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This Unit 2 public health in health and social care assignment explains about the role of different agencies in determining the level of health and diseases in the community. The discussion is supported by the data and figures and the epidemiology of one infectious and one non-infectious disease in UK. This unit not only talks about the diseases but also provides knowledge of causes and effects of the diseases.
Learners will further learn about the health care service providers in the country and the strategies that have been used by them in order to prevent the society from the hazardous diseases.
This unit further argues about the impact of changing lifestyle on the health of the people and the effectiveness of the strategies that have been implemented by the social health care system for protecting the society.
Many organizations provide services for health and social care in UK and to the whole world. There are three organizations that are discussed below which provides health care services.
The aim of above three organisations is providing services of health care to the people. They may have different specific objectives, but the main goal of the organisations is same.
World Health Organisation does not provide direct services to the citizens, but aids the private organisations that are working for the same purpose. They serve the health organizations on the country basis. They specially provide services to the health care systems that are at introductory stage or the organisations that are not performing well in this sector. They become more active at the time of calamities, natural disasters etc.(Boys and Michie, 2007) WHO try their best in generating the worldwide investigation system in order to identify the level of the heath and diseases persisting in the community. It includes the research laboratories and health centres from nation, local and provincial level and forms a network in order to work effectively. UK community health centre services is one of laboratories that contributes for this cause of investigating the levels of health and diseases.
Another organisation that helps in identifying level of health and disease in communities is General Medical Council. This council works for protection of patients by improving the medical education and practices in UK. They do the same by setting standards for the doctors and the services provided by them. They believe in providing the best services to the patients. GMC not only set standards for doctors but also take care of the training and education part of doctors as well as medical students. They contribute in identifying the level of health and diseases by conducting surveys and setting the standards for doctors in such a way so that they can bring down the level of the current diseases down.
National Health Services is the biggest single player in the field. NHS provides its services free of cost to the citizens of the country at the service point. NHS commissioning is another process that deals with providing effective services that meet the needs of the population. NHS is a patient led organisation as they provide the list of services to the patients and the final decision is made by consulting the patient. (Jones-Devitt and Smith, 2007) NHS collaborates with WHO in its activities of identifying the levels of health and diseases.
Epidemiology is the study of patterns, distribution and incidence of the diseases in the community. It deals with all the factors associated with cause and effect of the disease in the environment. The study can be done on non-infectious as well as infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases are the communicable diseases that be communicated with any infectious agent, but non-infectious diseases are caused by the mutations that are inherited from the prior generation. (Bu?ttner and Muller, 2011)
Infectious disease: food borne diseases (FBD)
Microbestransmitted: campylobacter, salmonella, E. Coli and many more
Carrier: food products
FBD are the diseases that are caused by intake of food. The microbes that are present in the food enter our body and grow there if they get favourable conditions for their growth. Not all microbes present in the food are harmful. Growth of harmful microbes in our body led to illness and diseases.
The table below is showing the number of people affected by the Food Borne Diseases every year:
Estimated number of affected people(2001-2011)
20,000 new cases per year
60,000-80,000 (4000 new cases per year)
>4000 deaths per year
Estimated cases and deaths by the pathogen attacks:
Causes: Main causes of FBD, s are:
Vulnerable groups: People with all ages and both the sexes are vulnerable to FBD’s. In UK, the group that is most vulnerable to food borne diseases is children. Vulnerability for food borne diseases also depends on the immune system of an individual. People with damaged immune system are more vulnerable to the pathogen attacks.(Medlock and Leach, 2015)
Trends: UK-acquired cases of pathogens monitored by FSA
Condition of accumulation of fat on the body more than an extent is called obesity. If the body mass index (BMI) of a person is more than or equal to 30, then he is said to be an obese. Obesity leads to many diseases like diabetes, weakening of bones etc.
Epidemiology of obesity
Incidence rates: The rate of increase in obese cases is at alarming stage in UK. In men, the percentage increased from 0.2% to 1.8% from 1993 to 2010. In women, the hike in percentage is more that is, from 1.4% to 3.6% in the same years as above.(Capehorn, Haslam and Welbourn, 2016)
Below figure shows the percentage of obese adults in different years:
Causes: many reasons can lead to increase in weight or accumulation fat in the body. Some of the causes are stated below:
Obesity is the situation where accumulation of fat takes place in the body to such extent that it becomes the reason of many health problems. The people suffering from obesity are more susceptible to diabetes than the non-obese people are. Study reveals that 62% of adult population is suffering from obesity in England by 2012 and this percentage is rising day by day. (World Health Organization, 2016)
Below data is showing the percentage of obese, underweight and overweight people from overall diabetic patients.
Vulnerable groups: The most vulnerable group that is the victim of obesity is children under the age of 16. The figure below is showing the percentage of obese and overweight chidren: (World Health Organization, 2016)
The below figure shows the trends in the prevalence of obesity in adults:
Many approaches and strategiescan be used to control the incidence of disease in communities. These approaches help in prior targeting of the symptoms of diseases that are at the verge of causing ill effects to the society. Below are some of the approaches that aid the control of diseases in communities:
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There are some of the chronic diseases that need to be prevented as a priority. Those diseases are obesity, cancer, diabetes, CVC etc. It is very important to find the priority in the diseases so that preventive measures can be taken up to control the spread of disease.
Below diagram shows the ratio of diseases that are becoming the cause of death for the world population:
HIV is one of the diseases that have severe effects on the population of world as well as on the population of UK. HIV prevention should be a priority for the social care settings so that they can safeguard people from the disease. Prevention of the diseases is divided into the following steps:
Prevalence of disease is the proportion of total population that is affected by that particular disease. Prevalence of disease provides the information about the number of people that are facing the illness from the total number of people who are studied. This information gives us the idea to plan about the services that needs to be given regarding the problem.
Determining prevalence rates supports individuals in health and social care settings to identify the health needs. This aids them to develop programs that can be implemented for prevention of disease. Other epidemiological tools provide information about the reach of the disease that helps in taking measures accordingly. For example, if the health care individuals have the knowledge about root cause of the disease and have the data regarding the areas where population is more prone to the disease then, they will definitely target that particular area first. (Henderson, 2011)
The data regarding the spread of diseases not only helps in planning the programs, but also helps in determining the needs of providing education to the population in order to prevent them from the diseases.
Prior knowledge of the cause and effect of the disease proves to very beneficial for the health care individuals in allocating the resources accordingly. It gives them the idea to prioritize the tasks and the resources. They can easily target the population with higher risk by studying the data regarding the cause and effect of the disease. For example, if a particular area in the country is found to be more susceptible to the Lyme disease, then more resources will be allocated to that area for early treatment of the disease.
Many factors influence the health of an individual such as eating habits, intake of substances, exercising, work culture etc. All the above factors somehow become the reason for illness of an individual. Many health problems may arise due to bad habits of taking drugs, alcohols and other harmful substances.
In UK, the two main health problems that are found to be severe and chronic are obesity and intake of drugs. Both the above stated problems have become the lifestyle of most of the UK population. (Wright, 2016)
Obesity: The main cause of being obese is the eating habits of the people. Wrong eating habits lead to accumulation of fat in the body that result in obesity. Data identifies that premature adult death rates can be reduced to 8%, if people maintain their weight. Survey suggests that the percentage of obese people increased by 13% in men and 10% in women from 1993 to 2010. This data gives the reason to worry.
Reasons of increase in the number of obese people in UK
Department of health recommended that one should do physical exercise 150 minutes a week. That should not be done in one go but can be broken down into smaller period.
Some of the other health problems prevailing in UK are:
All the above reasons suggest that the social health organisations need to pace up their activities in near future. They have to take steps according to the increase in health issues. As per the data, the main target of these organisations would be obesity and smoking because these two habits are greatly influencing the health of the people in UK.
Wellbeing is the condition in which an individual feels comfortable with his surroundings. This state of wellbeing can be achieved only when a person is healthy, happy and satisfied with the environment in which he is living. Wellbeing can be classified as social, physical, environmental, economical etc. Wellbeing of an individual is very much related with the health. Different people suffer from different types of diseases. The type of the disease and its effects decides the choice of wellbeing. Priorities should be made in accordance with the effects of the disease.
My patient is suffering from acute stress disorder, so he needs to be treated by social and environmental wellbeing. This is because my patient has to deal with the mental situation or trauma that has been caused due to some of the bad situations in his earlier life. To cope with that situation, he needs medical as well as social treatment. Social wellbeing can be attained by support of the society. Patients with stress disorder should be provided with emotional and social support by the friends, family and as well as by the people around them. (Wright, 2016)
Below are some of the factors that affect the wellbeing and health of an individual:
Commonwealth fund has appreciated UK for the fact that UK invested a lot in health care of the population. Health care settings in UK have always come up with new strategies and policies to fight with the existing diseases in the community. If we take the example of HIV, many programs like CHAPS and NAHIP were implemented to encourage and educate people to have safe sex and use of protections while having sex. These programs were proved very beneficial for the reduction in STD transfer. (Ma, 2009)
Social care services and information:
Social care services are those services that are provided by the social health care systems. These departments assist the patients as well as their carers regarding the health issues. Social care health involves providing equipments, health care at home, and financial support to patients etc.
Information is an important factor that should be considered by social healthcare providers. Information regarding the diseases and health of the society helps the organisation to work towards the betterment of society. Information also helps in creating awareness to the people regarding the diseases prevailing in the community.
Policies of Care UK care home:
Care home in UK is one of the most efficient health care and safety providers. They believe in working according to the laws passed by the government regarding the health and safety care systems. One of the best policies of this care home is the complaint policy that is also the rights of the patients and the service recipients. According to this policy, the people or the customers who are unsatisfied with the services can make a formal complaint to the department and the management of the heath care facility will take action within three working days. They investigate the reason behind the dissatisfaction and try to resolve the issue as soon as possible.
If the management fails to resolve the issue than the service recipient can escalate it to the directors and even to the external facilities to resolve the issue.
Quality of service provision: Healthcare providers check for the quality of services they are providing to the patients. They take feedback from the patients regarding the services. Quality of services can be checked by determining the effectiveness of the treatments and safety of the recipients.
Rights of patients:
It is found that the local authorities of health care in UK are doing very well in promoting the preventive measures of different diseases among people. These authorities collaborate with each other for big projects so that they can cover wider areas in less time. Some agencies that are working for child health care also found to be working together for a common goal these days. The structure of partnership in organisation is beneficial as it allows early incorporation of child health care services. Many modifications have been made in the health care services. These modifications led to improved policies and strategies that result in better services.
Although, organisations of UK are doing well in the health care service sector but there is always a needs to come up with modifications in the policies according to the change in the situation and the environment.
The health care settings in UK are performing satisfactorily in the field but there is always a chance to improve. Modifications should always be made according to the demands. The policies and strategies that have been made for adults are not necessarily be successful in case of children. It is necessary to make the strategies according to the group that has been targeted. In case of children, involvement of parents is very necessary, as they are the first caretaker of children. The strategies that have been made for the children health care purpose should be such that educate parents about the diseases that can affect their child. Parents should be provided with the information regarding the cause and effect of the disease. They need to know about the preventive measures and cures so that it will be easy for them to treat their child at the time of infection.
If we take the case of adolescents, it is very necessary to keep in mind that the promotions about the preventive measures should be done by the same age group people. This is because youngsters are very much influenced by peer pressure.
The health care centres that are providing remedial care to the patients should focus on the surroundings as well. It is their duty to take care of the patient as well as the environment around him.(Gordis, 2009)
Changes that could be made in UK care home:
All the above discussion was subjected to almost all of the health care system. As discussed, UK care homes have the policy of complaint through which the service recipients can file a complaint if they are unsatisfied with the services. This policy is very beneficial for the people. As the service providers are providing a resident like care and atmosphere in their care homes, involvement of family members can be more beneficial to treat the patients in such case. The family members can tell the carer about the habits and the type of food that needs o be provided to the patients. This help the carers to know about the things and mould the activities in such a way that makes the patients feel better.
Behaviour change of an individual can be done by incorporating a good habit in his lifestyle. Physical exercise is one of the good habits that can be practiced by the people of every age to be fit. Inculcating this habit from the childhood days is even more beneficial as children are very much active and can adapt things easily rather than adults. As stated above, that the most widespread disease in UK among all the ages is obesity. Therefore, physical movement of body is the best remedy that may have its effect on reduction in number of obese people in the society. (Rowland, 2012)
Social health care systems should come up with the health care clubs that allows people from same age group to come and do exercise together. Organising family sports fest every month or once in 6 months will be very beneficial as it provides the chance for the whole family to take part in it. The social care settings should focus on the daily schedules of the people and should implement programs accordingly. (Jones-Devitt and Smith, 2007)
It is necessary to study the epidemiology of the diseases as it provides the information about the incidence rates, prevalence rates and the geographic distribution of the disease in the community. The health care units to come up with the preventive measures of such diseases use this information. UK health care providers are providing very fine services to the people by educating them regarding the cause and effects of the diseases that are widespread in the society.
The lifestyle of the people is also responsible for many health issues like obesity in the society. The changes should be made in the lifestyle of the people by providing them with the facilities that help them to attain good health.
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