Delivery in day(s): 5
Unit 21 Function of Human Resource Management Assignment
The main aim of Unit 21 Function of Human Resource Management Assignment study is to introduce the learners to the new concepts and practices that are used in human resource management in United Kingdom. Its main focus is on the management of recruitment, employment cessation and retention strategies that are used in an organisation. Under this study, there is a brief description of different theoretical aspects within human resource management that help learners to explain various approaches to personnel management. They learns planning, organising, staffing, controlling directing etc. recruitment and retention strategies are also learned under this case Learners will have a deep knowledge about the motivational theories and practices used under human resource management. They learn how to motivate employees so that they can retain for a longer period of time. Finally learners will also get to know about the cessation mechanism of employment. They can work with an effective and efficient management of human resource .
Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management.
Human resource management
It is a kind of new version of personnel management.
It is the old and basic version of management.
It is a modern approach of human resource management that includes all the new and innovative techniques to manage. (Bhatia, 2009)
It is the traditional approach of human resource management that basically includes old techniques to manage.
Its main aim is to acquire, development & growth, motivation and management of human resource in organisation.
Its main target is to administrate persons and employees welfare in the organisation.
Its assumption for employees is as an important and valuable assets and resource to achieve the desired goals.
Its assumption for employees is as an input so that the desired output can be achieved.
Goals determination and achievement is decided through assumption from human resource.
Under this the personnel functions are assumed as determinants of goal achievement.
Job can be designed on the basis of teams/groups. Employees are divided among teams in which they have to perform their tasks.
Job can be designed on the basis of workers division of work. (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2011)
Under human resource management, employees have many opportunities regarding training and development.
Under personnel management there are not more opportunities provided to employees for training and development.
In this, the power of decision making is not centralised. It is divided among employees. They collectively make decisions.
In this, only top management authority has the right to take and make decisions.
It emphasise on participation and effectiveness of employees. Its main aim is to motivate employees so that they can participate and work more than their ability.
It emphasise on increase in the production and satisfaction of employees.(Ballweber, 2015)
The most concerned and responsible persons are all the managers from to lower management.
The most concerned and responsible person is personal manager.
1.2 Assess the function of the human resource management in contributing to organisational purposes.
- Planning of human resource- There must be a proper planning of all the employees working in the organisation. The number, type, and the functions are also be analysed.(Cessation, 2007)
- Examine the job- The whole description of job, its nature and specifications of requirements, skills that are needed, and experience of employees all are part of the same.
- Staffing- All the activity related to recruitment and selection of the employees for an organisation come under this. Keeping the correct person at a correct place and at a correct time is all about staffing.
- Orientation- A time where the organisation gives a brief description about it and also introduces them about the same. It gives a crux to the employees that what is the organisation all about.(Gashi, 2013)
- To train and develop- To enhance the skills of the employees, organisation injects some training programmes for the employees. They initiate some techniques to give them training and development.
- Appraisal of the performance- While monitoring the work of the employees, an appraisal takes place so that the work done by them can be easily calculated. Feedbacks are given for the employees to judge their performances.
- Plan of the career- The whole growth and development of the employees in determined under this. Also the potential must be judged of the employees.
- Compensation of employees- It means the pay and monetary benefit that is provided o the employees to keep them motivated for a long time. Providing them a fair and accurate pay give them a reason to stay in the organisation.(Falcone, 2010)
- Benefits- It refers to other form of compensation that an employee’s achieves after performing there task. It can be anything like allowance, pension etc. it is also one method to motivate the employees.
- Relations of labour- The interaction and communication between all the employees must be very polite and professional. There must be a code of conduct according to which all have to communicate.
- Personnel research- All the facts and information for the employees have been collected and then analyse each and every one’s performance after doing research on them.(Gashi, 2013)
1.3. Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management
- Training, guiding, and coaching- It includes the guidance that is given by the line manager to the employees. It involves proper coaching in which over all instructions are given by the employer to the employees.
- Communication and employees involvement- The flow of information takes place in every organisation. It is designed by the line manager. He is also responsible for the level of involvement employee’s show in the work.
- Work-life balance- There should be a balance in the work and the personal life because due to it the potential of the employee can be either enhance or lower down.
- Grievance handling for employees- Grievance handling includes the team that work for the problem and conflicts solving. It is done by the line manager. He is the one in the organisation who have to manage the relations among the employees and bring harmony in the organisation. (Ballweber, 2015)
- Selection and recruitment- It involves all the processes that takes place to admit a new employee in the organisation. He have to manage the human resource requirement and hence he have to make decisions to fulfil if any need identified.(Bhatia, 2009)
- Enable human resource policies- Human resource policies are the policies that are also be managed by the line manager because he is the immediate senior of employees and he is also responsible for doing and making decisions.
- Control work flow- The flow of work can be judge by the line manager so that there will be no mistake arise in any condition. At each and every stage, he has to check the work that is done by the employees and correct them on right time to avoid the worst situations.
- Allocation of resources- Optimum allocation of scarce resources is also done by the line manager. He is the one who have to allocate all the resources at the right place so that there is full utilisation of resource takes place.(Cessation, 2007)
1.4 Analyse the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management.
- The Employment Rights Act- this act provides a wide range of contractual rights to the employees that are working in an organisation. It can be-
- Entitle to a pay statement that includes all the items
- Entitle to the minimum wage that must be paid
- There must be a written statement of all the terms and conditions
- Protection of employees (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2011)
- The Sex Discrimination Act, 1975- This act safeguards the employees that take place on the basis of gender. But in many cases this act does not applied.
- The Equal Pay Act, 1970- This act is very important because it safeguards all the employees to get an equal pay and salary either men or women.
- The Race Relations Act, 1976- It is similar to the Sex Discrimination Act as its aim is to eliminate the illegal and wrongful acts. It also works for races
- The Disability Discrimination Act, 1995- This act is applied in the organisation were the employees are more than 20. It works where the employer rejects to manage the disable employees. This act has come into existence to remove the discrimination for regarding the disabled persons are treated less favourably.(Liebowitz, 2009)
- The National Minimum Wage Act, 1998- according to the cost of living, the minimum wages will also change and it is decided by the government of India.
- The Working Time Directive, 1999- It says that there are particular hours and days for which employees have to work. Maximum 48 hours working week, and a four week holiday is the set time. If the employees wish to work for more time then they can work for overtime.
- The Employment Relations Act, 1999- There are trade unions according to which employees work. This also shows the relation among the employers and the employees.
- Health and Safety Act- It is much needed that the environment of the organisation must be healthy and safe for all. Employer should provide an environment which is soothing to all. (Falcone, 2010)
2.1 Analyse the reasons for human resource planning
- Objectives fulfilling- One of the most important moto of human resource management is to achieve the objectives of the organisation and also employers. It also helps to use the resources for productive task. It acts as a link between the past and future.(Gilbert, De Winne and Sels, 2015)
- Future need for manpower- It analyse the need of the human resources in the organisation. It calculates that how many employees need to recruit or promote or transferred. If in future there will be a need of the manpower then this can be analyse through planning of the same.
- To cope up with the changes- Planning is a way by which we can easily judge the changes that are taking place in the scenario and also the measures that are needed while coping up with those changes. These changes can be political, economic, social, demographical, international, etc. these are the factors that affects the marketing planning .
- The recruitment of right personnel- One more importance is to recruit and to select the talented and most appropriate employee in the organisation. Then the planning for their training and development takes place. Afterwards the hr manager finally employs the right person.(Bhatia, 2009)
- Growth & development- Human resource planning require analysing the ability of the manpower so that further actions can take place. It can be done so that a proper development of employees happens and their skills will also enhance.
- Optimum utilisation of human resources- An effective planning helps to identify the skills in the employee and hence employ them to a place here they can perform their work with the full ability and capability. They have to analyse the right skills and knowledge of the people working in the organisation.(Cessation, 2007)
- Help to reduce the uncertainty- There are some sudden changes in the procedure of human resource management. They can be identified through the proper planning of all aspects. So that correct measures can be taken at the time of tragedy.(Liebowitz, 2009)
2.2 Outline the stages involved in planning human resource requirements
- Analyse the organisation Aim- The aim and the objective that has to be achieved need to be analysed before the planning takes place. According to it, the whole planning process takes place. There is a need to examine the basic objective of the organisation so that the whole planning plotting will be done according to accomplish the goals and objective of the same.(Falcone, 2010)
- Present scenario of manpower- Secondly there is a need to analyse the current manpower and the inventory that are working in an organisation. We will get this information from the human resource information system that is updated by the hr of the company. This includes the employees, their capabilities, skills, potential etc. (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2011)
- Forecast the demand & supply of HR- The estimated job profiles for different positions are to be estimated and required. Forecasting refers to the future estimation of manpower that will be required. The HR has to forecast in advance about the need of the recruitment and selection and hence he has to lay a plan that how he should proceed for the further.
- Estimate the gaps- The hr of the company has to analyse the difference between the demand of the manpower and the supply of the manpower. Afterwards he has to decide the number of persons that need to be employed if there are more employees then there will be termination and vice versa.
- Final action plan for HR- According to the surplus and the deficit, hr will take his decisions. He also has to finalise the type of training and development that will be provided to the employee. Retirement and termination will also be planned.(Farazmand, 2007)
- Control, monitor and feedback- Under this the implementation of the plan will do. All the plan turns into actual actions. Allocation of resources and delegation of work will be done. After this there is a control done by the superiors. They also have to provide a feedback in the form of performance appraisal. There are many methods of feedback like direct analyse, observing the employees, feedback forms filled by superiors etc.(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
2.3 Compare the recruitment and selection process in two organisations
Interviews are generally competency interviews and some interviews are technical depending upon the nature of job profile.
Interviews are based on personal assessment of the employees so that the interviewer can examine the candidate. (Farazmand, 2007)
Online forms are made available to the candidates so that they send it to the HR to apply for Jaguar.
In Bentley also, all the applications are made online available. You have to follow the link if you want to apply for the same.
According to the applicants’ information and data their applications are either rejected of accepted.
Here also HR will look to the need of the employees and match it to the applications. Those application are matched to the profile will get select for proceeding further.
The feedbacks will be emailed to the candidates according to the suitability.
In Bentley the candidates are invited for the next rounds.
Speculative and fraud applications are rejected
Here also the irrelevant applications are rejected. (Falcone, 2010)
Other activities that are included in the interview are –
Here the activities and the procedure of taking interviews is-
Past questions are asked to judge the IQ of the candidates.
Fresh and updated questions are asked in the interview.
Here they look after-
Here they look for-
2.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in two organisations.
There are various organisations that have different criteria of doing the process of recruitment and selection. All wants a satisfactory and effective recruitment in there organisation. For this they have to lay a plan that is the most effective and appropriable to recruit and select the candidates. Here we understand the techniques of two organisations for effective recruitment and selection-
- Avoids the problem that will arise in future- An effective recruitment and selection requires to avoid the worst and bad situations. As we have to recruit the correct person at a correct time and at a correct place. In jaguar its takes place by recruiting from internal sources in most of the cases. While in Bentley they want a fresh and new talent in the organisation..(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
- Satisfaction in job- Satisfaction can only be achieved when the recruitment and selection is done in a proper manner. Bentley will get the selection process done through consultancies. While jaguar believes that if you want a perfect candidate than you should do the selection by your own hr team. (Farazmand, 2007)
- Best possible training and development programmes- Jaguar believes in personal growth and development through on the job training programmes. While Bentley feels that there should be a separate programmes laid down by the organisation for the employees to get trained first and then join the real job. But it is the most expensive method of providing training to the new employees. (Trigger, Toussaint and Mulcock, 2010)
- Selection of appropriate candidate- It is the most crucial technique of recruitment and selection. Because it is the negative part of the whole procedure in which the candidates are get rejected. Here the HR need to be more effective and right decision should be taken on this stage. In jaguar the selection process is too large. There are any rounds that are laid by the HR to select the employee. While in Bentley, the hr laid a small and effective pattern to select the best candidate.
- Effective recruitment- Recruitment can be done either by external sources or by internal sources. External sources comprises of campus placement, invitation, advertisements, etc. internal recruitment can be done by job rotation, transfers, promotions etc. recruitment means to invite more and more candidates so that they will come and participate in the process of recruitment. Jaguar will do this process by proving online advertisements. While in Bentley, they provide directly the forms of recruitment where all the details are filled by the employees and then submitted by them online..(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
3.1 Assess the link between motivational theory and reward
Motivational theory- It refers to the process of sustaining the employee’s goal and gives them importance so that they can work for betterment of the organisation and also for themselves. As the motivated people are
- less absent
- they have a great loyalty
- they take more pride in their work(Cessation, 2007)
There are many factors that can motivate the employees. They are:
Financial and non-financial factors that can motivate the employees-
- Financial factors-
- Pension holidays etc.
- Non-financial factors-
- Sense of achievement
- Opportunity for advancement
- Challenge and enjoyment(Falcone, 2010)
There is a strong link between the reward and the motivational theories. Rewards are one technique that is used to motivate the employees. But it is not important that all the rewards are in the form of money. Rewards can be of different type. Though money is a powerful way to reward an employee, as it is the basic cause due to which an individual performs his tasks. Task. Earnings are very important to survive on this planet and money has the potential to fulfil the same. (Noe, 2006)
There are various kinds of theories that can help the HR manager to manage the motivation of the employees. These theories are very old and includes all relevant points that an employee need to remain motivated throughout the time he works for an organisation. Many times these theories lead to decrease in the turnover ratio and increase in retention rate of the employees. Due to high rate of motivation inject in the minds of the employees, they feel more responsible and an important part of the organisation. (Trigger, Toussaint and Mulcock, 2010)
Theories are as follows-
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
There are five stages that will show the steps to motivate an employee-
- Basic need/physical needs (food, clothes, air, water etc.)
- Security needs/ safety needs (house, home etc.)
- Social needs (family, relations, team, groups etc.)
- Self- esteem needs (appraisal, responsibility, rewards, recognition etc.)
- Self-actualisation (promotion, etc.)
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
- Satisfiers (achievement, growth etc.)
- Hygiene factors (status, work-life balance etc.)
3.2 Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay
The process of job evaluation is-(Farazmand, 2007)
Analysis of the job-
- Job description- All the duties and responsibilities of the employee come under this. It tells about what the job all about.
- Job specification- It comprises of the specific and certain statements that tells about the requirement of such skill set, knowledge, abilities, capabilities that are most needed to perform the job.(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
- Rating of the job- When the HR manager provides the correct worth of the work performed by the employee. He has to give ranks, points, ratings, comparison, etc.
- Money allocation- After gives rating to all the individuals the next task is to provide them salary or pay. It includes the monetary allocation according to the performance of the individuals. It can be financial and in the other forms like rewards, compensation etc.(Armstrong and Armstrong, 2011)
- Classify the job- It is the last stage of job analysis. In this the jobs are divided according to the pay scale decided in the previous terms.
The factors that determine the pay are-
- Union of the labour- Generally there are unions formed by the employees according to which the supply and their wages are affected. In this way the wage rate have to be decided by the employer.
- Personal view of salary- Whether the salary and the wages need to be equal and fair but still the perceptions of the HR is also impact the pay scale of the salary because bargaining from both the sides takes place before deciding the amount to be paid to the employee.
- Cost of living of an individual- It refers to the living standards that are important for any individual to live. It may be depends on the location the area the city the country too because it varies accordingly.
- Laws and rules of government- Many times government lays the policies regarding the wages and the salary. They give a minimum amount that must be paid by the employer. It also creates an impact on the decision making for salary.
- Ability to pay- It is the most relevant point because if the employer is able .the labour union many times demands the higher wages but employer have to cut-off those demands and decides the pay scale according to the ability of them.
- Supply and demand of employees- If the supply of employees is more than the salary is less but If the demand of employee is more than the salary will be more and vice versa.(Trigger, Toussaint and Mulcock, 2010)
- Quality of work- It refers to the productivity of the labour for a certain task. If the productivity is food he can demand for higher wages but if his work is inappropriate then he can’t be able to get according to his wish.
3.3 Assess the effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts
Reward system has different perspective in different organisations. It totally depends upon the nature and work of the same. An effective and efficient reward system have the ability to have a competitive advantage and also they have more retention rate then turnover. It also enhances the employee motivation up to a large extent. It also creates a good image of the organisation. As we known that the people are the most important resource of the company. (Sparrow, 2012)
A relevant use of reward can help to make employee happier which ultimately results in better performance of him. They have to inject the sense of passion towards the work they need to do because without passion they can’t do at their best. However we can see that a bad reward system can have a bad impact on the employee. A reward should be fair and effective for the employees it improves the potential of employees and generates flexibility in their work. developing manager must judge the perceptions of the employees according to it they have to provide them rewards.
A reward should be:
- Effective and efficient
- Competitive advantage
- Employee motivation
- Employee happiness
- Fair and effective(Trigger, Toussaint and Mulcock, 2010)
3.4 Examine the methods organisations use to monitor employee performance.
To maintain the productivity of the work there is a need for monitoring it on a regular basis. Some relevant points that show the methods pf monitoring are-
- Punctuality- It refers to the time in which an employee performs the assign tasks. It also considered the absenteeism, arriving time, departure time, etc. he should be regular and also have interest in doing work then only he comes under the point of punctuality.(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
- The work quality- The quality of work refers to the task he performs in the organisation. It reflects the stamina of him in performing particular task. The timely and accurate assigning of work will leads to a good quality of work.
- Observing the habits- The work of the hr is to observe the habits of the employee. Gossips, breaks, improper behaviour, and use of computers for some reasons that are not relate to the office wok. These all things must be avoided.(Mondy, Noe and Gowan, 2005)
- Attitude towards work- The employees should show positive attitude to the work and also to the organisation. They have to create a good working environment. If the attitude of some employ is not good to the work and to other employees then it should be corrected and changed.
- Presenting reviews- In many organisations there is a dress code that must be followed by all. But some of the employees will be unable to follow that. This shows the poor code of conduct of the employees. It results in breakage of expectations of the managers superiors and hence reflects into the performances.(Ballweber, 2015)
4.1 Identify the reasons for cessation of employment with an organisation.
Cessation refers to the end of any contract or an agreement between two partieseither by their own wish or forcefully. It is a kind of closure that results in termination of all the terms and conditions. Many times it results are a positive manner. It reduces the cost and also cut the unwanted expenses. Some of the reasons for cessation of employment with an organisation are as follows:(Chanda and Shen, 2009)
- Improper Job Performance- Many times the employees are unable to perform well in the organisation.in that case they have to leave the organisation either by their own will or the superiors will terminate them from the organisation. The poor performance may results in loss to the organisation. In such cases the organisation is unable to keep the employee in the same. In such cases they terminate the employees by giving them letter of cessation.
- Poor Business Conditions- These conditions are lead to the poor performance of not only the employee but also for the organisation. Due to many reasons the organisation is unable to rum its business in a long period. In such cases they have to terminate one of the employees from the organisation.
- Inadequate Behaviour- This is a case whereby the employees are unable to fulfil the terms and conditions of the organisation. They are failing in adopting the code of conduct of the organisation. In such case the head of the employee ask them to leave the organisation to maintain good environment of it.(Leonard and Gonzalez-Perez, 2013)
- Absenteeism- A factor due to which most of the cessation takes place is absenteeism. This is one reason due to which the employee fails to remain in the organisation for longer period of time. They have to face the cessation and have to leave the organisation before time.(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
- Reducing Budget of organisation- Reducing budget refers to decrease in the expense of salary that is given to the employees. This situation arises when the organisation is unable to earn a minimum level of profit that is required to fulfil all the expense occurred. In such cases, to reduce the budget of the organisation, they terminate some of the employees who are unable to perform good for a long period of time.(Sparrow, 2012)
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedures used by two organisations
In different types of organisation there are different employment exit procedures. It totally depends on the need, size, and working condition of the organisation. Generally organisation opts for retirement but in some cases they have to terminate the employees before their retirement due to some reasons.
- A voluntary termination by the employees- A termination in which employees wants to leave the organisation due to some personal or other reasons is termed as voluntary termination.
- End of tenure- When the employees are employed for a fix time period and there time for performing that job is completed then the exit procedure takes place.
- Exit survey for employees- Generally the surveys is done by the employees for whom the hr wants to terminate the employees. These surveys will find out the most suitable and inappropriate employees out of all. In this way the exit procedure will take place.(Paauwe, Guest and Wright, 2013)
- Serve a systematic procedure- There is a systematic procedure that is followed by most of the organisation in terms of terminating the employees, in this way the exit procedure will happen.
- Resignation- A letter of resignation is given by the employee to the employer that he or she wants to leave the organisation due to some personal reasons. This may cause the termination for employees.
- Termination- Direct termination takes place when an employee fails to fulfil the requirement of the job which he have to do.
- Retirement- At the age of 60-65 the time for doing job gets over. In that case the process of retirement takes place. (Bhatia, 2009)
A basic procedure use by most the organisations is as follows-
- Employee will initiate by giving a letter or by requesting
- Provide a reason to leave
- They have to evaluate themselves
- Then the next step is to fill the form of separation.
- Submission of the form
- Hr will look forward and either accept or reject the proposal
- Then the termination/exit procedure initiates.
- Submit the request(Sparrow, 2012)
4.3 Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment some cessation arrangements.
Government now days have given a well-planned legal and regulatory framework in welfare of the employees. They want to safeguard the rights of the employees by giving some of the policies. There is a well planned ways through which the government has imposed a liability on the employers so that they can give a safe and secure framework on employment cessation. Like-(Cessation, 2007)
- Employment right act 1996 was initiated to provide rights to the employees after termination of the job.
- Dismissal and redundancy is one of the criteria under which the rights and duties are mentioned for the employees and the employers.
- It lays down a procedure that companies must follow at the time of cessation.
- It gives right to the employees for fair remuneration at the time of termination.
- A fair way to provide payment to employees.
- A company must have a fair dispute solving team.
- A disciplinary and a conflict team
- ACAS practice is provided in which there is a guide who coach the employees. The ACAS code of practice.(Lazarova, Morley and Tyson, 2014)
- Some rights are formed to avoid the mal practices takes place at the job termination.
- Many punishments and penalties re imposed by the government under the Act of Employment right act so that the employers will not practice any wrongful act with their employees.
study is done to make a deep knowledge of the human resource management done in the organisation. This study comprises of legislations that used in HR practices, framework of HR management, planning done in it, various stages that is involved in hr planning and controlling, process of recruitment and selection etc. Here we discuss that how human resource management is important to bring effectiveness in the performance of the employees. The most important work that hr management do is the optimum utilisation of scarce resources.
Human resource management creates a very positive impact on the employees as well as to the organisation. Employees become more responsible and they get motivated through an effective hr management. They will perform in a standardised manner. The final outcome for such implementation is very good as it creates very positive results. It guides, controls and teach the employees to work for their best and also to have best.
Armstrong, M. and Armstrong, M. (2011). Armstrong's handbook of strategic human resource management. London: Kogan Page
iGiardia/i - significance of zoonotic routes in human infections.
Ballweber, L. (2015). iGiardia/iVeterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 10(041).
Bhatia, S. (2009). HRM in global scenario. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications
Chanda, A. and Shen, J. (2009). HRM strategic integration and organizational performance. Los Angeles: Response Books.
Gashi, R. (2013). Strategic Human Resources Management: Human Resources or Human Capital. AJIS
Gruber, J. and Wise, D. (2007). Social security programs and retirement around the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lazarova, M., Morley, M. and Tyson, S. (2014). INTERNATIONAL HRM POLICY - LAZAROVA. Hoboken: Taylor and Franci
Cessation. (2007). [Atlanta, Ga.]: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Office on Smoking and Health
Falcone, P. (2010). 101 sample write-ups for documenting employee performance problems. New York: American Management Association/Society for Human Resource Management
Gilbert, C., De Winne, S. and Sels, L. (2015). Strong HRM processes and line managers' effective HRM implementation: a balanced view. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(4), pp.600-616