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Heritage and Cultural Tourism Assignment
Cultural and heritage tourism is branch of tourism in which the national trust of historic preservation that gives the travelling experience of cultural places that influence the values and belief of individual and groups. Heritage tourism is growing industry that is growing rapidly and contributing in improvement in lifestyle as well business of local organizations. National government is also encouraging the heritage and cultural tourism by developing infrastructure and basic facilities that requires for attracting visitors (Witt.et.al. 2013). The present report will analyze the growth and development of UK heritage and cultural travel and tourism industry as well as discuss the potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural at Lhasa, Tibet. In the next part, report will assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attraction in meeting the needs of customers using the own experience of British Museum and The National History museum. Moreover, report will evaluate the impact of different types of ownership, objectives of organizations. It will analyze the role of two heritage organizations as well as evaluate the methods and media used for interpretation within heritage and cultural industry for tourist. For that report will consider the own experience of travelling British Museum and The National History Museum in London.
1.1 Growth and development of UK heritage and cultural industry
Heritage tourism is being defined as activity of tourist visiting heritage and cultural places that have significant impact on the cultural and social activities of people who believe in past history and have curiosity to gain knowledge about such places. This kind of tourism is motivated by the heritage attribute of the particular sites and locations. There are different types of heritage and cultural tourisms sites such as build, natural and living heritage that includes museum, historic building, forest and traditional festivals as well craft centres. UK heritage and cultural tourism is growing rapidly that has significant contribution in GDP of nation. The government of country is also taking interest in development of sites and heritage locations that have healthy background of cultural and values as well give the knowledge about the history of particular location. However travel and tourism has numbers of opportunities for developing the business by offering quality services and systematic knowledge about the places (Jarratt and Stiles, 2010). There are various heritage sites in UK such as Abbeys and Monasteries, Ancient Britain, Castles and Museums that have been promoted as tourism places. Moreover, there many cultural sites like National gallery, Southbank centre, Coca-cola London eye and Somerset house. The current travel and tourism industry of nation has positive impact on the development needs and use of natural and heritage resources. People generally visit national parks and museums for gaining information about the history as well spend some quality time with friends and family.
The heritage based tourism activities directly influencing the account of GDP at least £5 billion as well as offering jobs for young professional which encouraging the social and economical development. In terms of current employment tourism sector is offering good numbers of jobs that directly influencing the demand and operational of local community and organization to improve the standard as well develop new plan and strategy to attract visitors. According to World Tourism Organization, around 40% of all international arrivals experience certain element of culture and heritage tourism as a part of their trips. UK heritage and cultural tourism is following the three major dimensions such as preservation, involvement and maintenances of sites, offer support and restoration of building and sites with historic significance and exploitation that is required for developing the modern heritage sites for tourism (Kärcher, 2013). The increased interest in cultural and heritage based tourism products is a result of the multidimensional character of these phenomena, which attract tourists from different backgrounds, interests and motivations. In addition to this, heritage tourism has positive impact on the economical side of country. Following are the major positive impact on the economy of UK
- Improvement in employment
- Foreign investment and government funding for development of locations
- Economical regeneration and economical diversity
At present days, heritage can serve as an important motivation and component of tourism and even mass tourists very often include a certain cultural element in their journeys. In addition to this, there are many social impact of heritage tourism development as it helps to encourage the dignity of local population and increase the interest in craft and arts of local population. Apart from that, growth of education, technology and development of new types of heritage attraction is major development activity of Assignment Help UK heritage tourism.
The major impacts of tourism activities are on economy and social culture of people of UK as the services and hospitality industry of country is growing more effective manners as people around the globe traveling to UK heritage site that has been promoted by national government. The transportation, accommodation and food industry are also getting influenced with the approach of heritage and cultural tourism industry. The national government of UK is also promoting the natural tourism activities by developing the heritage and cultural sites as historical and peaceful place for gaining knowledge and spend some quality time. Moreover, food, clothing and transportation organizations also indirectly contributing in development of heritage and cultural tourism as people used to needs these near the tourism places which influencing the decision of visitors.
1.2 Potential conflicts in conservation of Lhasa, Tibet
Figure 1: Lhasa, Tibet
Tibet is being known as the roof of the world which has significant impact on the heritage and cultural tourism activities in worldwide industry. The site offers good spiritual feelings, breath-taking high altitude treks and unique intangible cultural. According to review of studies it is being considered that Lhasa is home of religions temple for Dalai Lama and unique hospitality of Tibetan people. Lhasa is capital of Tibet and recognized as most visited place of country as more than 10 million people visit the place which includes the religious and journalists who want to explore the cultural and history about the place (Kaynama. et.al. 2011). However the Chinese government has recognized the potential of location and invested funds to start various development projects to generate revenue but not involved the local people in the process of developing projects. In addition to this, government has taken the imitative for renovating the old town and temple as well as planned for developing Tibetan theme park on the outside of city by investing approx $4.5 billion. Additionally, hospitality organization of UK IHG has also developed the plan to establish Resort Lhasa Paradise of 1100 rooms which will be the biggest luxury hotel in Lhasa.
These development and improvement in the Lhasa site are creating many conflicts among local community, Chinese government and London based free Tibet. These are major issues that influencing the development of Lhasa which can develop as leading heritage and cultural tourism destination. This is second most populous city on Tibet which has potential to grow as tourism destination for religious people and visitors who have interest in developing the knowledge about the Buddhism. The history and glory of past activities that have significant impacted on the social and environmental process of local people. According to given case study it is being analyzed that the potential conflicts issues that influencing the development and conservation of world heritage site are involvement of international organization and government of China. Lack of co-ordination and dispute of interest is affecting the planning of local authority and management commit of Lhasa (Longhi, 2009). Moreover the religious leaders of particular location are also against the foreign investment and further renovation of site. The culture of Lhasa is getting influence due to activities of visitors and globalization that are hampering the existing approach of local population.
In addition to this, marginalization of heritage site is the major issue for conservation process that started by government for developing the site at international level as well as London based free Tibet communities has initiated boycott campaign for on-going development that by arguing that these activities are ruining the culture as involvement of foreign agency is affecting the tradition as well as demolishing the natural sites of Lhasa. According to case IHG group has planed to open resort at Lhasa which is major issues that shaping the course of heritage tourism at location. As per my observation, people were against the involvement and investment of foreign community at Lhasa which is spiritual place of Buddhism. In order to overcome the issues and develop the site as key heritage tourism destination government requires understanding the needs of local people as well they should respect the belief and values of community and management authority of Lhasa, Tibet for getting their support to resolve the conflicts. This site is having good amount of resources for developing as well encouraging the tourism and business opportunities for generating revenue as well as betterment of society (Mamaghani, 2009).
2.1 Purpose of heritage culture attraction and meeting the needs of different customers
The British museum and The National history museum has significant contribution in heritage and cultural tourism of UK as these sites have great knowledge resources and dedicated to human history, art and cultural. British museum is located in the Bloomsbury area of London, moreover it has collection of different historic content that have significant impact on the cultural activities of nation. These museums hold the documenting story of human cultural from the beginning to the present. The buildings of these museums are holding the historic cultural of United Kingdom and offers the essential knowledge and information about the architecture and finest collection of human history. These key variables of both museums have positive impact on the decision of local people as well visitors who willing to know about the history of mankind.
Figure 2: British museum
According to my personal observation, the Museum aims to reach a broader worldwide audience by extending engagement with this audience. In addition to this, collection of botany, entomology, mineralogy, palaeontology and zoology also have key attraction for people around the globe (Middleton. et.al. 2009). The National History museum is world renowned research centre that has been specialized in taxonomy, identification and conservation of human development as well offer information to maintaining the scientific and historical values that attracting the visitors to visit the site. This is engagement not only with the collections that the Museum has, but the cultures and territories that they represent, the stories that can be told through them, the diversity of truths that they can unlock and their meaning in the world today. In addition to this, some people visit these places for entertainment in which they analyze the things presented in museum and spend quality time with family and friends.
Figure 3: The National History museum
According to study, majorly the purpose of these museums has positive impact on the heritage and cultural tourism that attracting the different type of tourist and visitors according to their special desire. Following are the key customers and visitors of these building with different needs:
- Students: These are key customers of museum who visit the place many time for learning and entertainment purpose. The schools and college management organize the trip of British and National museums to provide the practical and reliable knowledge about the development of mankind and history of cultural and tradition that followed by the UK population (Moutinho, 2011). Students have different needs such as some visit the place just to underrated the architecture and unique structure of building and other comes to learn about the culture that developed by former kings as well as research that has been conduct to analyse and overcome the issues of medical science.
- Scientists: Museum are the best place of scientists who performing research activities to learn and understand the new theories about evolution of human and changes that crafted by individual and groups to develop social culture. These types of customer generally visit both museums that have many resources for supporting their research. The main aim of these types of customers is to discover new facts that link the evaluation as well support the cultural activities.
- Media: In the current time media is key source of information sharing that collect the information about the different aspects of heritage and cultural tourism in UK. For that reason, these groups visit the museums to analyse the effectiveness and importance of collection that both have (Orfila-Sintes and Mattsson, 2009). By visiting the place, media collect the data about the unique function and culture of UK and offer to people using the electronic and online sources of communication that would influencing the decision of visitors.
- Families: Another type of customers that visit the museums are families that comes to spend quality time with purpose of gaining knowledge about the activities and evaluate the collection that would influence understanding. Families come from different geographical areas and cultural background which contribute in development of heritage and culture tourism of UK.
3.1 Impact of ownership of heritage and cultural sites
For the conservation and maintenances of heritage and cultural sites of tourism and development, majorly two type of ownership has been offered in UK like public and commercial ownership. The national government of UK and local authorities of heritage sites elected the management commit that organize and offer the ownership of heritage sites as well promote the cultural tourism. Following are the two type of ownership used for managing the activity and development of plan to encourage the facilities and maintenances of services.
Public ownership: This kind of ownership has positive impact on the development of sites and consideration of local values and belief. The national or local government bodies involve in public ownership as well offering the knowledge about improvement in the locations according to international standard by including the prevention and conservation plan for developing the site. For example, the British and National History museums are running under the public ownership as local government authority of London is having full control over the financial and monitoring activities of sites (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010).The aim of public ownership it to gain profit and improve the standard of services that will influence the decision of visitors. The public ownership majorly focuses on the development and conservation of heritage sites and has better control in operational activities. The major task of public owner is to consider the mission and values that have significant impact on the income and training of staff members. However the process of public ownership is lengthy that consume time and money to develop the commit that analyze the issues and make decisions for further improvement. In spite of that, control and assess of resources hold by the national government for analyzing the income generation and implementation of rules and regulation to follow the culture and promote the heritage tourism.
The public ownership organizations of UK are English heritage, Historic Scotland and Manx national heritage that taking interest in division of resources and developing the plan for further improvement in the historic buildings and cultural places of UK. Moreover, these organizations promoting the destination by using different media sources as well as highlighting the key features of heritage sites.
Commercial ownership: This type of ownership involves the external shareholders who invest funds for management and development of heritage sites in UK. Commercial ownership refers to use of resources with the aim of generating more and more income by developing extra services for visitors. However this type of ownership has positive impact on the planning of improvement and involvement of external sources to expand the business activities (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). The objectives of commercial ownership is to develop property as quality place of tourism and the higher authority develop plan and strategy to achieve the mission objectives by assigning role and responsibility to skilled person. Commercial ownership involves activities like development of historic theme parks, cultural centres and art galleries near the heritage places or to convert the heritage place into museums by developing attractive galleries to present the history. Apart from that, profit making is key objectives of commercial organization by undertaking the ownership of heritage ad cultural sites.
The commercial ownership involves the market value, foreign investment and job opportunities by expanding the work of heritage sites. This kind of approach has positive impact on the society and encourages the visitors to visit the site. Moreover private sector ownership considers the public interest, improvement in level of preservation and helps to give the international reorganization by using the attractive marketing plans. In addition to this, above mention activities have positive impact on the sustainable development and management of buildings and services that desired by the visitors.
Different types of structure have been followed by the organizations to achieve the objectives and perform the tasks more professional and convincing manners. Majorly hierarchical structure has been followed by the organizations that help to distribute and monitor the operations to encourage and protect the heritage and cultural tourism.
3.2 Roles and responsibility of heritage and culture organizations
English Heritage: English Heritage (formally the English Heritage trust) is registered charitable trusts which take care of the National Heritage Collection. This includes over 400 historic monuments, buildings and sites of England and the world famous ancient sites to impressive medieval forts, from Roman castles on the borders of the kingdom to a Cold War trench. By this, they bring story of England to living for over 10 million public every year (Fulford, 2013). Organization is responsible to play a crucial role in presenting and protecting various greatest places in England for the benefit and pleasure of all peoples.
Roles and responsibility of English Heritage: English Heritage works with all limited authorities in offering recommendation on the management of their conversation areas which includes; providing advice on planning policies and local improvement framework and generating two documents for all local authorities which gives regulation on appraisal of conversation areas. English Heritage provides security, management and maintenance for the heritage forts. The organization works with every local authority to help them to manage the historic atmosphere in their specific area. The current responsibilities and duties of English Heritage for advising on and helping to talk about England’s wider historic atmosphere would stay unchanged. Company’s main responsibility is to protecting the expensive history for current and future generations (Sharples, 2013). The government of UK is investing £80 million in the company which is helpful for the charity of English Heritage. By this investment organization will be capable to increase the funding of third party who is beneficial for them to protect the heritage buildings and places of country. Legislative laws are helps the organization to apply all the government rules and regulations to the heritage places. The laws and rules are useful for the security of historic places.
Natural England: Natural England is non-departmental public body of government of UK. Organization is responsible to make sure that environment of England including its land, fauna and fauna, marine and freshwater environments, soils and geologies are improved and protected (Heritage, 2013). It also has the responsibility to help peoples to understand, enjoy and access the natural environment.
Roles and responsibility of Natural England: As a non-departmental public body, organization is free of government. The power of organization includes the significant ancient forests, awarding funding, assigning areas of wonderful natural beauty and places of unique scientific interest. It also manages definite national nature reserves, managing access to open region and other rights of recreation and implementing the associated regulations. Organization is also responsible for the management of several grant plans and frameworks that finance the improvement and conversation of the natural atmosphere (Clarke, 2010). Organization is also responsible for the release of some of Defra’s agreement of public service for reserving the long-term refuse in the number of farmland birds through 2020 and to develop public access to the landscape. Natural England obtain its funding, human resource and estates services from the Defra Shared Service Company and information technology services are contract out to IBM.
Within England, Natural England organization is responsible for:
- To help farmers and land managers
- To protect landscapes and wildlife
- To provide advice on defence of the sea environment in inshore water
- To developing community entrée to the coastline
- To manage about 140 National Natural Reserves and to support National Trails
- To give advice on planning and licenses by the planning system
- To manage programs which helps to restore or rebuild wildlife habitats
- To reversing and improving the landscape and
- To give evidence which is helpful to make decisions that affecting the natural atmosphere
4.1Methods and media used for interpretation
In the current scenario media is a powerful source of sharing and promoting the information at various level to influence the decision of visitors. Interpretation of information about the process and effectiveness of heritage site has positive impact on the income as well promotion of particular location. The activity dedicated to making heritage places meaningful to visitors, though, is known as heritage interpretation and is firmly established as central elements of heritage tourism. For interpretation different Thematic approach can be used that will be helpful to involve all relevant information and knowledge that would help to improve the understanding about the methods and approaches that would be used for developing the plan and policy to promote the heritage and cultural tourism. It is important for leading authorities to have interpretation of visitors experience and make changes in the plan and policy for further improvement and planning of other activities. According to my personal observation, the Museum aims to reach a broader worldwide audience by extending engagement with this audience. In addition to this, collection of botany, entomology, mineralogy, palaeontology and zoology also have key attraction for people around the globe (Vogel, 2012). Moreover, it is an art of helping people to explore and appreciate the world best sites by knowing the important facts that helps to improve the curiosity of visitors. Following are the principles of interpretation that used by the media authority for developing the heritage sites and cultural tourism.
- Information sourcing: By using the term interpretation media highlight the key information and offer to target audience who have interest in visiting the sites of heritage and cultural tourism. Media use information sourcing for analysing the needs of visitors and present the key information about the heritage sites like British and National Historic museums.
- Sustainability: This is an important element of interpretation of information that gives the sustainability in business function and development of site. The media has power to influence the decision of higher authorities to maintain the ethical and legal approach to develop sustainable tourism approach for both locations.
- Research and evaluation: The interpretation of data and information cannot be derived until the research and evaluation of existing approach of heritage tourism (Fulford, 2013). The media sources perform research and analysis activities for promoting and offering information to visitors.
Following are the key sources of interpreting the information about British and National history museums:
- Audio-visual: In the current scenario of business and interpretation, audio-visual media sources have been used for proper analysis and presentation of data. This kind of approach has been beneficial to improve understanding of visitors. Different organization as well museum authority is using this type of media for interpretation. This helps to meet the needs of audience as it offers the information about the place and activities that has been performed there.
- Interactive technology: According to personal observation it is being considered that data interpretation and sharing of information can be done through different online sources that include electronic and digital media like email, website and social media strategy for managing and offering the information.
- Print media: For the interpretation of data and information this is being considered as traditional source of sharing and analysing information. The higher authorities and management are using the thematic approach for interpretation (Heritage, 2013). This kind of approach of authorities is having positive impact on the experience of visitors and working staff members of both museums. For that use of proper language will also influence the decisions of audience.
From the above study it has been carried out that heritage and cultural tourism is future of tourism activity that has positive impact and opportunities to growth effectively in terms of economically. Heritage and Cultural Tourism Assignment has provided information about the growth and development of UK heritage tourism and explained the term heritage tourism. In the next part report has analyzed issues of conflicts according to case of Lhasa, Tibet. Moreover, Heritage and Cultural Tourism Assignment has evaluated the purpose of British and The National Historic museums and types of visitors that comes to visit the place. At the end, report has explained ownership and interpretation within heritage and cultural industry.
Books and Journals
Clarke, H., 2010. Operation heritage. Archaeology, cultural property and the military, pp.138-44.}
Fulford, M., 2013. England's coastal heritage: a survey for English Heritage and the RCHME. English Heritage Publisher.
Heritage, E., 2013. Accessibile Heritage: Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System.
Jarratt, D. and Stiles, D. 2010. How are methodologies and tools framing managers' strategizing practice in competitive strategy development? British Journal of Management. 21(1). Pp. 28-43.