco or McDonald, it helps to determine the performance of the workforce. It provides knowledge about the talent present in an organisation. (Kelly, 2008)
- It is very effective in nature as it identifies the future requirement of the human resource. If an organisation does not have appropriate staff then it results in decrease in the quality of the work.
- The optimum utilisation of scarce resource is also being done if there is adequate staff in an organisation. Hence, it is very necessary for the organization to have a proper recruitment and selection techniques.(Bondarouk,et.Al., 2011)
3.1 Assess the link between motivational theory and reward at Virgin Media or your chosen organization. Your answer must show if you think there is a link, what connects the two.
The reward and motivational theory is one and a same thing yet consist of some minor difference. NTL is an organization that merged with Virgin Media that result in its formation. The organization believes in employees motivation and determines them as an asset to the organization. They adopt various types of motivational theories which help to maintain the motivation of the employees. According to Virgin Media, motivation is a technique that is very much required to retain the employees for a longer period of time. It keeps the employees dedicated towards the work. Hence, the performance of the employees become better and they work with their full ability.(Jones, 2008)
Virgin Media also believe in providing rewards and bonus to their employees. It is also a motivational technique adopted by them. They use various reward system like ASPIRE field pay, monthly reward systems, pension, health benefits etc. They believe that job satisfaction is one thing that leads the employees retained in the organization. (Chanda and Shen, 2009)
There were two researchers who gave their motivational theories in order to maintain the satisfaction of the employees-
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory-
There are five stages of Maslow’s need theory that defines the important elements of a human being. Those are as follows-(Kelly, 2008)
- Basic factors- Food, water, clothes shelter, etc.
- Security and safety factors- It includes the safety that an individual needs while working at a workplace.(Mondy,et.Al, 2005)
- Social factors- It refers to the belongingness or need for the love that must be fulfilled by friends, family, relatives, etc.
- Esteem needs- Esteem needs are the needs that are achieved while performing some challenging task.
- Self- realization/actualization- It relates to the personal development of an employee that takes place in an organization. (Som, 2008)
Herzberg hygiene factors
- Satisfiers (Sarwade, 2011)
3.2 Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay at Virgin Media or your chosen organization.
Now days, the process of job evaluation has become too important as it helps to analyze the job of the employees within an organization. It includes various methods that help the employers to evaluate the job of the workers. It is done through a meeting whereby, all the relevant points like performance of the employees, potential, working styles etc has been discussed. They lay down several types of plans just to examine the job. It helps the employers to achieve the goals of the organization. Job evaluation sometimes results very positive to the employees a sit results in increase in the pay, promotions, more fairness, etc. (Oecd, 2015)
In an organization like Virgin Media, the employer believes in the methods that are related to ‘doing right things’ which means to do only those things which are fair and right in nature. It is very effective as it results in increase in the efficiency of the workers. They work with happiness and take initiatives in the organization. The criteria of corporate social responsibility provide opportunities to the employees which act as satisfactory elements for them. There is a particular procedure that helps in evaluation job-(Kelly, 2008)
- Job analysis- An analysis done by the employer of an employee under which all the information regarding the job like roles and responsibility, skills and qualification, etc that are required to perform a specific job, is termed as job analysis. It contains all the relevant factors regarding the job including its position also.
- Allocation of money- It defines the pay structure of an employee and allocation of money for a specific position.(Jones, 2008)
- Job rating- It is as similar as job analysis. Under this, the employer provides rating to their employees that help in performance appraisal of the same. (Townsend et al., 2011)
- Job classification- When the job is classified according to the pay structure of the employees than it is termed as job classification. It differentiates the jobs of employees as per the salary provided to them.(Mondy,et.Al, 2005)
3.3 Assess in different contexts (for e.g. attracting talent, retention, and motivation) how effective is the reward systems at Virgin Media or your chosen organization.
A reward system keeps the employees’ motivation and satisfaction on the top. Virgin Media is an organization that believes in the same. They have applied various techniques of giving reward to the employees. A scheme is started by Virgin Media that is known as ASPIRE field pay reward system under which the scheme rewards each Net Promoter® score (NPS) of 9 or 10 with £10. It is a company that has a forward and broad sense to make such decisions regarding the reward system. They know the value of job satisfaction for employees. (Chanda and Shen, 2009)
- They provide various types of reward systems that are either financial or non financial in nature. Financial factors comprise of salary, bonus, incentives, pensions, etc and non financial factors are like holidays, recognition, responsibility, authority, appraisal, gratuity etc.(Vermeulen, 2006)
- This organization also provides letter of appreciation to its employees when they score 10 on 10 under the scheme of NPS hero championship.
- The employers under this organization also appreciate their employees when they maintain the cultural values of the organization. Here, they have proposed a strategy terms as SHOUT strategy under which the same has done.(Ziegenbein, 2007)
3.4 Examine the methods Virgin Media or your chosen organization use to monitor employee performance.
The various methods adopted by Virgin Media in order to monitor the performance of the employees are written below-
- Performance appraisal- A method through the reviews of employee’s performance can be examined by the employers is called as performance appraisal. It is the oldest method of appraising the performance of the employees. Virgin Media has also adopted this method due to the accuracy that lies within this method of monitoring.(Vanhala and Dietz, 2015)
- Peer appraisal- Under this method, the suggestions and opinions of other members like managers, colleagues, employees are considered to evaluate the performance of an individual. It is the simplest method of all as there is a direct communication takes place. This data is then updated into the database systems by the managers that will help in the future.(Kelly, 2008)
- Dashboards- A source in which all the information and data about the performance of the employees is recorded. On the basis of critical success factors various matrices are involved accordingly. It is complex in nature yet helpful because under this, the data is made available directly to the managers.(Wolsey,et.Al, 2009)
- Record chart- A policy in which the calls are recorded to track the actions and work of the employees. It helps to improve the quality of the employees. Under this method, Microsoft excel sheets has been used whereby, the data is updated.
- Customer feedback- Under this, the suggestions and opinions of the customers are used to analyze and monitor the performance of the employees. It is the most effective technique as it depicts the needs and wants of the customers too. (Jones, 2008)
4.1 Identify the reasons for termination of Faisal’s employment contract with The Chicken Master and generally explain other reasons for cessation of employment.
Under the given case study, Bob was the owner of chicken master and Faisal was working as an employee at chicken master. Bob terminated Faisal from the job because he was unable to perform good and also violated the policies of the company. He was not doing the work assigned to him in a way it required to be performed. He was not cooking the food according to the given instructions by Bob and also unable to maintained the cleaning part of the kitchen. The kitchen remained dirty and unmanaged all the time. (Sarwade, 2011)
Bob found that Faisal was always busy in performing some personal work related to his own business without informing anyone. He was using the assets of the company for his own use which is wrong and illegal according to the law. Once, Bob caught him watching pornography at the workplace. He did lots of investigation and found that it was happening from the last few months. This was not enough as Bob found that Faisal regularly sent mails to his wife and also helps her daughter in her homework using company’s equipments. He was regularly spending the working hours for his personal benefits. Bob told Faisal that it is clearly mentioned in the terms and conditions that office equipments are only for office use not for personal use. The above mentioned are the reasons for the termination of Faisal. (Chanda and Shen, 2009)
Some other reasons due to which cessation or termination takes place are-
- Retirement- A situation whereby an employee attains a specific age that is above 60 when he is unable to perform the work with that energy that is required is termed as retirement. It is also takes place when the tenure to perform any service has completed. A retired employee is entitled for pension every month as it is mentioned in the contract of employment.(Som, 2008)
- Resignation- A resignation is a situation whereby the employee leaves the job voluntarily. Under this, he discontinues the service provide by him to the company.(Vermeulen, 2006)
- Redundancy- A situation in which the employee do not need to perform for the company is known as redundancy
- Death of the employee- When a person dies and unable to give his service to the company is termed as death of the employee.
- Dismissal- When an employer terminates an employee due to a valid or genuine reason is known as dismissal of the employment. (Kelly, 2008)
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedures used by The Chicken Master and another organization of your choice.
A way through which an employer terminates an employees in a legalize and respectful manner is termed as employment exit procedures. There are many reasons due to which an employment exit procedure takes place. Every organisation has its own method of termination of the employees. Some of the methods through which the chicken master does its exit procedure are written below-(Ziegenbein, 2007)
Dismissal- A situation whereby an employer asked the employee to discontinue with the employment is termed as dismissal by the employer.
Dismissal can be of four types-
- Fair dismissal- When a dismissal takes place due to a valid and fair reason then it is known as fair dismissal. It may be due to-(Gilbert,et.Al., 2015)
- The capacity
- Some other reasons related to law(Jones, 2008)
- Unfair dismissal- When the dismissal of an employee takes place due to some unfair reasons is known as unfair dismissal. It may be due to discrimination that happens as per the caste, gender, religion, colour, etc. this type of dismissal results in penalty charged by the regulatory body to the employer who do all these practice in the organisation.
- Constructive dismissal- When there is a breach in the contract between the employer and the employee takes place then the employee resigns from the employment. This type of dismissal is termed as constructive in nature. Under this, the employee has the right to sue against the employer.(Ziegenbein, 2007)
- Wrongful dismissal- When the employer takes any actions which are against the contract of the employment is known as wrongful dismissal.(Noe, 2006)
Voluntarily resignation by employee- When the employee refuses to continue to perform in the organisation and gives resignation to the employer by his or her own will is known as voluntarily resignation. (Thompson, 2011)
Employment exit procedure of Harrods-
- They inform the employees in advance about the cessation.
- They give proper time to the employees to place his or her arguments against the company.
- They have a formal procedure for cessation.
- If the employees are unable to win the argument, then they again inform them in a formal and polite way.
- They send a card that is known as cessation card to the employees addressing the final cessation of them. Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements with an organization.
Every organization is bound with the law under which they have to follow the rules and regulation. The implications of laws are must as they provide a legal framework. Organizations should adopt a fair and valid dismissal in their organization as it is the duty and responsibility of the employers too.(Vanhala and Dietz, 2015) Under the exit procedure of the employment, there is a well established process laid down by the government which provides right way of cessation to both the employees and the employers.
There are many regulatory bodies that are-
- The ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service) - It is the code of practice that work for the fairness and equality of the employees. The employees should know about the guidelines of ACAS. (Jones, 2008)
- The Labor Relations Agency (LRA) code of practice for Northern Ireland- It is a law which works for the relations of employees within an organization.
- The Employment Rights Act, 1996- It works for the welfare of the employees. Like safeguards from the discrimination, inequality, etc.
- The regulation for dismissal- This law helps the employers to lay down a proper procedure of dismissal of the employees.(Chanda and Shen, 2009)
- The regulation for redundancy- This law helps to avoid the conflicts among the employer and the employee.
- The resolution of disputes- This law helps the employers and the employee to sort out the grievance and conflict among all.(Wolsey,et.Al, 2009)
Through this study, the learners will know the importance of human resource management in an organization. It is very essential to manage the human resource so that the objectives can be achieved in the most efficient and effective manner. Every organization has an HR department that has its own roles and responsibilities. It varies from organization to organization.
With the help of this study, the learners will be able to know the contribution of motivational theories and reward systems for the customer satisfaction . They will also know the necessity of the health and hygiene factors with regard to the employees. There is a brief description of the efforts done by the employers to keep the motivation of the employees so that the retention ratio will be higher. It tells about the management of grievance handling and conflict solving done by the employers too.
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