Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Health and Social Care
Unit Number and Title
Unit 2 Specific Needs of Health and Social Care
Specific needs of health and social care program has been executed over the topic understanding the specific needs. Health and social care is an important aspect in this world. For the purpose of serving the users of the service, there is a need to understand the specific needs of an individual. The needs of every individual differ from others and these need to be understood so as to serve their needs well. This program covers the analysis of the different concepts of health regarding the users of the services of health and social care and the changing perception regarding the specific needs. There are various aspects including policies, legislations and culture which affect the availability of the services for the person having specific needs. It also discusses numerous approaches and intervention techniques which support the individuals with specific needs, technology which affects the services offered to individuals with specific needs and the different concepts of challenging behaviour in service users, their impacts and the strategies used during supporting the individuals with specific needs.
Specific needs of health and social care report has been executed so as to analyse the concepts of health regarding to the users of the services of health and social care. Health and social care is an important aspect which focuses over the safety and wellbeing of the people. It also discusses the manner in which the perception of specific needs have changed with the change in time. There are various laws, acts, rules and regulations and the impact of these social policies, legislations and culture on the availability of the services so as to meet the specific needs of an individual.
With the changing environment the needs of an individual have also changed. Health is an important aspect for every individual as the quality of life of an individual depends upon the quality of health services availed by it. The needs of every individual differ from one another as these needs depend on the health of the individual. From the analysis it has been seen that the number of cases of diabetes in United Kingdom is increasing at a very fast speed. An individual who is suffering from a disease need to be given proper treatment for the purpose of reducing the negative impacts of the disease over the health of the individual and to maintain the quality of life. Health of an individual creates tension at home, at the workplace and in the society it is living (O'Connor, et. al., 2015). The specific needs of the individual differ as the different stage or type of diseases has different impacts over the health of the individual. The disability or the behaviour of the individual gets affected due to the disease. Disability can be understood as a restriction which bounds an individual to execute its daily physical activities. Examples of disability include cerebral palsy, autism, Asperger’s’ syndrome and learning disabilities.Specific needs of an individual differ as per the age of the individual’s behaviour of the individual in adopting the conditionsand the level of the disease. There are various models which are focused over the health of the people. These models are the agent-host-environment model the health–illness continuum, the high-level wellness model, the health belief model and the health promotion model. The health–illness continuum helps in measuring the level of health of a person. The high-level wellness model helps in improving the health of people by encouraging nurse for taking caring of the people (Forouzan, et. al., 2011).
The manners in which the specific needs of an individual are served or met have been changed with the change in time. And there is a positive change in the perception or beliefs of people towards the disability and disable people and towards their needs. In the earlier times, it was assumed that the disability was a bad spirit or an individual was possessed by a devil spirit. The individuals with disability were treated badly and asked to stay away from the other people. These discriminatory practices have been reduced over the time as the way of thinking has been changed. Development has led to the change in this perception towards the disability and the specific needs of an individual. In the present era, proper treatment is given to these special people as they face a problem in expressing their needs and in performing their regular activities. Concept of equality has been adopted so as to provide equal treatment to every individual and proper heath and care services are offered to the individuals with specific needs. The type of disability also differs as an individual can have physical disability, mental disability or learning disability. And the specific needs also differ according to the age of the user of the service. Rules and regulations have been framed for safeguarding the individuals with specific needs from the ill practices of the society (Guo & Slesnick, 2013).
Society and culture
Impacts on services available for individuals with specific needs
According to the equality act 2010, equal treatment is given to every individual.
Health and social care act, 2006 has laid down various rules and regulations which need to be followed so as to provide services to the users.
National health service act, 2006 states about the funds allotted for the different sectors with a motive to provide smooth functioning to the health and social care sector.
Disability discrimination act 1995 states that no discrimination can be done on the basis of the disability of an individual.
Social needs of every individual differ from each other. Support from the society helps in providing better services to the individuals with specific needs.
Social welfare is an important aspect and it ensures the welfare of the individuals by involving them in the society and providing equal opportunities for participating.
Equality is an important aspect as it is the right of every individual to avail equal chances in the society.
Social class: every individual belongs to a society. Increase in the awareness among the society about the specific needs helps in providing better services.
Age of the individual affects the needs of an individual. Special educational programs have been initiated for the children with specific needs.
These educational programs help in identifying the needs quickly and addressing these needs (Briggs, et. al., 2014).
These acts or legislations helps in providing equal opportunities to the individuals and providing quality services for improving their health.
Social policies help the individuals to share an equal status in the society and ensure the welfare or wellbeing of the individuals with specific needs.
Increase in the awareness among the society helps in development of the individuals. Special educational programs help in the growth and development of the individuals with specific needs.
The unit discussed the changing perception of the society towards the individuals with specific needs. Society, government and culture play a vital role in providing services to these individuals for improving their conditions. Various acts and rules have been framed with a motive to eliminate the discriminatory practices which harms the interest of these individuals.
As a worker of Macmillan Cancer Support Charity the role is to provide services to the cancer patients for improving their health, spreading awareness about the disease and its types in the society.
For the purpose of supporting the cancer patients with specific type of cancer, various approaches which help in dealing with the problems or issues and interventions which help in improving the health status among the total population are available and which can be used for providing services to them. These approaches include guardianship, empowerment, self-help, direct action, shared responsibility and informed choice. Self-help helps an individual with specific type of cancer by teaching the manner in which one and its symptoms are managed by itself. Empowerment helps in developing the capabilities of an individual for taking decision making choices (Paxton, et. al., 2014). Interventions can be understood as a combination or group of strategies used for bringing the change in the behaviour and to enhance the status of health in the society. It includes drug therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, primary prevention, early detection and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment, palliative care and physiotherapy. Primary prevention helps in elimination of the
factors which causes cancer, early detection and secondary prevention helps in identification of the stage of the cancer so as to provide the treatment on time for reducing the impact of cancer, diagnosis and treatment helps in treating cancer with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy or these can be used in a combination and palliative care focuses over the symptoms and treatment during the phases of cancer so as to identify the improvement in the quality of life. Macmillan Cancer Support Charity is promoting these approaches and interventions so as to enhance the quality of life of people suffering from cancer.
All the approaches and interventions discussed above are used for curing the patient. All these helps in improving the quality of life of the patient as the approaches and interventions are cost effective and provide advanced medical and technological equipments or ways for treating the patients. Pharmacological Interventions helps in reducing the risk of cancer with the use of micronutrients or pharmaceuticals. Early Detection and Secondary Prevention helps in the detection of the different types of cancer at the early stages so as to offer treatment for the disease. Apart from these advantages or effectiveness’s of the above mentioned there are some limitations of these approaches and interventions. These limitations affect the effectiveness of these approaches and interventions. These limitations includes lack of the support, lack of proper understanding or knowledge, choices and preferences, changing expectations, rules and regulations, emotional barriers or change in the technology (Gorlick, et. al., 2014).
There are various emerging developments or emerging technologies which Linear Accelerators, Image Guided Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, Three-Dimensional conformal Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy. These technologies have helped in providing treatment to the patients in a better manner. Image Guided Radiation Therapy is a type of conformal radiotherapy which is an advanced technology helps in providing a unique advantage to the
Patients and help in dealing with the disease in an effective manner. This theory is capable of achieving both unparalleled tumour control as well as normal tissue sparing. This theory is used with a motive to treat the tumour in those areas of the body which can move for example lungs (Garcia, et. al., 2016). Radiation therapy machines are connected with an imaging technology which enables the doctor to locate the tumour before starting the treatment. This facilitates comparison between the imageswhich helps in adjusting the radiation beams. This technology has helped in providing the services to the cancer patients in a better manner.
Dealing with a challenging behaviour is a huge issue or problem which needs to be dealt with patience. The perception of people has changed regarding the challenging behaviour due to the education. Challenging behaviour can be understood as a difficult behaviour which can harm others or themselves. The impacts of this type of behaviour lead to various challenges.Being a volunteer in a learning disability clinic in Tower Hamlets the major focus is over developing the individual with a challenging behaviour. For this purpose of there is a need to provide special education. There are different types of disorders or disabilities including ASD (Autistic Spectrum Disorder), Cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome, physical, sensory and mental impairment. Challenging behaviour in these disorders can be non-verbal challenging behaviour, verbal challenging behaviour and physical challenging behaviour. This challenging behaviour can be due to biological cause, stereotyped behaviour or due to means of communication. In learning disability individual faces problem in expressing itself and it may become violent (Raggi, et. al., 2013).
It is very tough to deal with the individual with a challenging organisation behaviour as a person with challenging behaviour can harm others as well as itself. This kind of behaviour affects the service providers in providing services to them as well as can harm the service providers and other fellow patients. Potential impacts of challenging behaviour can be seen over the legal framework, professional standards, policies and procedures and code of practice.For a learning disability clinic and a special education need schools there are various rules and regulations framed by the authorities which need to be followed for the safety of the individual with challenging behaviour. And the professional need to provide quality services so as to improve the conditions of the individual with challenging behaviour (Nagarajappa, et. al., 2013).
For the purpose of supporting or providing services to the individuals with challenging behaviour various strategies can be used so as to meet the needs of these individuals. These methods of working include communication, time out, rewards and sanctions, medication and setting the targets or boundaries. Different individuals belong from different age groups, thinking level, understanding level or gender and for communicating with them friendly behaviour needs to be adopted which helps them in feeling comfortable and different ways of communicating need to be used. For communicating with a person with learning disability there is a need to use different ways of communicating including written, verbally or with signs. A clear bifurcation need to be done between the needs of the individuals with learning disabilityand the type of services provided to them. For providing services principles including principle of honesty, equality, responsibility or respecting others, need to be adopted which helps in providing services in a better manner (Stoesz, et. al., 2016).
This report discusses the various aspects related to the specific needs of an individual in health and social care sector. This program discusses the changing perception of the society towards the individuals with specific needs. Analysis has been done of the social policies, legislation and culture for the services offered to the users of the service. Different approaches and interventions have been discussed which helps in providing support to the cancer patients and their effectiveness is measured. It also discusses the emerging technologies which have been used for treating the cancer patients. It explains the different concepts or aspects of challenging behaviour of an individual with learning disability; its impact has been discussed over the health care organisation and analysis has been made of the strategies which are used for providing services to the individuals with specific needs.
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O'Connor, M., Howell-Meurs, S., Kvalsvig, A. & Goldfeld, S. 2015, "Understanding the impact of special health care needs on early school functioning: a conceptual model: Special health care needs and early school functioning",Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 15-22.
Guo, X. & Slesnick, N. 2013, "Family Versus Individual Therapy: Impact On Discrepancies Between Parents’ And Adolescents’ Perceptions Over Time", Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 182-194.
Briggs, H.E., Banks, L. & Briggs, A.C. 2014, "Increasing Knowledge and Mental Health Service Use among African Americans through Evidence-Based Practice and Cultural Injection Vector Engagement Practice Approaches", Best Practices in Mental Health, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1-14.
Paxton, R.J., Nayak, P., Taylor, W.C., Chang, S., Courneya, K.S., Schover, L., Hodges, K. & Jones, L.A. 2014, "African-American breast cancer survivors’ preferences for various types of physical activity interventions: a Sisters Network Inc. web-based survey",Journal of Cancer Survivorship, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 31-38.
Gorlick, A., Bantum, E.O. & Owen, J.E. 2014, "Internet?based interventions for cancer?related distress: exploring the experiences of those whose needs are not met",Psycho?Oncology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 452-458.
Garcia, O., Moreno-Arrones, N., Cuesta, A.B., Gutierrez, A., Alou, P., Oliver, J.A., Cobos, J.A., Uceda, J., Aznar, E., Martinez-Manez, R., Sanchez, C., Casanova, O.E., Serrano, J.J. & del Pozo, F. 2016, "Development and Testing of a New Instrument for Researching on Cancer Treatment Technologies Based on Magnetic Hyperthermia",IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 243-251.
Raggi, C., Xenitidis, K., Moisan, M., Deeley, Q. & Robertson, D. 2013, "Adults with autism spectrum disorder and learning disability presenting with challenging behaviour: how tolerant should we be?", Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 4, no. 1/2, pp. 42-52.
Nagarajappa, R., Tak, M., Sharda, A.J., Asawa, K., Jalihal, S. & Kakatkar, G. 2013, "Dentists’ attitude to provision of care for people with learning disabilities in Udaipur, India",Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 57-62.
Stoesz, B.M., Shooshtari, S., Montgomery, J., Martin, T., Heinrichs, D.J. & Douglas, J. 2016, "Reduce, manage or cope: a review of business strategy for training school staff to address challenging behaviours displayed by students with intellectual/developmental disabilities", Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 199-214.