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In the Unit 3 Human Resources Management Assignment Copy the focus is laid on the human resource management and personnel management practices followed in the organisations. The study has focused on different activities like recruitment and cessation of employees and the strategies followed by organisations for retaining employees. This study would also review how to recruit and retain staff of right skills and their contribution to the achievement of organisational purposes. This report has identified that it is important for the organisation to follow motivational strategies to retain the employees. Report has also identified that the HR needs t focus on policies and processes that helps in retaining the employees.
Personnel management and HRM is a part of management which deals with relations of human in the organization. The objective of personnel management in Tesco is to maintain relationship which will result into enhanced contribution of personal in working of organization. Human Resource Management deals with application and understanding of procedures and policy which affect the working of people directly within working group and project team. At Tesco HRM practices includes the policies related to retention, recruitment, reward, training, personal development, career and training development (Boxall and Purcell, 2011).
Table1: HRM v/s Personnel management
Basis of comparison
The people mostly related to file rank are involved such as top management and board
All the people working within organization are involved including part and full time staff, resource person or consultant, middle and top management and board
Flex, part-time and full-time
Only formal setting
Both informal and formal setting
Types of function
1. few and simple
a. Management-labour relationship, b. screening social activities and recruitment,
c. personnel information
1. varied and complex
a. evaluation, designing and analysis of job
b. acquisition of human resources
c. planning, screening, recruitment, selection,
d. orientation, evaluation and assessment and motivation
e. movement analysis, compensation administration, benefits
f. management labour relations, services and participation program
5. Office in charge and department
Chief executive officer and administrative officer (Guest, 2011)
Human resource department
Records clerk and lawyer
Social science researcher and behavioural scientist
Line of managers at lower level
Chief executive officer and general manager at higher level
Emphasize on accomplishment of goals
Emphasize on accomplishment of both individual and organizational goals
a. structural and technical
b. reactive and inflexible
c. organization and control oriented
a. innovative and creative
b. proactive and flexible
c. socio-technical oriented
Following is the contribution of HRM to organisation purposes of Tesco-
Following are the role of line managers in Tesco:
The legal and regularity framework influencing HRM at Tesco are as follows-
Tesco policies comply with the above mentioned legislations. For example, employees can enjoy both paternity and maternity leave that are their legal right. Organizations may face penalties, complex and complicated legal battles and suits, if they are not complying with mandatory legislations (Boxall and Purcell, 2012). Legal and regulatory framework protects employee’s rights, provides standardization of HR practices, prevent discrimination, attract talented labour market and develop good reputation and image of organizations.
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HR planning is the procedure of estimating the future requirement of human resource in the organization and then taking required action to fulfil this need. The reasons for human resource planning in Tesco are as follows-
Recruitment is a public relation exercise concerned with obtaining a field of suitable applicants. The objective of recruitment is to obtain right kind and right number of people. Thus, it can be concluded that recruitment is the process of finding the right person of right kind at right time for right job to fulfil organization’s objective. The common methods of recruitment are advertising, word of mouth, agencies, head hunting, consultants, career fairs or exhibitions and internet. Selection is the process of identifying the most suitable candidate among the applicants. The study compares the recruitment and selection process for the position of store manager. At Tesco, preference is given to the employees within the company. The notification for the internal vacancy is given on the company portal. The notification has the details about the requirement. Interested candidates can apply through internal job portal. Shortlisted candidates undergo the interview process and a candidate is finalised. In case Tesco does not find the appropriate candidate within the organisation, it looks to hire external candidates.
The selection of candidate at ALDI starts with resume collection and their short listing of candidates followed by a personal interview which is popular and an interviewer requires high skills to identify the suitability of the candidate. References from employees are again a method of recruitment and selection which is popular at ALDI but it is difficult for HR manager to predict the results of the candidate. Psychological tests are another method of selection which is not very popular but its predictive results are good (Sarkis.et.al.2010). Assessment criteria are method of selection which is becoming popular these days and is a useful predictor but this method involves cost. Work sampling and work test is less popular method of selection which is not used often but it is one of the best predictors. Computer recruitment networks are also useful resource of recruitment and selection.
Effectiveness of recruitment in Tesco –
Effectiveness of external recruitment in ALDI –
Effectiveness of aptitude test as selection criteria in Tesco–
Effectiveness of interview method for selection in ALDI-
Motivation can be defined as a procedure which directs an individual to achieve a goal or objective. There are three types of reward which are extrinsic, intrinsic and social rewards. The tangible benefit an employee receives in return of his efforts is called as extrinsic reward. The psychological reward that an employee receives from his work experience is intrinsic reward. The sense of belongingness, common purpose and being with other people acts as social reward for employees. The forms of extrinsic rewards at virgin media are performance bonuses and cash rewards.. The forms of intrinsic rewards are feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction from work (Castellanos?Ryan.et.al.2011). Intrinsic rewards can motivate an employee by helping him finding his personal meaning, by developing a positive and open atmosphere, varying the roles in work, being enthusiastic and developing an environment of learning.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1954) defines the internal and external needs of a person at five stages and a manager can motivate an employee to perform better by fulfilling his needs. According to Maslow, the first need is physiological need, followed by safety and social needs, then esteem needs and lastly, self-actualization. A person reaches to next level of need only when the first level of need is fulfilled. To fulfil the physiological need, a manager should arrange seats and should ensure proper light and ventilation, comfort and adequate breaks. To fulfil the safety needs, a manager should follow safety rules, treat employees fairly, and maintain privacy and confidentiality.
Social needs can be fulfilled by developing a sense of belongingness by encouraging participation in groups, offer interactions with others and providing cohesive environment (Bühler.et.al.2010). The esteem needs of the employees can be fulfilled by welcoming ideas, praising, offering recognition and treating staff with dignity. The self- actualization needs can be fulfilled by developing and supporting career structure, being positive about future, promoting enthusiasm and optimism.
Factors determining pay are as follows-
The organizations which are performing well manage their reward system in a way to that predicts the best way to achieve desired result. There are different approaches to reward systems. Scientific and evidence based approach is one of such approaches. To form a scientific and evidence based benefits and incentive plans is costly. Organizations are widely using pay benchmarking and balanced scorecard to justify and evaluate reward practices. (Odom.et.al.2013) studied the impact of change in pay structure on the performance of employees and they concluded in their study that the management should keep realistic view while evaluating the performance of employees. (Domínguez.et.al.2013) suggested that evaluation of reward system is last but not the least step in compensation management.
(Campbell.et.al.2012) suggested that the reward system should be redesigned of reformulated on the basis of evaluation of reward system. Scott et. al. (2006) described the approach with following six steps (i) setting objective and goal (ii) recognizing criteria of evaluation (iii) choosing an evaluation method (iv) collection and analysis of data (v) interpretation of finding (vi) developing and implementing strategies. For identifying the appropriate rewards, it is important to carry out analysis internally as well as use benchmarking.
The methods used by organizations to monitor employee performance are as follows-
Following are the reasons for the cessation of employment with in Chicken Master-
Table 2: The reasons for the cessation of employment with an organization
When an employee misconduct or there are large number of complaints against employee for unfair dismissal
When the employee does not have required skills, qualification and ability for the post and unable to perform the job satisfactorily.
In case of redundancy, the employer may fairly dismiss the employee (Yang.et.al.2012).
The loss of important document which make the candidate eligible for a job, will prevent the continuation of employment.
Other situations such as misrepresentation or fraud
The general employment exit procedures or steps used by organizations are as follows-
The employment exit procedures or steps used by Boston University are as follows-
The employment exit procedures or steps used by Chicken Master are as follows-
It is vital for Chicken Master to maintain legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements in this competitive business world (Grubb & Wells, 1994). The conditions and terms of cessation and exit procedure of employment are to be followed by each and every organization. The legal and regulatory frameworks bound the organization from dismissing any employee wrongfully or unfairly (Abdi and Aulakh, 2012). The organizations are required to give prior notice period to employee before dismissing him.
Wrongful dismissal means employer is breaching the contract of employment. In such case, employee can sue employer in court. Thus, it is required that employer perform all the paper work; ensure that no contract is breached. Unfair dismissal means the fair reasons defined in the statutory grounds which can terminate a contract. There are six such fair reasons which are incapability, redundancy, misconduct, planned retirement, illegality and other substantial reasons. The employer is required to follow these six fair reasons to terminate an employment contract (Leighton and Wynn, 2011). An employer is required to follow fair procedure before terminating an employment contract even in the case of fair reasons. The employer is required to first give warnings to the employee.
Personnel management is a part of management which deals with relations of human in the organization while Human Resource Management deals with application and understanding of procedures and policy which affect the working of people directly within working group and project team. Legal and regulatory framework protects employee’s rights. Human resource planning is the process of estimating the future requirement of human resource in the organization and then taking required action to fulfil this need. Recruitment is the process of finding the right person of right kind at right time for right job to fulfil organization’s objective while selection is the process of identifying the most suitable candidate among the applicants. Rewards can motivate an employee to perform better. The organizations which are performing well manage their reward system in a way to that predicts the best way to achieve desired result. It is vital for organizations to maintain legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements in this competitive business world
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