BTEC Higher National Diploma in Travel and Tourism
Unit Number and Title
Unit 19 Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management
Cultural heritage and tourism are mutually interdependent. With the growth of tourism industry the cultural heritage has also been more developed in UK and consideration on preserving this cultural heritage is also increased. Recently these cultural industries have been recognized as an economic phenomenon due its high contribution in the GDP of the countries. The cultural industry has also become a potential source of employment opportunities in the areas they are developed as most of the population derive income on activities relating to the heritage and cultural industry. Through this Unit 19 Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management Merit Copy I have tried to understand the aspects of natural and cultural heritage preservation, the cultural tourism in UK and the various organizations that are involved in this work.
Task 1: Understanding the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
1.1 Analysing the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry with special reference to UK
- Heritage: Heritage can be described as the conglomerate of the natural and the cultural business environment constituting the places of historic importance, landscapes, bio-diversity, cultural practices, experiences, collections from the old times etc. It is the depiction of the process of development historically. It is shows the link of the past to the current practices, knowledge and shows the reference point that is the origin of modernity and change in the nation. (ENGLISH HERITAGE, 2008). Attractions:UK has a range of cultural and heritage attractions that are archaeological sites, formations of natural origin, buildings of historic significance, landscapes, centres that are urban demonstrating the natural, historic and cultural prosperity of UK preserved till date. (UNESCO, 2014)
- The history of heritage: The grand tour was the trip traditionaly taken nby the rich and affluent upper class section of the UK. In 1660 this custom became popular. This trip was taken by the British nobiltiy, the wealthy class of Britian Protestents of the North European contries.After the steamship rail travel started this trip was affordable for the middle class secdtion of the society too (John, 2001). Grand Tour is also described as the post- Oxbridge trip taking by the upper class of Britian to France and Italy in the Quest of art and cutlure. The Grand Tour was infact the cultural legacy for antiquity. It was considered as an opprotunity to see and get acquinted to art pieces and listen to great music (Thompson, 1991).
- Pilgrimage – Rome has beeen considered a pilgirim for many centuries. The Jubilee marked Rome as the centre of the Seven Pilgrim Churches. In the United Kingdom, the Coryat’s Crudities – a travel book written by Thomas Coryat in the year 1611 influenced the Grand Tour. In 1648, the Peace of Munster marked as the era of initiated large number of pilgrimage tours (Chaney, 2004). 17th century marked the era of increase of travelling for curiosity and learning. Edward Gibbon a historian remarked that foreign travel in true sense completes the education of a British Gentleman.
Cultural and Heritage tourism site and venues of UK as per the UNESCO WHS list;
- Ironbridge Gorge, Shropshire
- Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, South Wales
- Derwent Valley Mill, Derbyshire
- New Lanark, southern Scotland
- Saltaire, Yorkshire
- Pontcysyllte Aqueduct & Llangollen Canal, north Wales
Accessibility and sustainability of transport:
UK Government has been very alert and active to foster the developemnt of safe and sustainable transport facilities making the access to these sites of cultural and heritage importance assessibe. On December 2013, local authority was invited to bid 78.5 £ for Local Sustainable Transport Fund (UK GOVERNMENT, 2013).The transport system is well connected with the air, road and water transport systems giving people wide options to choose prefereed mode of transport.
Natural Aspects of Heritage
Landscape: England has picturesque rural sites the Jurassic coast is one such among them, a world Heritage site since the year 2001. It has rocks from the Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Quaternary Periods. (Natural England, 2014)
In UK about 33% of the English Coastline is preserved. The white chalk cliffs of Beachy Head in Sussex, the sheer cliffs of Flam borough Head and the Durham coasts are important and world famous heritage coasts of UK, enriched with wild life flora and Fauna of the sea birds. (Natural England, 2014)
National Parks, Woodlands, wildlife other habitat:
UK is rich in wildlife and natural habitat it has lowland wet and dry heaths, bogs and mires, pasture woodlands that are ancient, coniferous forests, grasslands(acids), coastal wildlife etc making it richest in bio diversity in the entire Europe. (New Forest National Park, 2014)
Impacts of the cultural and heritage industry: The impacts of this industry can be divided into economic and non-economic. Non-economic impact can be social cohesion and marginalized group’s integration. This leads to the building of cultural diversity. The economic impact of this industry is growth of GDP or the GVA of the country in which the cultural and heritage industry is developed. The Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, created the new school of thought to better define and understand the new cultural aspect which was known as British Cultural Studies. This viewed culture not just as having the spiritual component but having a materialistic and industrial aspect as well. (UNESCO Institute and Statistics, 2009)
Timeline showing the major events in the growth and development of heritage and cultural industry of UK (Fisher & Ormston, 2011)
Advice to national government on museum policy given buy the Standing Commission on Museums and Galleries set up.
Ad hoc legislation governed the museums and libraries was changed by the present UK funding systems started in the 1940s;
The Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA) came into existence, spending charitable and non-charitable funds on the arts.
CEMA became the Arts Council of Great Britain, considered as the first arts agency in the world which distributed the funds of the government without the involvement of the politics.
Council’s grant was 235000 pounds in the year 1945/46 and
Council’s grant was increased to 820000 pounds
Arts Council of Northern Ireland was introduced as an independent body
Department for Education & Sciencewas given the responsibility to provide grants-in-aid to the Art Council of Great Britain, the national museums, galleries and the British Library.
Business Sponsorship Incentive Scheme was established
Museums and Galleries Commission came into existence
Ministry the Department of National heritage established
UK Film Council established
the Arts Council of England and the Regional Arts Boards were established as an arts development agency for England
Task 2: Understanding the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
2.1 Asses the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
VA Museum –
The Victoria and Albert Museum makes UK proud as it is the largest museum of design and decorative arts. It has a broad collection of over 4.5 million artefacts and objects. Founded in the year 1852, it derives its name from Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. This museum is located in the Brompton district (Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea). It is sponsored by the Department for Culture Media and Sports. It has about 5,000 years old art pieces on global cultural origins. (V&A Museum, 2014).
Purpose of heritage and culture of the V& A Museum:
- Providing the visitors a chance to experience the splendour and marvel of the Asian arts, including countries like India, Japan, China, Korea, Islamic world
- Be a source of idea generation for the British designers
- The museum strive to be a source of enrichment of lives of people and promote knowledge and enjoyment
- They try to provide their visitors great experiences and access to their collections
- They also strive for the advetisement promotion and development of the creative economy of UK
- They have the purpose to function effectively considering the finances and the organizational effectiveness
- Education, research, recreation and entertainment– As declared by Henry Cole the V&A museum is a “school room for all”. It has study rooms, it offers tours that are guided, lectures and events are organized here. (V&A Museum, 2014)
Customer Categories – This museum has diverse collection of artefacts around the globe and different era attracting tourists of all age groups and varied interests. Considered as the most romantic museum of UK this museum is visited by couples, a source of inspiration for the designers and architects it is visited by them, With 7 miles huge galleries it has something to offer and interest people of all age groups.
- Museums can help in increasing the travel and tourism in their areas by advertising different hotels near them so that the tourists can stay at the hotels and see the whole museum as these museums are so huge that they cannot be explored in just one day.
Located on the Exhibition Road (South Kensington) the Science Museum was founded in the year 1857.It attracts over 2.7 million tourists every year. It contains large number of machinery collections. It was founded under Bennet Wood croft. The science museum became an independent entity on 26th June, 1909.Colections of science museum include the oldest locomotive, first jet engine, replica of the DNA model by Watson and Crick. It has an IMAX 3D movie hall that shows documentaries related to science and nature. A home for technological wonders this museum has wide range of objects. It keeps records of all the changes in science, technology and medical history.
Purpose of Science museum –
- It is to satisfy the needs of establishing an environment to impart knowledge on science and technology
- Knowledge gaining on how machinery is operated
- Depicting the growth and development of science and technology form its historic origin
- Serving as a resource of knowledge for schools and public(Oppenheimer, 1968)
Customer’s categories: Basically the customer segment that visits the museum is science enthusiasts, children, science researches, schools and colleges organizing science excursions etc. Segmentation, target groups, visitor levels and usage rates, overall status of heritage and culture as a leisure activity, income generation links with tourism and urban regeneration, specialist groups
Income generation links with tourism and urban regeneration -
Museums increase tourist’s activities as it attracts people and although UK museums are freely accessible it generates state revenue by people opting for hotel stay, shopping, etc. Museums can help in increasing the travel and tourism in their areas by advertising different hotels near them so that the tourists can stay at the hotels and see the whole museum as these museums are so huge that they cannot be explored in just one day. Urban regeneration is caused by them as it gives more employment opportunities to the local population of the area. The renewal of hard infrastructure is also increased due to these museums as it paves way for development of road, transport systems, and infrastructure such as hotels, pubs, recreational centres around these areas as such businesses see potential in their growth due to availability of large number of tourists.(Lorente, 1996)
My trip to both of this museum and my study regarding them has made me conclude that both the museums exist to serve different purposes and attract different visitors. The science museum attracts basically science enthusiasts and more young crowds, researches students etc. whereas the V & A museum attract tourists of all age groups and also of different nations, having the art and collections from places around the globe. V &A attracts tourists who are interested in history and culture. The purpose of the science museum is to satisfy the needs of establishing an environment to impart knowledge on science and technology whereas purpose of V &A Museum is to provide an experience to the splendour and marvel of the Asian arts, including countries like India, Japan, China, Korea, Islamic world.
Task 3: Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of Organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
3.1 Evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
Ownership on the management of cultural and heritage sites:
- Public or managed by the government – Many significant and iconic places of heritage and cultural importance are owned and managed by the government. These include places of historic importance and significant places such as town halls etc. The government ensures sustainable protection and management of these sites ensuring that they can be enjoyed by the present and the coming generations. The government of UK along with the World Heritage Convention 1984 works for the management and conservation of the Heritage and Cultural Sites.(Government, (n.d))
- Private sector- These include organizations working independently and manage the preservation and protection of the cultural sites. The local businesses established near these cultural sites depend on their daily income from the tourist activities caused by these sites. They have the prime concern to make money but indirectly they preserve these sites, being the prime source of their income(Rodgers, 2001).
- Voluntary ownership – this type of ownership includes the non-profit organisations that can be charitable. These organisations get their funding’s in the form of subscriptions, donations and grants. The National trust and the Youth Hostel Association are the voluntary organisations in the travel and the tourism sector (Rodgers, 2001). The National trust provides touring passes to the tourists for having access to various sites such as historic buildings, gardens and castle (Visit Britain, 2015).
- International organizations – Many international organization work for the management and preservation of the tourist sites. They set guidelines and information on effective management of these sites(Rodgers, 2001)...
- Example – The UNESCO plays a major role in conservation of the heritage sites of the world the 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. United Kingdom as a member to this convention has to ensure protection, conservation of all its sites of heritage value. (ENGLISH HERITAGE, 2008)
- Mission and values objectives and income generation – The vision of the management of cultural sites by different bodies are attaining the desired status of these sites that the government or commercial bodies or independent organizations aim to obtain by improvement and management. The time to attain the desired status of development and growth can depends upon the factors such as politics, funding, factors of the environment etc.
The mission for the management of these cultural sites determines what these bodies would do in the span of next 3-5 years to develop cultural and heritage value. (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2008)
3.2 Analysing the role and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
English Heritage- It has about 400 sites under it and works by enriching the tourism experience of the country and revenue generation for the country. The Ancient Monument Act of the 1913 enabled government control over buildings and place of historical importance. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission of the English Heritage has the role to undertake the buildings and sites of historic and tourism importance and avail it for public access.
Role and responsibilities of the English Heritage are as under;
- Preserve all buildings and sites of historic importance- It is the prime body that has advisory role in the historic development of the environment and has an important role in the process of planning of heritage protection and conservation (English Heritage, 2015).
- Managing change in the historic environment - They have an important role to advice the management about the ways of changing and developing the historic environment. It is involved in various issues of planning relating to the historic environment of the United Kingdom. Constructive Conservation is an important role of the English Heritage. The English Heritage is working for the promotion of a positive collaborative approach focusing on active and proper change management. The aim of this approach is to have the changes that are necessary to ensure the sustainable use and derive enjoyment form the assets of heritage significance (English Heritage, 2015). They play an important role in finding opportunities and implementing changes to enhance the historic environment.
- Awareness of the importance of conservation - have a role in explaining the masses the significance of constructive conservation of heritage. They show the contribution of conserved historic buildings to the creation of more employment opportunities, growth of business and economic prosperity.
- Tourism growth - They are also engaged in enhancing these sites and enrich them by conservation and developing techniques to attract public to these places of historic importance and impart them knowledge about them (English Heritage, 2015).
UNWTO and UNESCO
The UNWTO and the UNESCO work actively to preserve and conserve the culture and heritage. They together started a cooperation agreement to undertake measures and implement management techniques towards sustainable tourism and the conservation and the protection of the natural and cultural heritage. They signed a Memorandum of Understanding which was signed by Tale Rifai, the Secretary General of UNWTO and Irina Bokova the Director General of UNESCO in the meeting of the Chief Executive Board the memorandum ensured that the two organisations will work together on issues relating to the national, regional and global development of sustainable tourism in order to safeguard the cultural and natural heritage.
The programme ensured the following;
- UNESCO World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programmes should be implemented by these organisations
- Undertake initiatives for transnational tourism and take measures to promote the protection of Silk Roads and Heritage
- The organisations undertake initiatives to ensure the development and networking for sustainable tourism and conservation of biosphere
- To initiate the development of sustainable tourism withy the partnership of United Nations and United Nations Steering Committee on Tourism for Development and Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism
These two organisations work closely and together to manage and maintain sustainable tourism and they aim to educate that tourism plays a significant role in the conservation and sustenance of the cultural and natural heritage. (UNWTO, 2013)
This study has been very informative in giving insights on the development on the cultural and heritage tourism. This assignment has focused on the resources development of the cultural and heritage industry in the United Kingdom as well as the state of the tourism industry in states where it has not gained considerable importance and momentum such as the City of Jordan and the Giant Causeway where lack on stress on conservation is ruining the rich heritage. It has also been informative about how many government and non-government bodies take up the cause of conservation of tourism and work for sustainable tourism. It helps us understand that the ownership of these sites has to be managed well. It should be a source of education and information.
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