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Unit 18 models of guest and storey’s HRM assignment report is developed on the HRM models of Guest and Storey’s and the differences in the practices between IR/PM and HRM. Comparison has been developed on the differences. The line managers and employees roles in the strategies approaches of HRM have been assessed. Later model of flexibility has been provided within the report the different types of flexibilities used by Harrods are discussed. The roles of flexibilities in the working practices are analysed. Impacts of the changes in the labour market on the HRM and flexible practices are discussed. Different forms of discriminations as well as equal act and its impact, equal opportunities in relation with the diversity in working have been illustrated in this report. Different methods of performance management, implementation of health and safety act and topical issues in HRM practices are discussed within this report.
Human resource management has been a recognised system which is been widely used in the organisations for managing the human resources with efficient manner and increase their potentialities towards the organisational improvements and objectives. Different models which are based on the HRM concept and its applicability. (hrmguide.co.uk., 2016).
Guest’s model: through this model the differentiation between the Human resource management and personnel management has been suggested. The main perspective of this model is to differentiate the human resource management practices from the traditional approaches. It stated that the human resource practices are commitment based rather than the conformity based practices. (hrmguide.co.uk., 2016). Through this model Guest had suggested appropriate approaches towards HR policies for gaining four specific outcomes:
There are six different dimensional analysis in this model:
Within this model there are two versions of HRM have been suggested. These are soft and hard versions. Through this model Guest has differentiated between the soft and hard model of HRM. The soft version of HRM has been related to the movements of human relations and its emphasis over the employees within the organisation. Utilisation of talents and capabilities of individuals are discussed through the soft version of HRM along with the perspectives of Mc Gregors theory. High commitment working environment are the base of this version. Flexibility and adaptability are also concerned within this version. (hrmguide.co.uk., 2016).
Hard HRM version concerns over the strategic policies and their links with the strategic objectives of the business. The utilisation of the instrumentalist approaches in HRM is defined through this version. It has been suggesting the rational way for managing the individual resource through business strategic approach. (hrmguide.co.uk., 2016).
Within Harrods this model has been adapted in the HRM department with the strategy to increase the employee engagement and emphasising the relationship between the employee and the employer on the basis of high performances and commitment which will have direct relation to the value based business consequences. Through soft HRM version the Harrods management has been implementing the learning suitability and attracting new talents within the organisation. Through high hierarchy and many layers within the organisational structure HRM of Harrods has been adapting the hard HRM to increase responsibilities of employees.
The employees and the human resources who are working in individual manner or collective manner have been suggested as the valued assets. Regarding this Storey had defined the HRM system as the coherent approach in managing these assets. He also differentiated between the hard and soft HRM management system. He suggested that the management of Hard HRM system is based on obtaining value by managing the people in strategic way in order to have competitive advantages. This version of HRM has been concentrating on measurable criteria, control and qualitative performance management. (Silva, 2016) Storey also suggested that the soft HRM has been focusing on the employees as valued assets. The adaptability, higher quality, commitment of the employees is main concern in this version.
Storey stated that the personnel management is to management the employees in complying with rules as per the requirement of the owners of business. Pay rolls, employment laws etc are mainly focused in personnel management. It can be thought as bureaucratic approach in the human resource management.
IR management is industrial relationship management which has been increasing called as the employee relations. This management system has been evolving as the approaches towards the non-industrial employment have been increasing. Collective bargaining, labour management relations, labour policies, labour laws trade unionism are related to this management system.
Differences within HRM, PM and IR practices:
Dimension of differences
Human Resource Management
Personnel Management /IR practices
Depends of value, mission and vision statement
Practices and customs
Written contract and clear terms
Work beyond rules
Management of progress
Monitoring or supervising
Indirect communication (Silva,2016)
Harrods HRM has been considering the HRM practices by strategically engaging them through identifying their needs and requirements and providing proper rewards. The employees of Harrods have been engaging the employees within the decision making processes in order to have better commitment. Assess the implications for line managers and employees of developing a strategic approach to HRM for any organisation of your choice.
Line managers have the responsibilities in directly managing the individual of the organisation. In return they also have to report to the higher management authority of the organisation on the wellbeing and the performances of the staffs. (hr.southwales.ac.uk., 2016) The roles of the line managers:
There are different implications which are adapted by the Harrods strategic approaches regarding the performances, roles and responsibilities of the line managers as well as employees. The integrated approaches which are developed by higher management in the hierarchical structure of Harrods must be incorporated to the staffs at the ground level by line managers. In order to integrate these approaches the line managers have to maintain and consider the organisational culture, business policies, goals and objectives, leadership etc. By focusing on the values of Harrods line managers have to organise the workforce. (hr.southwales.ac.uk., 2016)
The approaches for the employees are concerned over their perception over the job and the job roles. Through wages, bonuses, incentives the performances are encouraged on a higher scale in Harrods. The employee satisfactions, their career opportunities, learning abilities and development sessions along with job securities are also provided through HRM of Harrods in their strategic approaches.
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The flexibility working environment has been defined as the adaptability of the organisation in order to change itself concerning the demands and requirements made upon it. In recent working patterns the environments have drastically than the previous measures. The organisations in recent day have to adapt flexibility within the working environment to adapt the changing pressures in a quick pace. The concept of flexibility has been developed in recent context theories of human resource management by ensuring that the recent developments are made in variable patterns of working in a flexible way. There are certain changes within economic market which are enforcing the employment plan:
Regarding the flexibility in the working environment John Atkinson had provided a model of flexibilities related to the firms along with four types of flexibilities:
John Atkinson model:
Harrods has been using the model of flexibilities by analysing the increased adaptations of all forms of flexibilities. Diversity within the working practices of Harrods is enforcing the use of flexibility model. In order to have numerical flexibilities Harrods is approaching towards the contract on full-time working. Different types of working practices in the working areas of Harrods are referring towards the functional flexibilities. (Luhman, 2012)
There are different flexibilities which can be devised by Harrods and implemented with the purpose to engage the employees for higher level of proficiency and productivity. The working environment of Harrods has diversities and different talents are integrated within these diverse areas. Through the implementation of flexibilities the organisation can be able to improve the current workforce. (Goodwin, 2012) The best way of having proper flexibilities within the organisation can be done through improving the changes. Through new employment model the management of Harrods can ensure the kinds of flexibilities in working environment. The organisation has to place flexibility in the working hours. Harrods has been providing different shifts in order to provide proper work life balance. Different times of working, work from home, telecommunication flexibilities in the working environment are also enforcing flexibilities in the Harrods working environment. (Goodwin, 2012)
There are different benefits and advantages associated with the working practices of employers as well as employees. Through equality and the diversity in the HR policies the flexibilities can be assessed. Fair working practices are ensured through incorporation of human rights act which will lead to the assurances of adjustment of individual requirements along with organisational achievements. These practices also ensure the achievements of the Harrods’ objectives. (Goodwin, 2012).
Different schemes within the flexible working practices are:
There are different practices like working from remote locations is beneficial for the employees and also for employers in terms of cost reduction of transport, equipments, administration expenditure. Through these working practices the management of Harrods can be able to have desired performances in achieving the organisational goals. This also helps the employee to keep the working contract. (Goodwin, 2012). The employee can work through telecommunication.
Through the involvement of the part timers within the organisation is beneficial for the organisation in attracting more female workers in the human resources. Through the flexibilities in the working hours and shifts the female workers having family issues and child care can be provided better working environment. It will also reduce the cost of pensions, retirement, medical costs etc.
Apart from these the job sharing is also helpful in case of Harrods. Shared responsibilities between two workers or employees can be done by considering predetermined time scale of working. This will lead to reduction of per head compensation. Zero hour contract is helpful in empowering the employees as well as employers over working hours. (Goodwin, 2012).
Advantages of flexible working practices:
Disadvantages of flexible working practices:
With the changes within the global market the labour market is also having different changes. Through different changes the labour market has been impacting over the flexible working practices. The labour market is facing different changes in terms of evolution of technologies; increase in the recruitment of undergraduate and posts graduates, migration in the demographic factors, etc. acquisition of the multiple talents has been adapted by Harrods. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
Different generations of employees:within 20 years of age gap there are certain changes which can be seen within the employees and in their behaviours. The generation of Matures is the disciplined employees. Baby boomers are employees in the labour market who are now retiring from their positions. These employees expand the economy better than any other generation and tend to challenge the hierarchy of the organisation. Generation X accepts diversity within workforce but rejects the authoritarianism. Work life balance is the main demand of these employees. Generation Y employees prefer technological implementations and social media. These generations have different impacts over the flexible working practices. The generation Y employees are approached with modern communication and different training programs like apprenticeship for the students. Through redefining retirement, higher starting salaries etc. the generation Y can be approached.
The technologies and their modifications are providing better opportunities to the Harrods management. They are arranging training and development of the human resources with improved steps. Through the technologies the flexibilities of the human resources working practices can be enhanced in scientific and systematic measures. Through the flexible working practices the organisation is having better understanding on the affordability of the personnel working. These practices are reducing the turnover of the talented employees. The employers are assigned with the specialised works. This leads to reduction over the skill training costs. These practices are helping the organisation in keeping their positions as the top retail though the management is spending less in the staff management. Having diversity in the human resources with different backgrounds is also helping Harrods in approaching different customers with efficient measures. The migration and demographic changes are posing benefits in this way. Rising inequalities in the labour market is also a concerned issue which are handled by Harrods in implementing long term and fulltime contract in employment. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
Through these practices the organisation is having convenient working environment. The management of Harrods is approaching the changes in the labour markets through boosting cultural diversity and lessening the traditional business expenditure. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
Governmental approaches: the government bodies are also helping in this regard through different programmes like Outside School Hours Care, training for teh employers in order to manage the aging employees, additional training programmes like apprenticeship for the job seekers.
The changes within the labour market have been embraced by Harrods by different new approaches in the workplace norms to attract generation Y as well as retaining ageing employees. They place incentive compensation, creative development opportunities, challenging work, providing proper resources and information to attract current labour market. Flexible work life balance is also provided to help the employees in maintaining families.
There are many forms of discrimination which arise within a workplace can impact over the overall working practices. These discriminations are:
Harrods has been accused of different types of discrimination in their practices. In recent context an unfair dismissal care has been files against Harrods. Juan Mackenzie who was an employee of Harrods has accused that he was discriminated against unfair dismissal in terms of age, sex and race. (klglaw.co.uk., 2015) Another discrimination case has been filed against Harrods while a former Irish guardsman claimed over sex discrimination. He claimed against the aggressive behaviour of HR and retail director Sarah Andrews. (Khoamami, 2015)
The equal act 2010 is considered as the anti-discrimination legislation in UK. There are certain protected characteristics within this legislation:
In order to avoid legal consequences and to have better competitive advantages the organisations tend to maintain environment by supporting the equality in the practices and providing discrimination free approaches. By developing the HR policy with anti discrimination and equality placement in the working environment the organisation can improve the motivational levels and performances of the employees. (Prassl, 2015)
Within Harrods there are different legislations and laws with are incorporated in the HR policy to maintain the equality in the human resource approaches. By reviewing their HR policies and guidelines Harrods can be able to ensure their practices to the human resources. In order to have better implementations of the equality act Harrods has to recruit expertise in order to review the all procedures and operations. Through this they can be able monitor any occurrences of violation of rules and laws and other similar codes of conducts of HRM. Through employment act Harrods can ensure the establishment of rational payment wages, salary and proper working hours along with job security. (Prassl, 2015) Harrods has been strictly following the business strategy which are developed in concern with the rules. By implementing these rules Harrods is not only ensuring the maintenances of human right but also gaining the ability to take necessary steps any unethical behaviour of workers.
Through their policies and practices Harrods has been demonstrating the equal opportunities in each step. These rules are also maintained in the recruitment processes as equal opportunities are being given to all applicants of Harrods without concerning their race, disability, religion, gender etc. (Prassl, 2015)
The establishment of the workplace culture within which different people from all cultural background and different personality traits can feel that they are able to contribute their maximum potentialities to the organisation without being abused by the predominant culture. Diversity includes cultural diversity that is viewed by one person based on different race, life style, ethnicity language, national origin and religion of other individual.
There are distinct differences equality and the cultural diversity. Work foundation which has been known as Industrial Society referred that the equality policies opens the door for the policies to design the values, diversity provide more strategic way to moving the business towards success while having a back up of string ethical case. The main difference between the equal opportunity and diversity:Equal opportunities are led by the legislation. These are the policies which are used as the remedial and based on the assumption that the group which are minor will incorporate within the dominant culture.Valuing the diversity is the aim to develop a positive environment in the organisation which would provide benefits to everyone and engaging everyone to give a full potential in the achievement of goals and objectives.
Equality and the diversity within the workplace are promoted through similar approaches by the organisation. Management of equality in the human resources which is diverse in nature is done by Harrods through proper implementations of rules and policies and developing the policies with following the legislative framework and monitoring the practices through reviewing the guidelines. By using different media the HRM of Harrods has been advertising the employment details and also recruiting different applicant having different cultural, national background. These recruitment practices of Harrods have been conducted in line with equality and employment legislation. (ohikereo.wordpress.com., 2014). These approaches of Harrods are offering career opportunities to all applicants based on their qualifications regardless of their nationality, race and legislation. By placing equality in these approaches the organisation has been attracting all gender to their organisation. The management of Harrods does not consider any practices of age discrimination while appointing female or male candidates in higher position of management. The focus o employment has been based on the talents and skills.
Through the advanced communicational system Harrods has been empowering their employees and encouraging them to air their views. These approaches of Harrods are indicating their empowerment and welfare approaches in HRM. Better equality was introduced by allocating the holidays and discounts for employees. (ohikereo.wordpress.com., 2014). Flexible working practices are most concerning part in the equal practices of Harrods. Flexible working timings like part time, full employment, temporary workforces during the sales and winter seasons, term time trainees etc. are facilitated to the employees. Through this equal opportunity practices the diversity in the human resources are promoted with the purpose of engaging female workers and other worker having issues like child care, maternity leaves. (ohikereo.wordpress.com., 2014).
Performance management is the essential part of a workplace by providing proper methods to monitor and supervise the workforces to the managers or line managers. The performance management tools or methods are needed in order to track the progress in the performances and checking whether the performances are meeting the organisational expectations. In Harrods the management measure the performances by considering the performances of team working, branches or subsidiaries, different departments, product lines etc. through similar approaches and methods the performance management have been placed with common purpose to evaluate the performance levels and the needed performances of employees. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
360 degree appraisal system: through this method of evaluation Harrods management has been evaluating all parties along with teams, peer groups, supervisors etc. through this methods Harrods has been rewarding the employee depending on their performances. The employees have to place direct connection with the customers and they are also connected with the peers and the managers. Through the line managers or peer managers the management has been providing a certain targets and time span to the employees. Depending on the ability to achieve this targets within the given time span the performances are measured. Through rating system the line managers provide proper rating on the performances. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
For motivating the performances of the employees organisation tend to maintain the welfare and the benefits of the employees. There are certain activities and approaches which are related to the facilities and services as well as security to employees. There are different goals of labour welfare:
There are two schemes in the employee welfare approaches:
Statutory welfare schemes: under this scheme different facilities are provided to the employees such as medical facilities, drinking water facilities sitting room facilities etc.
Non-statutory welfare schemes: under this schemes health care, co-operations, maternity leaves, transfer schemes are provided.
Harrods has been providing different facilities in the management of the employee welfare. The company has been providing the pension system which is significant in meeting the employee welfare. The forum of pension teams is the beneficial offering by Harrods management. (Prassl, 2015)
The organisation has provided Intranet facilities for the employees where they are able to provide their feedbacks and air their views over different issues in the environment. Management of Harrods also developed quarterly employee forum which is considered as a group made for volunteering the present issues of employees. The most significant one within all approaches of Harrods is the Bright Ideas scheme which is used for engaging the employees and providing empowerment to them. Through this scheme the organisation is involving the employee views in their strategies. This increases the belongingness and job security sense of employees. These approaches are significantly contributing positive image within the employee welfare practices. (Prassl, 2015)
Health and safety legislation or act has specified different approaches and responsibilities for the authorities, managers and employees on the subject of health and safety in the working environment. The legislation of health and safety act specified the standards within the practices with the aim to reduce or prevent accidents, injuries, negative consequences, diseases within the working environments. (hrcouncil.ca., 2016)
The health and safety at work act 1974 suggested essential structure and responsibilities in taking initiatives and motivating the applications of laws, of welfare and safety measures within the organisational settings. By abiding this act Harrods has placed proper training which includes the institute relevant programmes on the health and safety measures which ensure their acceptability of the health and safety standards during the working lives. This legislation can hold the organisation responsible for the health and safety of employees and can impose penalties on violation of any rules. (hrcouncil.ca., 2016)
The human resource department of Harrods has the responsibilities to ensure that the employers as well as employees are complying with the state requirements made in the act. Harrods has counted extra budget in the training and implementations of safety measures within the working environment. The health and safety act impacts over the HR policies and procedures of HRM system. (hrcouncil.ca., 2016) The health and safety teams in Harrods have the responsibilities in measuring the risks related to the working environment such as in fire safety, first aid, etc. The training has been provided to the employees regarding the precautions and ability to solve the conflicts in the work place.
The HRM practices are impacted by the topical issues . It also influenced over the culture of the organisation. One of the major issues which have been impacted over the Harrods is the culture of the organisation. The HR practices of Harrods have been shaped by the culture of the organisation. Through the culture the organisation has been engaging the employees within the organisation. Different interview stages of Harrods like initial applications, screening of CVs, telephonic interview, role of assessment centres, interview of resourcing, line management interview and also final stages etc are impacted by the culture of Harrods. Through these stages the organisation analyse the behaviours and the attitudes of the employees and compares them with the existing cultures. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
The culture Harrods also impacts over the development of the employee performances. Through the learning and development the cultural elements are incorporated within the employees, which will help them in behaving and performing as per the organisational requirements. Through different forums Harrods has been encouraging the employees in providing feedbacks. This initiative is indicating the empowerment of the employees. These are encouraging the employees in giving voices over different issues and conflicts. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
The leadership style is also impacted by the culture of Harrods. Harrods has placed their focus on the democratic nature of leadership styles. Through the efficient leadership styles the trust and respect are linked with the key characteristics of HRM. (businesscasestudies.co.uk., 2016)
Through this assignment the concepts over the management of human resources are discussed. Through the theories and models and models of Storey and Guest the HRM implementations are done with strategic approaches. the organisations like Harrods are considering different flexibilities of working within the working environment in order to improve the organisational approaches and also to increase the efficiencies of the personnel. The traditional approaches of human resources management have been related to the industrial relations where as the modified version of HRM or human resource management approaches are incorporated with different theories of motivations, laws of equality practices and anti discriminations. The legislation frameworks are approached by the organisation for having better implications of HRM in organisation.
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Goodwin, M. (2012). Rotordynamics ’92. Springer Science & Business Media
hr.southwales.ac.uk. (2016). Line manager responsibility. [online available at:].http://hr.southwales.ac.uk/manager_responsibilities/ . (assessed on 11/7/16)
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hrmguide.co.uk. (2016). Guest’s model of HRM. [online available at:].http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/introduction_to_hrm/guest-hrm.htm. (assessed on 11/7/16)
Khoamami, N. (2015). Harrods forced to pay 18,000 to ex-security guard over coffee row sacking. [online available at:].https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/sep/21/harrods-forced-to-pay-18000-to-ex-security-guard-over-coffee-row-sacking . (assessed on 11/7/16)
klglaw.co.uk. (2015). Harrods employee loses unfair dismissal case. [online available at:].http://www.klglaw.co.uk/Latest-News/harrods-unfair-dismissal.html . (assessed on 11/7/16)
Luhman, J.T. (2012). Key concepts in organisation theory. SAGE
ohikereo.wordpress.com. (2014). Harrods. [online available at:]. https://ohikereo.wordpress.com/tag/harrods/ . (assessed on 11/7/16)
Prassl, J. (2015). The concept of the employer. OUP Oxford
Rudolf, B. (2012). The UN convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. OUP Oxford
Silva, S.R. (2016). Human resource management, industrial relations and achieving management objectives. [online available at:].http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/downloads/publications/srshrm.pdf . (assessed on 11/7/16)