Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour
The Organisational Behaviour is to understand the behaviour of an individual and groups within an organisation. It tells us the relationship between the structure and the culture hat is followed in an organisation. It helps to influence the behaviour of different persons who are interrelated to each other. Under this, the people of different cultures and diversities work together to achieve a common goal. As we know that a multinational company have thousands of employees that belong to a different culture. Still, they have links between them. This diversity in work is very important to gain the competitive advantage. Under organisation behaviour, the individual shares a set of beliefs and values that will ultimately help to make a bond between them. The key factors that contribute to motivate the employees that are working in an organisation are the structure and the culture. This study will help to develop a sense of understanding within the organisation in the minds of the learners.
Different organisations works on different manner. They have different culture and policies which are developed according to the structure. There are certain characterstics on the basis of which organisational structures are characterised, they are:
There are certain other elements on which organisational structure is based upon they are:
CAPCo has a flat organisational structure. Ther are certain levels in the structure of CAPCO. Span of control is wide and have few layers of managerial hierarchy. Matrix structure is allied at CAPCO in which multiple projects are running simultaneously (Bryman, 2011). On the other structure of hand Marks and Spencer constitute of a long hierarchy having different levels of the management managing the employees and have a narrow span of control . Culture is constitute of certain beliefs and principles on which organisation works. It depicst from the behaviour of the people working in the organisation. Culture of the organisation could be classified in various ways they are:
Culture od CAPCO is free and open, employees have the freedom to communicate with any one and have managers always remain available to help the employees. Employees working in CAPCO have the freedom to participate in the decision makings aspects. On the other hand cultuture of Marks and Specer is formal and there are various tolls for the flow of marketing communication system. There are certain rules and regulations framed by the management according to which creativity and changes at the workplace has to be passed (Karthick, 2010).
Structure and cluture pf an organisation have a direct relationship with its performance. Structure and culture of the organisations are somewhere interrelated with each other, any change ine the structure of the organisation will direct affect the culture and vice versa. For example if the sytem is being decentralised in the organisation then it will also have to bring certain set of changes in the culture that is being followed (Subba Rao, 2010). Coming on to CAPCO it has a flat structure with a small hierarchy of the management. This type of structure helps in managing the flow of communication and managing the employees in an effective way. It have a free organisational culture in which employees have the freedom to share there ideas and communicate directly with the management which helps in making the workplace environment happy as well as healthy. Such type of structure and cultute helps in enhancing the performace of the workplace as employees gets emotionally attached with the organisation and works hard to help the business to attain its targeted goals and objectives.
CAPCO allows the employees to indulge in the decision making processes and provide appropriate training to them. Employees working in CAPCO have freedom to share their views, issues and ideas with the management on which it tales quick actions and help in resolving the issues which helps the employees to focus on the work. Employees in such type of structure and culture remain happy and works more effectively with the effect of which performance of the business gets enhanced (Osborne, 2008).
There are various factors at the workplace which enfluence the bahvior of an individual at the workplace. There are two aspects that can have the impact on the behaviour of an individual they are the surroundings of the organisation and oqn traist of the individual. There are various other factors that influnec behaviour of an individual at the workplace they are:
CAPCO is an organisation that believes in ‘it’s our people who make the CAPCO difference’. They have leaders who work together as professionals who found solutions to all the problems so that they are able to meet the challenges that come in the way of achievement. They always try to combine the thoughtful leadership styles into practical experience using strategic planning. They help the employees in reshaping the organization’s structure into a more developed and updated one. (Bryman, 2011)
Different leadership styles are-
Leadership style that is being followed by CAPCO is democratic leadership style. His style allows the employees to indulge in the decision makings aspects. In this decisions are not being made solely by the leaders contribution of each and every employees is necessary (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010). It helps in bringing innovative ideas at the workplace with the effect of which work is being manged in an effective manner. But such type of leadership styles affects the working environment it could be possible that some of the employees do not agree on one decision, this causes clashes and affects the work process as well as behaviour of the employees.
On the other hand Marks and Spencer use the laissez faire leadership style. Because people working in the organisation are highly experienced in their field and people at that level have the skills to manage the work on their own. In this manager act as a guide and provide assistance whenever it is required. Chances of mistakes increases in such type role of leadership as people do not want to share their views or ask for help from the managers (Osborne, 2008).
Every organisation adopts different organisational theories that have a direct or indirect influence on the management practice of the management. These theories are basically driven from the past experience of the organisation styles that are followed before. The conditions and the suitability of the organisation decide the suitable theories. The various types of theories that are used in different organisations are written below-
Scientific theory-The main focus of this approach is to get work done in the most effective and efficient way. It enhances the quality of work. It says that if you put an input that is appropriate in nature, then you will get an output. The scientific theory is helpful in broadening the scope of the management practices. It is required to develop business policies in an organization.
Human relationship theory- This theory focuses on the welfare of the human resource working in the organisation. It is basically the main motive of this theory. It says that if the human asset is good of one organisation that that organisation will never fail in any aspect. This theory focuses on individual’s productivity not machines. (Osborne, 2008). This theory said that the employees want to be a part o team that is supportive and facilitates growth of them. the elements of this theory are-
Human Relation theory is being used by CAPCO so as to manage the people working in the organisation. Management believes that if they will help the employees and will work on resolving their issue then employees will get emotionally attached with the organisatio and will help it in attaining its goals and objectives. Human relationship theory helps in keeping the employees motivated and reducing employee turnover ratio.
Contingency approach is being used in CAPCO, focus of the organisation always remain with change management. Management of CAPCO believes that otrganisation should move with the change and should manage the functions accordingly. Another approach is human relation, being an organisation believing in the change management, it also focuses on the human resource ands wants that they should alwats remain with the company and terms the human resources as one of the most valuable assets of the company (Bryman, 2011). Working on the contingency approach helps CAPCO to remain flexible in decision making aspects and also in human resource management. Applying such type of strategy helps in influencing the employees to accept change and to manage the work accordingly. It also helps in building positive employee relation which leads to reduction in the employee turnover ratio (Karthick, 2010).
On the other hand Marks and Spencer uses systems approach, it focuses on improving the productivity by using the efficient human resources. There are certain rules and regulations that are developed by the management of Marks and Spencer so as to ensure that people could work effectively and remain productive. Marks and Spencer’s system approach ensures that human resource management should have the abilities to prepare the plans and structure which could keep the things under control. Work is being prioritized and allotted accordingly to the employees so that it could get completed within the time period suggested. Focus of the company remains with the productivity and generating effective amount of revenue. Evaluating all the aspects it could be said that management approach of CAPCO is much effective then the approach applied by Marks and Spencer and it is necessary that Marks and Spencer should understand the needs of human resource working and try to fulfil them doing so will help in managing the work and enhancing productivity.
In an organisation, there is different individuals work together. But few of them act as a leader. Leadership is something which can’t be possessed in one day. A person who is leader carries the traits of leadership from his childhood. A leader has some particular skills and traits that help him to stand different from all. But as the time is running, there is a Need of leaders in the organisation. Leaders have the capability to bring changes in the running criteria. Leaders also have the ability to affect the whole organisation as they are the one who directly controls and look after the performances of all. (Bryman, 2011) A manager can be a leader, but a leader cannot be manager. This line says that in every organisation there are managers as a leader. These skills of leadership lie in the upper level of the management in an organisation. But it can also exist in the middles and bottom level also. Leaders lead the business and help to achieve the goals of the organisation. Such traits are-
There are different leadership styles–
Autocratic- This kind of leaders are self-motivated and they do not need to consult to others. They make decisions on their own. They want their subordinates to follow their instructions orders (Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010). In this leadership styles guidance is given to the employees of how to remain motivated and what are the implications that could help them in remaining motivated at the workplace.
Paternalistic- This style of leadership is same as the autocratic. But here the leaders ask subordinates to give their decisions. He also respects the suggestions given by the employees. Here they care for the employees’ welfare also.This is the leadership style in which supervisors or managers guide the subordinates to take initiatives in participating in the decision making processes and supports them in each and every step so that they could remain motivated.
Democratic- The whole focus of this leadership style is on the participation and contribution of the employees. They are the leaders who prefer the suggestions of all the other members. They are by the people, for the people and of the people. They take decision after discussing all the information with everyone (Subba Rao, 2010). This is a leadership style in which managers supports the employees to participate in various activitie sand remain prepared to manage all kind of work. This helps in motivating the employees to accept the change and manage the work accordingly.
Laissez-faire-Under this style, the decisions are made by the employees only as they are free to take decision by their own. There is no one to stop them to make decisions. They can do the things done by them. This is the leadership style in which experienced people are get hired and they remain motivated and have the skills to manage all kind of work and manage the change.
There are five approaches of leadership
Maslow’s motivational theories
Herzberg motivational theories
This theory is basically depends upon the wants and needs of the employees. It emphasises on the satisfaction level that need to be provide to the employees to keep them motivated like food, safety, etc.
This theory is based upon the motivational practices. This theory says that the motivation is one tool in the organisation that helps to bring growth and development. Like rewards, responsibility, etc.
The basis of the theory
There are five stages under this theory-
Under this theory, the main factors that help to keep employee’s motivate are-
The nature of the theory
The deep experience of the human needs and wants are described under this.
There is a description of the motivators and the satisfactory are mentioned. Herzberg gave more importance to real life situations.
The applicability of the theory
This theory is usually applied in developing countries. But now days almost every organising is opting this theory.
This theory is an updated and expanded version of Maslow’s motivational theory. This theory is not applicable everywhere. It’s generally applicable in the developed nations.
Either descriptive or perspective
It is a theory which is descriptive in nature. It defines each and every need in a brief description.
It is a theory which is perspective in nature.
Under this the motivator of the employees is their own need. There need motivated them to achieve good in the organisation.
Under this the satisfiers s as motivators. The hygiene factors do not create any kind of motivation.
Manager is one of the most important parts of the organisation, he works as the leader and for a good leader it becomes necessary to lead the team in and a way which could help them in sustaining their future. It is important for a manager to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace because understanding the motivation theories will help in bringing quality to the work, building effective team and reducing employee turnover ratio. Gaining information regarding various motivation theories will help the manager to bring changes at the workplace. It will help the manager to resolve conflict and to manage internal decorum of the workplace. It is a responsibility of a manager to motivate the employee so that they could manage the work and help the organisation to sustain in the market. Understanding Maslow’s need hierarchy and Herzberg two factor theories will help the manager to understand the importance of motivation and making appropriate plans of motivating the employees:
Maslow’s theory suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs of the employees. People get motivated when their needs get fulfilled. There are several needs that are suggested by Maslow they are basic or psychological needs, safety and security needs, belongingness, ego and status, and self actualisation needs. According to the theory manager should start from the basic needs and then try to fulfil all the other needs. Doing so will help in motivating the employees which will help them in remaining happy and work more effectively.
On the other hand Herzberg theory suggests that there are certain hygiene factors which are required to get fulfilled at the workplace. Hygiene factors include management relationship with employees, job security, working conditions, salary and wages. For a manager it is necessary to focus on these aspects so that employee could remain motivated in CAPCO. Understanding both the aspects decision could be made that manager of CAPCO should apply Maslow’s theory of motivation so that he could provide proper support to the employees and help them in remaining motivated (Karthick, 2010).
When a group of people works together to achieve a common goal and have an equal responsibility for the growth and success of the company is termed as a team. They all have some common interest, according to which they work together. They share some similar traits and also know each other very well.(Mondy, et.Al. 2005)
Basically, there are two types of groups-
CAPCO is an organisation that believes in team building. They think that there should be a strong bond between the superiors and the subordinates. They also have formal groups who have the responsibility to achieve some specific goals. There goals are predetermined. To increase the efficiency of the employees, the top level management decides to get the work done by team building. It helps to increase the efficiency of the employees. It also helps to create a good communication between all the levels, whether it’s top, middle or bottom. (Tracy, 2014) There is a theory that is defined as the Belbin theory. This theory gives certain behaviours of the individual at a workplace that helps the organisation to accomplish the goals in an accurate manner. These behaviours are-(Waniek, 2012)
The development of the team depends upon the systematic management of it by the superiors and the head the team. They are responsible persons who work for the betterment of the team. To create an effective outcome from the work done by them, there is a need to manage it properly. There are five steps that collectively make a procedure the groups are formed when all the members whose area of interest is same and who belongs to the same level. There are many members who together form a group. Like the stakeholders, owners, customers, etc. they can be either formal or informal in n nature. Formal groups are working in nature and informal groups are friendly in nature. In this way, there is formation of groups takes place in an organisation.
There are no inhabiting factors in CAPCO which could affect the teamwork. Communication system of the organisation is effective and applies the leadership approaches which are really good and could help in managing the team as well as teamwork (Subba Rao, 2010). CAPCO organises cultural activities, fun games and official parties so that employees could understand the culture and beliefs of others and could build effective set of relationship with other employees working. This helps in building effective team and coordinating with other team members working in the organisation.
The technology is becoming a vital part of CAPCO as it helps in the functioning of the team. It helps the teams to manage its work, systematic layouts, effective allocation of the work and other resources, maintain the budgets, time saving, etc. With some small investments, technology is doing magic in the organisations. The organisations are opting new and innovative techniques to perform the work. Communication between the employees and the other members of the team is becoming very effective as it minimising the time and useless expenditure. It provides various benefits like emails, video conference, texts, etc. (Waniek, 2012)
If we look into the old pattern of the management of the teams, then we can notice that there is a big change that has come now in the working of the teams. Many type software is available in the market that helps the team leaders to manage the teams and make schedules and timetables. (Kouzes and Posner, 2013) Capco’s technology is upgrading from research laboratory to new and updated machines. The hotmail, email, Facebook, etc are the latest networking sites used by the group members to enhance the speed. In CAPCO, employees are taking benefit of the technology and changing the organisation in a better way they can. (Leadership Careers, 2007). Using computer technology, the group members can store the information and data of the members and stakeholders. They can use Microsoft excel sheets and Microsoft access for storage. Hence, the technology is acting as a boom for CAPCO.
Organisation behaviour acts as a vital part of an organisation as it affects the whole structure and culture of the same. Under this, the structure, styles of the leader and behaviour of the manager towards the employees come. It depicts that there should be a flexible working environment in the organisation so that the employees feels free to give their suggestions and hence feel responsible. The more open environment provides them a sense of accountability, which keeps them motivated for a long period of time. In organisation behaviour, the work is divided among teams. It is also a beneficial way to do work done. It reflects an effective working. This study helps the learners to give knowledge of the organisation and how to handle work in the same. To keep the employees motivated, there are various factors explained by Henry Fayol. These factors can be in monetary terms or non-monetary also. It also says that there must not be any kind of discrimination takes place in the organisation on the basis of caste, religion, gender, etc.
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