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Unit 18 Advertising and Promotion in Business Assignment
The advertising and promotionis associated with the effective use of advertising and promotion as a basic need in respect of any business that seeks to become successful in the modern business world. The advertising and promotion provides a wide scope of marketing communications and in what ways the process of communication is functioning. Advertising as well as the use of below-the-line techniques are the essential elements for developing an integrated communication strategy. There is also the selection of media as well as the ways by which the effectiveness of the plan gets measured.
1.1 Explain the communication process that applies to advertising and promotion.
In respect of advertising and promotion, communication is regarded as message as well as associated media that is utilised for communicating with a market that is being targeted. With more efficiency in the communication process, there will be more individuals getting convinced and as a result the organisation will get benefitted more and more. (Lussier, 2014) In a market which is competitive, an organisation’s survival is depending on the communication process that is effective in respect of its application for advertising and promotion. There exists various theories for facilitating this process, a few of them are mentioned as under,
Packard’s Theory of eight hidden needs: In 1957, Vance Packard developed this theory. He explained that advertisements that are effective are not necessarily focused towards the satisfaction of the primary requirements. At times, persuasion is considered to be more productive when the aim of the message is towards the emotional requirements that are hidden. (Iqbal, 2011) The emotional requirements provided by him were,
- Emotional security
- Creative outlet
- Sense of power
- Gratification of the ego
- Reassurance of worth
- Selling love objects
- Sense of roots
Rank’s Intensify and downplay: This is considered to be a very simple persuasion model that was explained by Hugh Rank. Two basic needs were described by him as well as opposite patterns of that are common for various persuasive circumstances. For intensifying, the persuader wants to develop the importance of some fundamentals for making the other individual to take it in a more serious manner or view its importance in the same manner as the persuader. The opposite of intensification is considered as downplaying. By using similar but reversed techniques it can occur. (Iqbal, 2011) Moreover, there can be the utilisation of methods that are associated with diversion, omission as well as confusion.
Media richness theory: In 1984, Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel did the introduction of the Media richness theory. This theory is used for describing as well as evaluating the richness of some Medias of communication as well as accordingly ranked. This theory is stating that, Medias in respect of richer, personal communication are more efficient in respect of communication of issues related with promotional aspects than media that are less rich. Media richness is measured in accord of its recognition of time as well as clearness.
1.2 Explain the organisation of the advertising and promotions industry.
Advertising and promotions industry is associated with business strategy that is serving other businesses for carrying out their activities related with promotion in an effective manner. In the present scenario, majority of the organisations are assigning the advertising work as well as promotional activities to the advertising industry rather than doing it by their own selves. The essential factors that should be taken into consideration for selecting the appropriate advertising industry are mentioned as under,
- Goodwill – The advertising agency must be having sufficient quantity of goodwill. Preference is not given to the lesser known or industries that are new and the reason for that is to be safe than being sorry.
- Knowledge and expertness –The advertising agency should be possessing sufficient knowledge, better standard of experience as well as it should be having the capability for understanding the problems of the clients. (Lussier, 2011)
- Return –Advertising is considered to be a very costly affair. Therefore, there should be very wise calculation to analyse whether the organisation is gaining more in comparison to the investment or not. The return should be more than the investment.
- Technology –The advertising agency is required having the capability for the utilisation of modern technologies as well as advertise in recent as well as most well-known media such as internet. (Lussier, 2014)
- Creativity – The industry that needs to be selected should definitely be creative. Presentations that are creative are preferred by individuals. Therefore, for attracting individuals, the advertisements are required to be very much creative.
- Personal Preference – Certain exclusive considerations such as industry size, flexibility, understanding of media as well as other aspects can also be taken into consideration.
1.3 Assess how promotion is regulated.
In the UK, the controlling of advertisement is done with the help of the association between legislation as well as codes of practice. For the prevention of duping individuals through fake publicity, there exist various regulatory bodies in UK for the regulation of advertisements as well as other activities for promotion. They have the authority for taking actions when they identify any fraudulent promotional activity. The three main regulatory bodies in this respect are mentioned as under,
- Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) – Advertising Standards Authority aka ASA is considered to be an independent regulatory body in respect of advertising for each and every media in the United Kingdom. It offers efficient actions in respect of complaints as well as does proactive checking of the media for taking action against advertisements that are misleading, harmful or offensive as well as sales promotions and direct marketing that are also considered as misleading, harmful or offensive. (Truman, 2010)
- Bar Standards Board – In 2004, there happened the establishment of the Bar Standard Board that is separately running the regulatory functional aspects regarding the activities associated with various kinds of promotional scenarios. Bar Standards Board makes sure the trustworthiness as well as quality in respect of a product and see that the advertising as well as information that are being utilised in respect of the activities related with promotion is having consistency with that. (Lussier, 2014)
- Committee of advertising practice – The Committee of advertising practice aka CAP is considered to be the self-regulatory body. It does the creation of different broadcast as well as non-broadcast codes of advertising that are governed by the Advertising Standards Authority. CAP also does its revision as well as assists the Advertising Standards Authority for their enforcement.
1.4 Examine current trends in advertising and promotion, including the impact of ICT.
For maintaining pace with the altering taste as well as technological aspects, the business organisations also start changing their perception as well as advertising style. At present, there is more importance given on the technological aspects in comparison to the traditional aspects. As a result, business organisations are trying to do the development of new technical aspects that are appropriate for the present environment as well as preferable in respect of the customers as well.
ICT aka Information and Communication Technology is considered to be the modern process of communication. Technology in the present scenario has been able to garner such strong influence that communication, activities related with promotion, as well as advertisements are presently having complete dependence on it. For keeping pace with time, also to survive in competitive markets as well as for increasing the profitability as well as value of stocks, the business organisations are currently more inclined towards the use of modern technological aspects in respect of the process of communication as well as advertising. Since, it is considered to be an easier process, consumes less amount of time, is considered to be more fast, creative as well as most well-known in respect of broader public, ICT has been successful in becoming the most utilised as well as well-known process related with advertising and promotion. (Truman, 2010)
Information and Communication Technology is working with internet, e-mail, e-commerce, as well as other websites. In the present scenario, the various products with their details are stored in these websites. Individuals have the option of choosing the products they prefer and then do the purchasing from there. This is considered to be an effective as well as easier process for communicating with the various customers. The dynamic development in ICT as well as globalization, along with the progress in the strategic approach towards globalized consumer market allowed the international organisations for using the scopes internationally. As a result, use of such scopes in respect of campaigns associated with advertising and promotion are done. The ICT was successful in making path-breaking changes as well as trends related with marketing. (Truman, 2010) It is having wonderful opportunities like expansion of the market with the help of the internet as well as social media that is allowing rapid communication as well as breaking through the boundaries. Also, it is cost effective and has a very straightforward approach towards the target customers since it is very much interactive as well as is based on the marketing style of ‘Anytime, Anywhere Marketing’.
2.1 Explain the role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy for a business or product.
A pivotal role is played by advertising in respect of the success of a product or an organisation. Because of advertising, there is popularity for a product. In this regard, let us concentrate on the effective development of communication that consists of the below mentioned aspects,
- Deciding the target audience as well as sticking with them.
- Determining the objectives of communication depending on the requirement of the category, awareness for the brand, attitude related with the brand as well as intention for brand purchase.
- Designing messages for getting attention, holding interest, generating desire as well as obtaining action. In addition to that, it is having logical, moral as well as emotional appeals.
- Choosing the media as well as type of communication channel such as personal or non-personal.
- Selecting the sources of messages related to communications that are personal or non-personal.
- Co-ordinating the feedback. (Lussier, 2014)
There is the existence of factors for fixing the communication mix like the product type or market type in respect of a push or pull strategy, stage of product life cycle, buyer’s readiness stage as well as market rank of the organization. Advertising plays an important role in an integrated system of marketing in respect of real scenarios. The current practices as well as developments in social media, as well as effects of globalization made advertising very much important. Integrated promotional strategies are benefitting from a mix of various tools of advertising, and also spreading the message to the audience as well as confirming that it has reached to the audience. (Lussier, 2011)
Now let us consider the advertising roles in an integrated promotional strategy. The major processes towards the promotion of the international brand Coca Cola are mentioned as under,
- With the help of traditional mode of advertising such as showing television advertisements, posters as well as billboards.
- By the sponsoring of events related with sports.
- By conducting various promotional aspects online.
- Through the selling of various collections of Coca Cola
- By conducting local promotions that are held by the bottlers or retailers
- Currently, Coca-cola has commenced using technological aspects of contract the animated or cartoon images for promoting the brand.
As a result, in this respect it can be stated that an integrated promotional strategy is being used by Coca Cola proving the importance of the role that advertisement plays towards the integrated promotional strategy in respect of any product or business.
2.2 Explain branding and how it is used to strengthen a business or product.
Branding is associated with the building of trust with the individuals who are concerned. In the terms of marketing, branding is regarded as the sum total of the value of an organisation, which takes into consideration the products, services, individuals, advertising, positioning as well as cultural aspects. Customers trust their brands of preference since they are having the idea about what they will purchase as well as what they are expecting. Therefore, the creation of an effective branding is beneficial for influencing the clients. (Furnham, 2012)
Branding provides encouragement related with confidence as well as trust. It is influencing not only the customers but the shareholders as well, along with the staffs as well as the other third parties. Branding assists in the growth of the organisational values as well as goodwill. At times, branding gets so strong that even when there is an increase in prices, there is no reduction in demand. The reflection of branding occurs with the help of logo, stripling as well as name. The brands are recognized by the people with the help of these. It assists the product or business for keeping itself distant from the competition as well as creating exclusive images that will assist in the creation of increased number of permanent clients as well as increasing the total organisational value. (Lussier, 2014)
The process of branding comprises of an exclusive name, campaign for advertising, having a unique presence as well as attracting loyal customers. For instance, the electronic giant, Samsung’s revolutionary phase passes through all these stages like being a better brand name than Sony within a stipulated time period. For building the brand name, Samsung concentrated on price over quality as well as did the selling of lower priced products than top-end products and along with that building the name at par with quality. For achieving this image related change it was assisted by advertising as well as promotion. Successful branding created a positive image for Samsung and there was attraction of loyal customers with the difference in presence. (Lussier, 2014) Hence, it can be concluded by saying that when an advertisement is seen by a customer repeatedly with the help of various Medias for advertising everywhere, it does the creation of an image of the brand in their mind and as a result, the product or service easily becomes a brand. And, after becoming a brand, there is rapid increase in the selling of the product and as a result it is having a strong influence on the business.
2.3 Review the creative aspects of advertising.
In respect of advertising, creativity is considered to be the most significant scenario. More attention is given to creative messages and lead to positive outlooks in respect of the products. Therefore, advertisements that are very much creative really gives inspiration to individuals for purchasing products or services. When an individual gets fascinated by an advertisement, it will be creating a positive image in the mind of the person. Due to the increasing complexity of life, it is getting increasing challenging for influencing the individuals with advertisements as well as promotional campaigns. This is the place where creativity steps in. For making a creative advertisement, there is the need for considering mainly three scenarios that are considered to be significant. These three are identified as creative process, creative people as well as creative situation. Creative process is considered as the process that is having the ability for attracting the client’s attention as well as compelling him/her to see or read the advertisement. Creative people are those that are having an extended scope of imagination and the ideas of whom are attracting the individuals. Creative situation is the process for the creation of a situation that assists in making the imaginations come alive. (Berger, 2011)
Advertising campaigns are considered to get success when they are providing an exclusive theme of advertising in respect of the largest audience. To create those types of advertisements is considered as advertising creativity. It is considered as an art as well as ability for producing ideas that are fresh, original as well as exclusive to communicate with the large section of audience. Creative advertisement is the result associated with the commercial artistes’ skill of imagination, and also the imaginative skills of the layout designers as well as copywriters. The target audiences are easily attracted by the efficient ways by which creative advertisements are displayed. The advertiser gains a competitive advantage because of the implementation of the creative ideas. When there is the creation of an exclusive appeal by a company and it achieves success in the market then it is lasting for a longer time period. For getting success, there must be the interrelation of creative ideas with the demand of the customers as well as features associated with the product. (Berger, 2011) To create such type of unique ideas of selling that is considered being unique, imaginative as well as original is quite challenging. Therefore, prior to the launch of such exclusive advertisements in the market there is a requirement for doing proper verification. Hence, there exists three stages for the creation of exclusive advertisements such as collection of information, process related with thinking as well as authentication.
2.4 Examine ways of working with advertising agencies.
Basically, organisations perform their optimum in providing exclusive products or services for their markets. But for informing the customers in respect of that, there is need for conducting appropriate advertising campaigns. When an organisation takes the support from any advertising agency for the service, it is significant in fostering better relations with them for making the relationship mutually effective. The correct ways to work with advertising agencies are mentioned as under,
- Being flexible –The organisation has the requirement to have the flexibility for actualisation of the objectives. The organisation needs to keep in mind the reason why it needed the support of an advertising agency.
- Being technical – Advertising is considered to be a scientific approach. The organisation may have the desirability of getting a particular look, but as the advertising agencies are having the proficiency in this matter, they have the best idea of advertising for the organisation. Therefore, technically speaking, the organisation is required to be rational in this respect. (Furnham, 2012)
- Having a single liaison –In regard of advertising, various opinions are hosted by individuals that make it challenging for arriving at an ultimate decision. As a result, recommendations are made by the advertising agencies to appoint a single individual for working with them directly thus eliminating the contradictory analysis that will put off the advertising agencies to work with the organisation any more. (Berger, 2011)
- Knowing the customers –There might be suggestions given by the advertising agencies to conduct market research for understanding in what ways the customers can be reached. This might be costing more, but is considered to be beneficial in respect of the advertising campaign of the organisation in entirety.
3.1 Explain primary techniques of below-the-line promotion and how they are used in an integrated promotional strategy for a business or product.
Promotional techniques such as below-the-line are referring to techniques of marketing that are of short period for the generation of a quick customer response. It takes into consideration various kinds of technical aspects like cash or other incentives in respect of the purchaser or seller of the product. In this regard, there exists more direct communication. This technique of marketing planning also takes into consideration various coupons, gifts or discounting strategies for purchasing the product or service. (Boone, 2015)
The promotional techniques such as below-the-line take into consideration various strategies of promotion that assists in reaching the customers in a more quick as well as direct manner. It takes into consideration different types of processes for making connection with the targeted customer groups. The organisation normally conducts this technique. The primary techniques of below-the-line promotion are mentioned as under,
- Marketing through direct mail –The organisation is able to inform the customers regarding their new product through the preparation of a message that is very attractive. It will be absolutely impossible for the customers to bypass the message since it will be so much informative as well as proficient.
- Technique for door-to-door marketing –The technique for door-to-door marketing is associated with doing the product selling by going from one individual to another. It is considered to be a very well known communication method in respect of the advertising technique for below-the-line.
- Exterior location marketing – This explains the process of driving interest for an event or selling. It takes into considerations using the employees strategically that are placed in an exterior location. (Frydman, 2103)
- Email marketing –There exists very much popularity in respect of normal email marketing for below-the-line technique. When an organisation is running their campaign by themselves, they can do the utilisation of email for communicating with their target customers.
In conclusion, it can be said that the below-the-line promotion is very much productive as well as cost-effective when there is a particular as well as limited target group. This promotional technique does the utilization of the ‘touch and feel’ aspect of the product and does the ensuring of brand recall focusing on the features of the product.
3.2 Evaluate other techniques used in below-the-line promotion.
It is the requirement of the business organisation towards the development of promotional aspects by the use of creative ideas. There exist various other techniques that are used in below-the-line promotion such as,
- Personal selling – This is an effective technique used in below-the-line promotion in which businesses are using individuals for selling their product after having a face-to-face meeting with the customers. The product gets promoted by the sellers with the help of their attitude, appearance as well as specialist knowledge associated with the product.
- Use of coupons –This is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion in which the coupons can be redeemed in respect of a financial discount or rebate when a product gets purchased.
- Rebates – A rebate is considered to be the sum that is paid in terms of reduction or refund on what has been paid already. It is an effective technique used in below-the-line promotion that are used by the normally as incentives for selling the product.
- Trade in policy –This is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion (Baines, 2012)
- Pricing in promotional technique –This is another effective below-the-line promotional technique where there is reduction in prices that occurs in a drastic manner for a very limited period. This assists in increasing the product demand.
- Loyalty programs – These are explained as reward programs provided by an organisation in respect of customers who are purchasing frequently.
- Offering free or extra -This is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion.
- Building loyalty –Building loyalty for the product amongst the customers is considered to another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion.
- Selling with premium – Selling with premium is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion. (Barden, 2015)
- Free sampling or trial use –Providing the customers free locusassignments.of a product before launching it in the market will assists in getting appropriate feedbacks regarding the product and is considered to be an effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion.
- Providing sponsor -This is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion. (Baker, 2010)
- Discounts –This are considered as the reductions that are provided in respect of a basic price related with the products or services and is another effective technique that is used in below-the-line promotion.
4.1 Follow an appropriate process for the formulation of a budget for an integrated promotional strategy.
To make a budget in respect of an integrated promotional strategy is very much important for any company. Budget is considered to be a financial plan that is prepared for a specific period. Promotional budget assists in carrying out promotional activities in an effective manner. Therefore, it is required to be very much sincere and a certain method needs to be followed for formulating a proper budget in respect of an integrated promotional strategic aspect. An appropriate process for the formulation of a budget for an integrated promotional strategy are mentioned as under,
- Selection of the goals as well as defining the goals
- Collection of information regarding the source of money as well as determining its allocation
- Determination of the future challenging aspects taking into consideration the previous scenarios.
- Implementing the budget in accord to the plan.
- Evaluation as well as controlling of the budget. (Armstrong, 2014)
Step 1: This step requires for calculating how much the entire marketing budget will total so that it can be decided in what ways it can get divided amongst different aspects of the integrated promotional strategy. The calculation of this number can be done depending on a percentage of the sales from the previous year.
Step 2: Deciding what kind of advertising needs to be done all through the year, there is a need to commence calculating in what ways the budget will get divided.
Step 3: The previous year’s budget needs to get reviewed as well as reports associated with return on investments for gauging the costs associated with the integrated promotional strategy and the most efficient investments related to integrated promotional strategy that were made.
Step 4: Assigning a budget for each segment of the integrated promotional strategy and breaking it down by month or week. (Armstrong, 2014)
Step 5: Setting aside certain marketing budget in respect of new integrated promotional strategies
4.2 Carry out the development of a promotional plan for a business or product.
Promotion is considered to be the process to increase the sales related to a product or service to inform the customers, stakeholders as well as different individuals. All the companies have the requirement for developing promotional plan in respect of surviving in the present competitive marketplace. In general, the majority of the business organisations are following certain basic stages that are mentioned as under,
- Advertising – This is considered to be a very well-known method of marketing communication with the help of which information can be provided to the customers regarding the business or product so that they can do their selection over those of the other competitive brands.
- Sales Promotion –This is relating to short term incentives or activities that assist in encouraging the purchase or sale of a business or product. (Johnson, 2011)
- Social Media –For informing the mass target audience in respect of the business or product, the companies might be choosing mass media in respect of advertising.
- Public Relations – This is required for the purposeful, systematic as well as persistent effort towards establishing as well as maintaining mutual understanding within a company and its publics.
4.3 Plan the integration of promotional techniques into the promotional strategy for a business or product.
There is the utilisation of promotional techniques for attracting the attention of the customers. The organisation is required designing the activities for promotion appropriately for having the ability of spreading the brand name. For selling their product, various promotional techniques are used by the organizations but the actual objective is same. The company is required planning the integration of such techniques of promotion as well as converting them into promotional strategic aspects for using them in a more effective manner. These can be done by following the below mentioned aspects. (Jenkins, 2011)
- Arranging seminars as well as programs for conferences and displaying presentations related to the activities as well as services.
- Involving themselves in the common society.
- Developing websites that are informative.
- Conducting research based on the market that is being targeted.
4.4 Use appropriate techniques for measuring campaign effectiveness.
Campaign is considered to be the most significant part of the promotional activities. It gets organised for boosting the sales promotion related to a specific product. The companies are required measuring the effectiveness of the campaign for knowing whether the outcome has occurred in accord with the plan or not.
The process of measuring it is mentioned as under,
Measuring the ‘search’ marketing performance –Google analytics is very much essential for the measurement of traffic as well as other data that has to do with the traffic in respect of the company’s website. But along with that, certain other aspects pertaining to search functions that are relevance for the campaign are,
- SEO Position
- Pay-per-clicks ads
Measuring the effectiveness of the social media marketing – All of the significant social media sites are having analytics that are built-in helping in tracking the effectiveness of the campaign.
Measuring Print Ads and Other Media – This is prepared through a dedicated webpage on the company’s website for knowing the source of those links. This can be done by designing tracking URL’s. (Iqbal, 2011)
- Various tools for measuring campaign effectiveness are,
- Google Analytics
- Kissmetrics – Funnel Reporting
This assignment is based on advertising and business promotion that assists in explaining the communication process that applies to advertising and promotion. Then, explaining the organisation of advertising and promotions industry. After that, assessing how promotion is regulated. Also, examining current trends in advertising and promotion that includes the influence of ICT. Then, the role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy for a business or product gets explained. Along with that, the development of a promotional plan for a business or product gets carried out.
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