Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Assignment - Capco

Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Assignment Capco

Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Assignment - Capco

Program

Diploma in Business

Unit Number and Title

Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour

QFC Level

Level 5

Introduction

The Organisational Behaviour is to understand the behaviour of an individual and groups within an organisation. It tells us the relationship between the structure and the culture hat is followed in an organisation. It helps to influence the behaviour of different persons who are interrelated to each other. Under this, the people of different cultures and diversities work together to achieve a common goal. As we know that a multinational company have thousands of employees that belong to a different culture. Still, they have links between them. This diversity in work is very important to gain the competitive advantage. Under organisation behaviour, the individual shares a set of beliefs and values that will ultimately help to make a bond between them. The key factors that contribute to motivate the employees that are working in an organisation are the structure and the culture. This study will help to develop a sense of understanding within the organisation in the minds of the learners.

Task 1

1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation of your choice. Show the differences and similarities in these two organisations.

Different organisations works on different manner. They have different culture and policies which are developed according to the structure. There are certain characterstics on the basis of which organisational structures are characterised, they are:

Formal Organisation:

  • Functional Structure: Organisations following the functional structure have the departments which are grouped according to the functions. Groups are devided on the basis of the skills and qualifications of the people. For example: Finance department will have the people who have effective knowledge od maintaining and tracking the financial resources of the company.
  • Goegraphy Based: This is the tructure in which areas are devided by the organisation so as to manage the work. Region wise decentralisation is being done in these organisations.
  • Product Based: This structure focuses on the product line, people of different skills works on the product so as to make it perfect and bring quality to it.workings for the multiple products is being done in these organisations.
  • Multidivisional Structure: This is the structure which rely upon subsidiaries which acts as different working units. Suibsidiaries have different departments . otrganisations working in the globakl market have such type of structure (Aswathappa, 2010).
  • Matrix: Matrix is the mixture of fubncational and product based structure. In this structure work is being managed by more than one reporting officers.

There are certain other elements on which organisational structure is based upon they are:

  • Unity of Command: Acording to the structure the flow goes in a vertical direction. In this an employee gets direction from only one supervisor.
  • Span of Control: This is the structure in which various employees gets command from single manager. Narrow span of control is the structure in which extent of the control of manager is low on the other hand it is visa versa in wide span of control.

CAPCo has a flat organisational structure. Ther are certain levels in the structure of CAPCO. Span of control is wide and have few layers of managerial hierarchy. Matrix structure is allied at CAPCO in which multiple projects are running simultaneously (Bryman, 2011). On the other structure of hand Marks and Spencer constitute of a long hierarchy having different levels of the management managing the employees and have a narrow span of control . Culture is constitute of certain beliefs and principles on which organisation works. It depicst from the behaviour of the people working in the organisation. Culture of the organisation could be classified in various ways they are:

  • Power Culture
  • Role Culture
  • Task Culture
  • Person Culture

Culture od CAPCO is free and open, employees have the freedom to communicate with any one and have managers always remain available to help the employees. Employees working in CAPCO have the freedom to participate in the decision makings aspects. On the other hand cultuture of Marks and Specer is formal and there are various tolls for the flow of marketing communication system. There are certain rules and regulations framed by the management according to which creativity and changes at the workplace has to be passed (Karthick, 2010).

1.2 Explain how the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.

Structure and cluture pf an organisation have a direct relationship with its performance. Structure and culture of the organisations are somewhere interrelated with each other, any change ine the structure of the organisation will direct affect the culture and vice versa. For example if the sytem is being decentralised in the organisation then it will also have to bring certain set of changes in the culture that is being followed (Subba Rao, 2010). Coming on to CAPCO it has a flat structure with a small hierarchy of the management. This type of structure helps in managing the flow of communication and managing the employees in an effective way. It have a free organisational culture in which employees have the freedom to share there ideas and communicate directly with the management which helps in making the workplace environment happy as well as healthy. Such type of structure and cultute helps in enhancing the performace of the workplace as employees gets emotionally attached with the organisation and works hard to help the business to attain its targeted goals and objectives.

CAPCO allows the employees to indulge in the decision making processes and provide appropriate training to them. Employees working in CAPCO have freedom to share their views, issues and ideas with the management on which it tales quick actions and help in resolving the issues which helps the employees to focus on the work. Employees in such type of structure and culture remain happy and works more effectively with the effect of which performance of the business gets enhanced (Osborne, 2008).

1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO or in any organisation of your choice.

There are various factors at the workplace which enfluence the bahvior of an individual at the workplace. There are two aspects that can have the impact on the behaviour of an individual they are the surroundings of the organisation and oqn traist of the individual. There are various other factors that influnec behaviour of an individual at the workplace they are:

  • Culture of the Organisation: Cultute that is being followed by the organisation has a great impact on the individual. CAPCO have a free culture with the effect of which there are various employees shares positive behaviour at the workplace (Coffey, 2010). They are free to communicate with any one and have the freedom to to perform in the way they like with the effect of which confident gets build in them and work accordingly.
  • Colleagues: Bheaviour of colleagues also have a great impact on the behaviour of an individual at the workplace. If colleagues will no show positive behaviour then it will affect the psychology of the individual which will affect the behaviour also (Karthick, 2010).
  • Perception: Perception can be positive or negative it depends on the situation that is being seen by an individual on the basis of which  he developes the perception. Positive perception helps in building positive behaviour on the other hand negative perception builds negative behaviour.
  • Personality: Personality of an individual is is formed by the inherent traits. Poeple having short temper may behave arrogantly in certain situations. Such type of activities affects the behaviour of an individual as bad behaviour could be shown by an individual in the situation of stress.
  • Status: Status is another aspect that affects the behaviour of an individual in the organisation. It could be possible that employees at the high status may behave dominantly than other people working in the organisation.
  • Race and Culture: People from different diversity comes to work in an organisation. Diversity in the culture of the leading people working at the workplace have a great impact on the behaviour. People have different culture, beliefs and values which can affect the behaviour of others (Karthick, 2010).

Task 2

2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice.

Leadership

CAPCO is an organisation that believes in ‘it’s our people who make the CAPCO difference’. They have leaders who work together as professionals who found solutions to all the problems so that they are able to meet the challenges that come in the way of achievement. They always try to combine the thoughtful leadership styles into practical experience using strategic planning. They help the employees in reshaping the organization’s structure into a more developed and updated one.  (Bryman, 2011)

Different leadership styles are-

  • Visionary- The style in which the leaders help the employees to achieve some new goals. This style is very useful when an organisation need some new directions. Under this, the leaders asked employees that they are free to innovate, experiment and take risk. (Aswathappa, 2010)
  • Coaching- This style is very effective in development of the individuals. They show employees that how they can improve their performance. Under this, leaders guide them the ways through which they can achieve the goals.
  • Affiliative- Under this style, the leaders help the employees to make connections between them. the main elements of this leadership style are effective communication, morale, development of trust, etc. (Subba Rao, 2010)
  • Democratic- This type of leadership is effective in the situation of quick deciosn making. The leaders take active part in the decision making and motivate the group to work together to achieve desired goals.
  • Pacesetting- The leaders who set high standards for the employees according to which the work need to be done. These leaders are very obsessive to for doing thing faster and better. (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010)
  • Commanding- This type of leadership is also known as military type leadership. It is the least used style among all as it is the most ineffective style. It involves criticism and harsh behaviour of the leaders which leads to decrease in the morale and satisfaction of the employees (Karthick, 2010).

Leadership 1

Leadership style that is being followed by CAPCO is democratic leadership style. His style allows the employees to indulge in the decision makings aspects. In this decisions are not being made solely by the leaders contribution of each and every employees is necessary (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010). It helps in bringing innovative ideas at the workplace with the effect of which work is being manged in an effective manner. But such type of leadership styles affects the working environment it could be possible that some of the employees do not agree on one decision, this causes clashes and affects the work process as well as behaviour of the employees.

On the other hand Marks and Spencer use the laissez faire leadership style. Because people working in the organisation are highly experienced in their field and people at that level have the skills to manage the work on their own. In this manager act as a guide and provide assistance whenever it is required. Chances of mistakes increases in such type role of leadership as people do not want to share their views or ask for help from the managers (Osborne, 2008).

2.2 Explain how organisational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management.

Every organisation adopts different organisational theories that have a direct or indirect influence on the management practice of the management. These theories are basically driven from the past experience of the organisation styles that are followed before. The conditions and the suitability of the organisation decide the suitable theories. The various types of theories that are used in different organisations are written below-

Scientific theory- The main focus of this approach is to get work done in the most effective and efficient way. It enhances the quality of work. It says that if you put an input that is appropriate in nature, then you will get an output. The scientific theory is helpful in broadening the scope of the management practices. It is required to develop business policies in an organization.

Human relationship theory- This theory focuses on the welfare of the human resource working in the organisation. It is basically the main motive of this theory. It says that if the human asset is good of one organisation that that organisation will never fail in any aspect. This theory focuses on individual’s productivity not machines. (Osborne, 2008). This theory said that the employees want to be a part o team that is supportive and facilitates growth of them. the elements of this theory are-

  • Each individual’s attention and recognition
  • Motivation of employees

organisation thories

Human Relation theory is being used by CAPCO so as to manage the people working in the organisation. Management believes that  if they will help the employees and will work on resolving their issue then employees will get emotionally attached with the organisatio and will help it in attaining its goals and objectives. Human relationship theory helps in keeping the employees motivated and reducing employee turnover ratio.

2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your own chosen organisation.

  • Scientific approach- The management approach that is used by Capco is usually scientific management approach so that all the work can be done in a systematic manner. They want to remove the old methods from the organisation like the rule of thumb. They determined that use of new management theories like scientifically selection of employees and then provide them training and development lessons is more effective. They cooperate with the workers so that the work that is done must be in accordance of the standards and the principles of science. The main aim to adopt scientific management is that it divides the work and responsibility equally among the employees which is the most appropriate way to get the work done.
  • Administrative approach- this approach believes that the management practice is different from the other organisational function. In Capco, all the developed organizational functions are applied to the management.
  • Bureaucratic approach- this approach determined that there is a long chain of command lies in the management. This approach believes in a formal structure with set rules and regulations ion the organisation.
  • Human relation approach- this approach is applicable in the organisation which is employee oriented. It is helpful in establishing relations between the employees and the customers and also with the other stakeholders. (Bryman, 2011)

Contingency approach is being used in CAPCO, focus of the organisation always remain with change management. Management of CAPCO believes that otrganisation should move with the change and should manage the functions accordingly. Another approach is human relation, being an organisation believing in the change management, it also focuses on the human resource ands wants that they should alwats remain with the company and terms the human resources as one of the most valuable assets of the company (Bryman, 2011). Working on the contingency approach helps CAPCO to remain flexible in decision making aspects and also in human resource management. Applying such type of strategy helps in influencing the employees to accept change and to manage the work accordingly. It also helps in building positive employee relation which leads to reduction in the employee turnover ratio (Karthick, 2010).

On the other hand Marks and Spencer uses systems approach, it focuses on improving the productivity by using the efficient human resources. There are certain rules and regulations that are developed by the management of Marks and Spencer so as to ensure that people could work effectively and remain productive. Marks and Spencer’s system approach ensures that human resource management should have the abilities to prepare the plans and structure which could keep the things under control. Work is being prioritized and allotted accordingly to the employees so that it could get completed within the time period suggested. Focus of the company remains with the productivity and generating effective amount of revenue. Evaluating all the aspects it could be said that management approach of CAPCO is much effective then the approach applied by Marks and Spencer and it is necessary that Marks and Spencer should understand the needs of human resource working and try to fulfil them doing so will help in managing the work and enhancing productivity.

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Task 3

3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change.

In an organisation, there is different individuals work together. But few of them act as a leader. Leadership is something which can’t be possessed in one day. A person who is leader carries the traits of leadership from his childhood. A leader has some particular skills and traits that help him to stand different from all.  But as the time is running, there is a Need of leaders in the organisation. Leaders have the capability to bring changes in the running criteria. Leaders also have the ability to affect the whole organisation as they are the one who directly controls and look after the performances of all. (Bryman, 2011) A manager can be a leader, but a leader cannot be manager. This line says that in every organisation there are managers as a leader. These skills of leadership lie in the upper level of the management in an organisation. But it can also exist in the middles and bottom level also. Leaders lead the business and help to achieve the goals of the organisation. Such traits are-

Step of OB

There are different leadership styles–

Autocratic- This kind of leaders are self-motivated and they do not need to consult to others. They make decisions on their own. They want their subordinates to follow their instructions orders (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010). In this leadership styles guidance is given to the employees of how to remain motivated and what are the implications that could help them in remaining motivated at the workplace.

Paternalistic- This style of leadership is same as the autocratic. But here the leaders ask subordinates to give their decisions. He also respects the suggestions given by the employees. Here they care for the employees’ welfare also.This is the leadership style in which supervisors or managers guide the subordinates to take initiatives in participating in the decision making processes and supports them in each and every step so that they could remain motivated.

Democratic- The whole focus of this leadership style is on the participation and contribution of the employees. They are the leaders who prefer the suggestions of all the other members. They are by the people, for the people and of the people. They take decision after discussing all the information with everyone (Subba Rao, 2010). This is a leadership style in which managers supports the employees to participate in various activitie sand remain prepared to manage all kind of work. This helps in motivating the employees to accept the change and manage the work accordingly.

Laissez-faire- Under this style, the decisions are made by the employees only as they are free to take decision by their own. There is no one to stop them to make decisions. They can do the things done by them. This is the leadership style in which experienced people are get hired and they remain motivated and have the skills to manage all kind of work and manage the change.

There are five approaches of leadership

  • Contingency approach
  • Pluralistic approach
  • Transformational approach
  • Communication approach
  • Conflict managing approach(Aswathappa, 2010)

3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories   (e.g. Maslow’s and Herzberg theories) within organizational setting.

S. No.

Basis

Maslow’s motivational theories

Herzberg motivational theories

1.

Meaning

This theory is basically depends upon the wants and needs of the employees. It emphasises on the satisfaction level that need to be provide to the employees to keep them motivated like food, safety, etc.

 

This theory is based upon the motivational practices. This theory says that the motivation is one tool in the organisation that helps to bring growth and development. Like rewards, responsibility, etc.

2.

The basis of the theory

There are five stages under this theory-

  1. The basic need like food, cloth, water, etc.
  2. The security and safety need.
  3. The social needs like relations, friends, family, etc.
  4. The self-esteem needs
  5. The self-actualization need.

Under this theory, the main factors that help to keep employee’s motivate are-

  1. Hygiene factors (the policy of the company, benefits, pay, security of the job, etc.)
  2. Satisfying factors (responsibility, authority, respect, etc.) (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010)

3.

The nature of the theory

The deep experience of the human needs and wants are described under this.

(Bryman, 2011)

There is a description of the motivators and the satisfactory are mentioned. Herzberg gave more importance to real life situations.

4.

The applicability of the theory

 

This theory is usually applied in developing countries. But now days almost every organising is opting this theory.

This theory is an updated and expanded version of Maslow’s motivational theory. This theory is not applicable everywhere. It’s generally applicable in the developed nations.

5.

Either descriptive or perspective

It is a theory which is descriptive in nature. It defines each and every need in a brief description.

It is a theory which is perspective in nature.

6.

The motivators

Under this the motivator of the employees is their own need. There need motivated them to achieve good in the organisation.

Under this the satisfiers s as motivators. The hygiene factors do not create any kind of motivation.

Paramid

3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace.

Manager is one of the most important parts of the organisation, he works as the leader and for a good leader it becomes necessary to lead the team in and a way which could help them in sustaining their future. It is important for a manager to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace because understanding the motivation theories will help in bringing quality to the work, building effective team and reducing employee turnover ratio. Gaining information regarding various motivation theories will help the manager to bring changes at the workplace. It will help the manager to resolve conflict and to manage internal decorum of the workplace. It is a responsibility of a manager to motivate the employee so that they could manage the work and help the organisation to sustain in the market. Understanding Maslow’s need hierarchy and Herzberg two factor theories will help the manager to understand the importance of motivation and making appropriate plans of motivating the employees:

motivation theories

Maslow’s theory suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs of the employees. People get motivated when their needs get fulfilled. There are several needs that are suggested by Maslow they are basic or psychological needs, safety and security needs, belongingness, ego and status, and self actualisation needs. According to the theory manager should start from the basic needs and then try to fulfil all the other needs. Doing so will help in motivating the employees which will help them in remaining happy and work more effectively.

On the other hand Herzberg theory suggests that there are certain hygiene factors which are required to get fulfilled at the workplace. Hygiene factors include management relationship with employees, job security, working conditions, salary and wages. For a manager it is necessary to focus on these aspects so that employee could remain motivated in CAPCO. Understanding both the aspects decision could be made that manager of CAPCO should apply Maslow’s theory of motivation so that he could provide proper support to the employees and help them in remaining motivated (Karthick, 2010).

Task 4

4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.

When a group of people works together to achieve a common goal and have an equal responsibility for the growth and success of the company is termed as a team. They all have some common interest, according to which they work together. They share some similar traits and also know each other very well.(Mondy, et.Al. 2005)

Basically, there are two types of groups-

  • Formal groups- The groups that are formed to achieve a specific purpose are termed as a formal group. These types of groups are mostly large in size and have a well-defined structure, size and word to perform. Here the communication flows from top level to the bottom level. Formal groups are found in big organisation where the employees re big in number.
  • Informal groups- A group that is deliberately created by the individuals to accomplish either their own goals or the organisation’s goal is termed as informal groups. These groups are generally small in size and have a free flow of communication. It moves in all directions. The structure of these groups is not even and also the size of the group is generally small.(Paauwe, et.Al., 2013)

CAPCO is an organisation that believes in team building. They think that there should be a strong bond between the superiors and the subordinates.  They also have formal groups who have the responsibility to achieve some specific goals. There goals are predetermined. To increase the efficiency of the employees, the top level management decides to get the work done by team building. It helps to increase the efficiency of the employees. It also helps to create a good communication between all the levels, whether it’s top, middle or bottom. (Tracy, 2014) There is a theory that is defined as the Belbin theory. This theory gives certain behaviours of the individual at a workplace that helps the organisation to accomplish the goals in an accurate manner. These behaviours are-(Waniek, 2012)

HR Management 2

4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO or your chosen organisation

The development of the team depends upon the systematic management of it by the superiors and the head the team. They are responsible persons who work for the betterment of the team. To create an effective outcome from the work done by them, there is a need to manage it properly. There are five steps that collectively make a procedure the groups are formed when all the members whose area of interest is same and who belongs to the same level. There are many members who together form a group. Like the stakeholders, owners, customers, etc. they can be either formal or informal in n nature. Formal groups are working in nature and informal groups are friendly in nature. In this way, there is formation of groups takes place in an organisation.

Step of OB 1

  • Forming- This is the first and foremost step in the formation of the team. Under this stage, the members try to concentrate on their own work. They also initiate to know each other. They are polite and fewer communications takes place. (Mondy, et.Al. 2005)
  • Stroming- This is the second step in which some of the boundaries between the team members will eliminates as they start interacting with each other. They start talking and sharing ideas. Some conflicts also arise between the team members.
  • Norming- Under this stage, the boundaries remove and they come close to each other. There is a bond between the team members. They start helping each other. There is no more difference left between the members of a team.
  • Performing- This is the stage where the members do the hard work and try to achieve goals of the organisation. This stage is very fruitful as most of the outcomes are used to come from this stage. (Paauwe, et.Al. 2013)
  • Adjouring- Under this stage, the time given for performing a particular task comes to an end and the team disperse.
  • Team building refers locate the members in a place where they can work with their potential. Under team building, there should be a leader who leads the team. He has the responsibility to motivate the team. There are various motivating factors that we discussed above that helps the team leaders to motivate.(Kelly, 2006)
  • A team has a particular image and characteristics that classifies it different from other teams. That image is termed as ‘team identification’. A team must be motivated and possess a positive attitude towards its work. It results in better performance and goals can be achieved in a given time.
  • When each member of a team is loyal and dedicated towards the assign work, it termed as ‘team loyalty’. This will show the honesty and dedication of each member while performing the task for their team. (Tracy, 2014)
  • There are various factors which could affect effective team work in an irganisation they are:
  • Poor communication is one of the factors which could directly affect the effective team work (Osborne, 2008). If people will not communicate effectively with each other then it won’t be possible to understand the behaviour they have which will creat hurdle in devekloping a team.
  • Unclear goals are another aspects that could affect the team building. People who do not have clear goals and objectives finds it difficult to coordinate with others which affects the team work and time that is beung decided by them to attain the targeted objectives (Goldsmith, et. al., 2010).
  • Ego is another aspect, it is necessary that people working in the group should undersand that they will have to perform their tasks and workings according to the group planning. Ego of any individual could affect the whole functioning of the group and could affect the performance of a team.

There are no inhabiting factors in CAPCO which could affect the teamwork. Communication system of the organisation is effective and applies the leadership approaches which are really good and could help in managing the team as well as teamwork (Subba Rao, 2010). CAPCO organises cultural activities, fun games and official parties so that employees could understand the culture and beliefs of others and could build effective set of relationship with other employees working. This helps in building effective team and coordinating with other team members working in the organisation.

4.3 Evaluate the impact of the technology on the functioning of team within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.

The technology is becoming a vital part of CAPCO as it helps in the functioning of the team. It helps the teams to manage its work, systematic layouts, effective allocation of the work and other resources, maintain the budgets, time saving, etc. With some small investments, technology is doing magic in the organisations. The organisations are opting new and innovative techniques to perform the work. Communication between the employees and the other members of the team is becoming very effective as it minimising the time and useless expenditure. It provides various benefits like emails, video conference, texts, etc. (Waniek, 2012)
If we look into the old pattern of the management of the teams, then we can notice that there is a big change that has come now in the working of the teams. Many type software is available in the market that helps the team leaders to manage the teams and make schedules and timetables. (Kouzes and Posner, 2013) Capco’s technology is upgrading from research laboratory to new and updated machines. The hotmail, email, Facebook, etc are the latest networking sites used by the group members to enhance the speed. In CAPCO, employees are taking benefit of the technology and changing the organisation in a better way they can. (Leadership Careers, 2007). Using computer technology, the group members can store the information and data of the members and stakeholders. They can use Microsoft excel sheets and Microsoft access for storage. Hence, the technology is acting as a boom for CAPCO.

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 Conclusion

Organisation behaviour acts as a vital part of an organisation as it affects the whole structure and culture of the same. Under this, the structure, styles of the leader and behaviour of the manager towards the employees come. It depicts that there should be a flexible working environment in the organisation so that the employees feels free to give their suggestions and hence feel responsible. The more open environment provides them a sense of accountability, which keeps them motivated for a long period of time. In organisation behaviour, the work is divided among teams. It is also a beneficial way to do work done. It reflects an effective working. This study helps the learners to give knowledge of the organisation and how to handle work in the same. To keep the employees motivated, there are various factors explained by Henry Fayol. These factors can be in monetary terms or non-monetary also. It also says that there must not be any kind of discrimination takes place in the organisation on the basis of caste, religion, gender, etc.

References

Bo . Aswathappa. K. (2010). Organisational behaviour. Mumbai [Indial: Himalaya Pub. House.  
Bryman.A. (2011). The SAGE handbook of leadership. London: SAGE. .
Goldsmith, M., Baldoni, J. and McArthur, S. (2010). The AMA handbook of leadership. New York: American Management Association. .Karthick, K. (2010). Organisational behaviour. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House. . Kouzes. J. and Poer, B. (2013).
The Five Practices of Exemplaiy Leadership. San Francisco: Wiley. . Mondy, R.. Noe, R. and Gowan. M. (2005).Human resource management. Upper Saddle River.N.J.:
Chichester. West Sussex, UK: Wiley. . Subba Rao. P. (2010). Management and organisational behaviour. Mumbia: Himalaya Pub. House. . Tracy,B. (2014). Leadership. New York, NY: AMACOM.