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Unit 3 Managing Human Resource Assignment – Marks & Spencer
Considering its uniqueness and volubility, human resource plays a vital role in the development of the company. There is a major part of human resource management in the functioning of an organization as it faces infinite number of challenges in this dynamic working environment. Due to the lack of capable resources and increasing demands of the employees, there is an increase in complex issues rising for the human resource team. In this Unit 3 Managing Human Resources Assignment Marks & Spencer we will be discussing about the distinct prospect of human resource management. It illuminates the working process of the management in terms of tractability and facilitating equal favorable circumstances. This assignment will help in superior perceptive of HR techniques. Our study is based on Marks & Spencer organization. Established in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer, Marks and Spencer, also known as M&S, is a leading international retailer in UK whose headquarter is in Westminster, London. Apart from selling food products it also deals with sale of clothing, luxury and home products. Constituting 914 stores in UK, Marks & Spencer have expanded itself in countries like Egypt, Russia, Greece and many more as well. It is well listed in London Stock Exchange. (Marks & Spencer, 2016)
1.1 Explain Guest’s model of HRM as applied to the organisation of your choice.
David Guest has given a model of human resource management that has six measurement of assessment:
- HRM strategies
- HRM practices
- HRM outcomes
- Organisation Behavior outcomes
- Performances outcomes
- Financial outcomes
The Guest’s model of HRM clears the distinctiveness between human resource management and personnel management. The main aim of the model is to fulfill the needs of the individual instead of meeting the needs of the collective team force. It states that the relation between employees’ commitment and performance is difficult to establish. The guest’s model of HRM supports flexibility at the work place. (Price, 2016). The application of Guest’s model by the management at Marks & Spencer, the company has gained the confidence and commitment of employees toward their work. The biggest possession for the Marks & Spencer is their employees working with full dedication. In order to improve their skills, the company organizes training from time to time. To attain the organizational objective, the management looks out for the best management approaches to increase the efficiency and ability of the employees. In order to build up flexibility at work place, the organization believes in decentralization of responsibilities thus giving every employee opportunity to improvise. At Marks & Spencer, employees have privilege to discuss their issues and share their opinions and thoughts on particular subject. Introduction to different leadership styles have also encouraged employees to make decisions up to some extent. All this has created a sense of security in the mind of employees that they are valued. Effective channels of communicating are important at every level for the functioning of the organization.
1.2 Using an organisation of your choice, compare the differences between Storey’s definitions of HRM, personnel and IR practices.
John Storey distinguished between human resource management and personnel management. He clearly defined human resource management as a modern and logical approach for the employees as they are the valuable resource of the company. He stressed on the fact that human resource is much broader concept as it is related to the structure and cultural behaviour of an organization whereas personnel management has a limited scope in terms of the organizational behaviour. It is the duty of an HR manager to encourage the employees regarding the organizational objectives and goals. On the other hand, personnel managers bound their employees to follow the rules and norms set by them. The key focus of personnel management is to supervise the man force under serious invigilation which pressurizes the employees to accomplish goals without giving them opportunities to excel in their fields of work. On the other hand, the human resource management targets on providing the dynamic working environment which enables the flexibility of employees and helps in improvising which ultimately lead to extraordinary outputs. The main point of difference between both the management is that the human resource management focuses on boosting the skills and efficiency of the workers whereas for personnel management employees act as a medium to achieve organizational goals. (Sukumar, 2011)
At Marks & Spencer, the management sincerely follows the perception of human resource and John Storey’s theory of reframing leaders. The organization aims on facilitating suitable slot to the employees by applying flexibility at work place in order to get the best outcomes from them. It is responsible for measuring the cognitive aspects of the employees by considering them as their valuable resources. To enhance the skills of the employees, the company organizes various learning and training programs. When employees deliver outstanding results, they are awarded with bonuses and incentives as a token of appreciation which ultimately boosts their confidence.
1.3 Assess the implications for line managers and employees of developing a strategic approach to HRM for any organisation of your choice.
There are several connotations regarding the implications of line managers and employees at M&S when it comes to developing a strategic approach. It is the responsibility of the line managers to integrate the regulations and policies, organizational structure and culture, targeting goals and objectives. The various aspects of HRM such as different styles of leadership, job rotation, hierarchal system of management has different influence on the line managers as they have to lead the employees by neglecting conflicts such as difference in goals of employees and goals of organization as it can have negative impact on the growth of the company. Considering the employees of the organization, implication varies from security of job, pay scale or fluctuation of rewards that totally relies on the performances of the employees in the company. (Lennon, 2010)
2.1 Explain how a model of flexibility might be applied in your organisation.
In order to avoid failure and exploitation of employees, it is important for the organization to provide flexible working environment. New and better techniques can be promoted by implementing flexibility in the workforce. Considering it as the best method for the employees, it helps in meeting the goals and targets for the organization. Flexibility provides organization with more choices as it not only helps in accomplishing organizational goals but also fulfils the individual goals of the employees. It encourages loyalty and improvises the ability and efficiency of employees. The continuous upgrading of the company’s norms supports the identification of modern and prominent methods of innovating new things. (Mack, 2016) Part time jobs, work from home, extra working hours etc. are the models of flexibility. With this feature, employee has the facility to work under no restricted timings.
At Marks & Spencer, the management recognizes the necessities of the employees; therefore various methods and strategies have been introduced for the convenience of the employees. For instance, smart phones facilities have been given to the employees while they are on business tour. Minimal call charges and free net services have been provided to employees to save the time and finish the target within the given deadline and improvise their efficiency to work.
2.2 Discuss the types of flexibility which may be developed by your organisation.
The increment in duties of employees and changes in structure of working environment have led to the circumstances where employees have to manage personal and professional life together. Such situations have made the need of flexibility at workplace more than ever. Implementation of flexibility have increased the production and concentrated the cost of stocks. The post-effects of the flexibility can be clearly seen in the employees’ will to work and their commitment towards organizational goals. Various types of flexible work practices that can be seen at Marks & Spencer are mentioned below:
- Compressed working hours: At M&S employees are given choice to choose the working hours. This type of flexibility is usually offered to part-time work employees. This is usually done at the time of recession. Employees avails this as an opportunity to give the best outcomes which ultimately fulfill their personal requirements too.
- Work from home: This type of flexibility is usually for the employees who prefer to work from home. It saves the time and money of the organization and is considered as the most effective method. At M&S, the supportive management provides such flexibility so that money can be utilized properly on the manufacturing and other products.
- Flexibility in the working days: M&S encourages increased working hours instead of increased working days in order to support employees in getting an extra day to relax at the end of the week. This method saves time and cost of the company.
- Job-sharing: Job is shared between two or more than two employees. This option is not provided to the new interns as they lack training but is beneficial for the existing employees.
- Telecommuting: Employees work either from their home or any other place as decided on a fixed time. This option saves the travelling expenses and costs of the company.
- Shift swapping: Workers are free to change shifts among themselves while making sure that there is replacement while they are gone. Such type of flexibility at work provides freedom to the employees and willingness to perform the tasks. (Employment law clinic, 2016)
2.3 Assess the use of flexible working practices from both the employee and the employer perspective.
The employee-related motive of the organization Marks & Spencer is to give a promising career to the employees where they enjoy work rather than considering it merely a job. To ensure that company has introduced various models of flexibility. Part-time job and work from home are types of flexibilities offered to the mothers who have to manage both personal and professional life. Job sharing and job rotation are the other types of flexibility at workplace.
- Advantages of employer: The implementation of flexibility allows the employers to manage their personal and professional life. Flexibility has offered a relaxed and standardized life at workplace which has led to incredible results in production and commitment of the employees towards the company. With the increased turnover and employees’ commitment towards the work, flexibility has benefitted the company.
- Disadvantages of employer: There are some advantages of flexibility as well. Sometimes the administrative expenses such as the use of phones and fuel could reach heights if employees are not trained how to use it judicially. Different working hours can jam the communication among the employees. Work from home may be beneficial for employees but it is a disadvantage for employer as it causes absenteeism from work because of which the company is restrained to hold important meetings.
- Advantages of employee: The flexible working conditions ensure healthy relation between employees and employers. They work as team to achieve organizational objective. It helps employers to know their employees better. This reduces tension and motivates the employees. Flexibility is implemented to bring change at workplace which motivates employees to improve their skills and diminish their weaknesses. (Boucher, 2013)
- Disadvantages of employee: Due to compact working hours, it is hard for the employees to balance their personal and work life. The workers who are efficient enough may feel tired for longer working hours. Therefore flexibility in work may sometimes be difficult. (Kokemuller, 2016)
2.4 Discuss the impact that changes in the labour market have had on flexible working practices.
Labour market flexibility means the capacity of the labour to react to the modification in the market trends. It is considered as an important factor for the adaptation of demand and supply in market. (Economics online, 2016) Impact of labour market that has had on the flexible work practices are:
- Mobility of labour: at Marks & Spencer, employees are swapped from one job to another which has increased the efficiency and led to the development of the employees. They are not only efficient in their job but are also capable of performing jobs of different departments.
- Technological change: technological invention such as internet has offered employees to work from home especially female workers who can manage their work and personal life together. Internet provides scope to get information which is easily available on internet.
- Skills and training: M&S organizes regular training and learning programs for the employees which improvises the skills of labour motivating them to perform multiple tasks.
- Changing social environment: with increase in participation of female workers, M&S offer part time employment for the women who are career oriented plus manages their families as well. (Economic help, 2016)
3.1 Explain the forms of discrimination that can take place in the workplace using examples of recent discrimination cases which has made the news.
Employment discrimination refers to the unequal treatment with someone on the foundation of bigotry. It has always been a reason for concern for the organizations as it can have a negative impact on company’s reputation. Based on organizations related to M&S, several cases of discrimination have been reported and management has taken serious measures to sort out these issues.
- Gender discrimination: this type of discrimination is usually carried out by the higher authority in the organization such as offering greater challenges to the male workers rather than female workers. This provides chance to male workers to manifest themselves in front of managers whereas female workers are left behind. Sexual harassment, negative treatment and biased promotion are also types of gender discrimination. At M&S, these issues are solved at managerial level as managers provide equal opportunities to both the genders.
- Religious discrimination: this involves the unfair treatment with employees on the basis of their religion. The organization should make necessary arrangements for the employees following different religion. They should have the provision of wearing their religious clothes and should get a day off on religious holidays. M&S makes sure that employees of different religion are not harassed by other employees.
- Racial discrimination: this is the most common discrimination seen in any organization. It is strictly exempted by the law. Different people from various corners of the world work under same roof. They usually face negative treatment on the basis of their colour or race. They are usually harassed by the people of local community. Unethical comments are faced by the people belonging to different origin. The management at M&S interfere in such matters to sort out the problems at it could make the company’s position at stake.
- Disability status: government has made various business law regarding the employment of disabled people. There should not be unfair treatment of employees with disability. They should be deprived of the job if they are capable enough to perform but that does not mean company should hire every person with disability. Management is not allowed to ask medical questions instead they should queries related to the job. Proper arrangements should be made concerning the requirements of disabled ones. The management at M&S ensures that all the necessities required by disabled employees is available in the campus. (Malone, 2016)
3.2 Discuss the practical implications of equal opportunities legislation for an organisation.
If we see current situations, several laws and legislations have been imposed in every organization to prevent the exploitation of the employees and securing their interest in order to operate the organization smoothly. The company also implements to safeguard the interest of its customers who are actually plays the role in consuming the products and are considered as the important segment of an organization. From many laws and regulations stated by government, one of the major laws implemented by Marks & Spencer is the equal opportunities provided by them to all the members working in an organization. They offer chances to employee to prove that they are capable of performing the task assigned to them. This helps the management to recognize the true talents in an organization and further they can be utilized to their best level. Another law implemented at Marks & Spencer is the law of equal pay. Under this law, the management is entitled to pay the employees on the basis of their job performed. There is no discrimination in terms of gender, race or religion when it comes to the equality in payment. The law of equal payment permits the company to challenge the employees be it male or female to use their full potential and according to that they are rewarded in terms of bonuses and incentives. This helps the company to know more about employees’ capabilities. Other than this the work of employees should be known to the employers based on their past experiences so that organization can provide them with different task and bring the best out of them. Marks & Spencer is an organization that trusts the calibre of the employees while assigning them the tasks. They believe that the employees are biggest resource of the company and should be treated equally and should be appraised at every level. (Furber, 2010)
3.3 Compare the approaches to managing equal opportunities and managing diversity. You should give examples from a selected organisation and discuss the similarities and differences in their approaches to managing equal opportunities and diversity.
Marks & Spencer is a type of organization where operations are carried out smoothly and management is responsible for upgrading the system according to the changing market trends which is beneficial for the company. Within the past years, company has excelled itself in the field of business. Considering the factors such as size and structure of M&S, it needs the employees in large numbers to execute the working of company in a programmed way. Employees are the biggest asset of the organization and in order to make them contended the company has to perpetuate the diversity and should provide even opportunities to every employee in the organization. It is the duty of the management to update their system and strategies in accordance with the employees so that they could fulfil their expectations. The management at Marks & Spencer ensures that employees are given equal opportunities so that they can excel in their field of work which also promotes diverseness since organizations have people from different background. Another technique used by Marks & Spencer to manage equality among employees is imposing gender equality. Either it is male or female worker, the company assigns post on the basis of their qualification and ability to perform the task. The organization targets in achieving the company goals along with enhancing the skills of employees. Every employee is given right to express their thoughts and views regarding the subject which also promotes law of equality. (Gravett, 2003)
4.1 Select an organisation you work or have worked for, identify and compare the performance management methods used.
Everyone is well aware of the position that Marks & Spencer holds in market. Not only because of its size and structure but also due to the flexible working environment Marks and Spencer has established itself in the global market. Mostly it is favoured by its existing employees plus it is a dream company for new aspirants. Some of the techniques used by the company to enhance the performance of the employees are:
- The management is well aware of what it wants from the employees. It is significant for the company to know what idea dwells in the mind of top level management and what is beneficial for the company. Accordingly company works on the areas of improvement to enhance the performance of the staff.
- It is important to describe the workers what are the objectives and goals of the company. Clearly stating the objectives will set the goals in the mind of the employees which will boost their performance ultimately.
- The company keeps a regular check on the performance of the staff in contrast to goals and standards so that management gathers the important information regarding the performance of the employees and accordingly feedback is provided.
- The management should be well ready for the performance review meeting. In order to make meeting effective and energetic, the management at M&S ensure that everything is right on track for the performance appraisal. It also aims on motivational requirements of the employees by enquiring them about their ideas and thoughts before presenting their own.
- The management gives feedback, particularly criticism, to the employees about their performances in a clear and polite tone that does not look harsh on the employees. There should be a proper clarification about the consequences regarding the performance of the employees so that there is a scope of improvement.
- The M&S Company holds a meeting on a regular basis where they motivate, criticise, appreciate and gives support. With the reaction they get, they understand how to deal with it and enhance the performances of the individuals. (Joan, 2012)
4.2 Assess the approaches used to managing employee welfare in your organisation.
It has been discussed previously that Marks & Spencer consider its employees as the biggest resource. Due to which all the policies and strategies are made concerning them. It is totally preposterous to run a company without considering about the employees welfare. Some of the approaches used to manage employee welfare are as follows:
- Compliance: the management has to abide by all the rules and regulations set by the government of that country related to employees’ welfare. They are forced to provide health insurance to the employees so that they can stay fit and healthy.
- Recruitment and Retention: the employees receive advantages from the management for his own good is actually an important factor that why he chooses to accept the job offer. By benefitting the employees the company gives the competition to other organization on the grounds of retention and recruitment of the skilled workers. If the qualified employees are benefitted from other organizations then they prefer to go there.
- Employees' Well-Being: By offering a strategy which is beneficial for employees, the company makes them feel that they matter a lot. This makes them feel welcome and happy in the company and motivates them to perform better. If the health plan has covered the well being and preventive measures in case of mishap, employees tend to work more resulting in less absenteeism from work.
- Company Image: when a company offers a good plan for employees’ welfare, it builds a good reputation of the company publicly which results in increased number of customers. This may boost the production and maximize the profit of the company.
Thus we can say that marks and Spencer brings variety of employees’ welfare scheme from time to time to satisfy their employees as happy employees tend to work harder and boost the production of the company. (Koening, 2016)
4.3 Discuss the implications of health and safety legislation on human resources practices.
Human resource management is responsible for ensuring the issues related to health and safety of employees in the organization. The management is prohibited to brag about the implications of safety and health policies at workplace. At M&S employees are happy and contented with the policies and strategies developed to shield their well being. It is the responsibility of the safety manager to design policies in context with the rules and regulations abided by the government of that company. Safety policies vary from instructions for running complicated machinery to controlling circumstances of workplace coercion. In some organizations like M&S workplace safety is a matter of concern that employees are given rewards for no injury monthly as it shows that employees abide by safety rules at workplace. The organizations that strictly impose safety rules at workplace, employees from such organizations tend to give their best for the betterment of the company. At M&S training and learning programs are conducted on a regular basis regarding the security and protection of employees that might be required at the time of emergency. (Mayhew, 2016)
4.4 Evaluate the impact of another topical issue on human resources practices.
Many arguments have been confronted by the world of business in the past few years. So in order to survive in the market, it is important to keep one upgraded with the current market approaches. E-learning is one of the major factors that affect the practices of the human resource management in one way or another. It is necessary to impose E-learning as it supports in keeping the employees and management restore with the current technological innovations of the market. By implementing such practice the company can do wonders. It is very critical that the company should apply E-learning module as it will not only support the employees but also the management to keep everyone upgraded. The biggest benefit of E-learning is that it does not create any obstruction with the working of departments and neither has it created any hindrance in the performance of the employees as well as organization. (Carnwell, and Carson, 2011)
From the above Unit 3 Managing Human Resource Assignment Marks & Spencer we can conclude by saying that the organizations are employees oriented. They have taken initiative towards the health and safety of employees. The main motives of companies in not only to achieve organizational objectives but also to provide healthy working environment where employees feel comfortable and sense of belonging. They are provided with the necessities ensuring their security and health. In the end this conclusion can be drawn that in order to attain higher productivity the companies have to look after the welfare and requirements of the employees as happy employees tend to give higher results rather than the unsatisfied ones.
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In this Unit 3 Managing Human Resource Assignment Marks & Spencer we will be discussing about the distinct prospect of human resource management, Locus Assignment Help UK posting units solutions so scholars can explore Assignment Help in UK and get review the quality of our work.