Understanding Specific Needs in HSC Assignment

Understanding Specific Needs in HSC Assignment

Understanding Specific Needs in HSC Assignment


Understanding Specific Needs in HSC Assignment puts emphasis on the condition of the people with special needs. Taking the two case studies of Baby Peter and HL as the base, the entire essay has been written in support of the physically and mentally disable people. The condition, specific needs and requirements of autistic people have been recognized in this essay while the developments in improving the health of people with specific needs have been discussed.

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Learning Outcome 1

1.1 Analyse concepts of disability, illness and behaviour in relation to Health and social care service users.

Health Issues and Concept of Disability

Health is an important factor for each individual. But, due to changed lifestyles most people are struck with some sort of health issue. These health issues are due to severe hardships in work, pressure of unemployment, personal issues, and lowered standard of living. In addition to these issues a more severe problem that persists in the lives of many people is disability.Illness is different from disability and can be defined as behaviour in which an individual responds to body indication and circumstances in which they are considered as not normal. Illness thus involves the manner in which an individual responds to changes, monitor, define, interpret its symptoms and take medical action to resolve it. Illness is a broad term and several factors can contribute for particular illness. Illness is more than a psychological response among individuals who are facing situations that requires assessment. Increasing tensions, different adaptations, psychological disorder, various attacks, and physical illness is broad classification of Illness.

Disability can be defined by considering different factors, these factors comprise of medical model, abnormality, and pathologic conditions of an individual. Standardization of disability is difficult but is commonly termed as handicapped, disabled, physically challenged, and crippled (DePoy and Gilson, 2004).Disability can be classified as low vision or blindness, hearing disability, loco motor disability, mentally retarded disability, mental illness, and leprosy. Each nation provides a medical certificate in order to state that a particular person is disabled. It is essential for disable person to get the certificate in order to avail different benefits provided by government.

Models of Disability

There are various "models" of disability. The two most often specified are the "social" and the “medical’ “models. The medical’ model of disability perspectives disability as an "issue" that fits in with the debilitated single person

 It is not seen as an issue to concern anybody other than the single person influenced. For instance, if a wheelchair utilizing person is not able to get into a building in light of a few steps, the medical’ model would propose that this is a direct result of the wheelchair, instead of the steps.

The social model of disability, conversely, would see the steps as the incapacitating boundary. This model draws on the thought that it is the society that debilitates individuals, through planning everything to help the dominant part of individuals who are not debilitated. There is an extensive inside the social model that there is an incredible arrangement that society can do to diminish, and eventually evacuate, some of these incapacitating obstructions, and that this assignment is the obligation of society, as opposed to the handicapped individual.

1.2 Assess how perceptions of specific needs have changed over time.

It has been noticed that few years back people with disability were not accepted easily and was left out from the social circle. People used to neglect such people and used to restrict themselves from socializing with disabled persons. Gradually with the changing social culture and impact of education this mentality of people is changing day by day. People are engaging themselves in involving such disabled persons in social circles; different NGOs are working that work for the development of disabled persons. Government is making special measures to evolve the hidden talent of disabled persons and organizing different activities especially for disabled persons (DePoy and Gilson, 2008). A common example of this is Paralympics. In addition to this seats are reserved for disabled persons in framing of government, educational institutes, and various sectors to make them avail equal opportunities.

Amid the eighteenth century, nonetheless, Christians demonstrated that the rationally impeded and different persons with handicaps were controlled by insidious spirits. In this way, these men and different religious pioneers of the time regularly subjected individuals with handicaps to mental and/or physical ache as a method for exorcizing the spirits

In the nineteenth century, supporters of social Darwinism restricted state help to the poor and handicapped. They contemplated that the safeguarding of the "unfit" would hinder the procedure of characteristic determination and alter the choice of the "best" or "fittest" components vital for descendants.

Persons with incapacities were totally dismisses by a few cultures, in others they were outsiders, while in some they were dealt with as financial liabilities and grudgingly kept alive by their families. In different settings, persons with handicaps were endured and treated in accidental courses, while in different societies they were given regarded status and permitted to take part minus all potential limitations degree of their ability.

1.3 Analyse the impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals with specific needs.

People with disabilities are not as fortune as other people who are physically fit therefore, government of UK have developed different laws and acts to provide them equal opportunities in different sectors of life. In addition, the government of every nation has framed certain laws and legislations that ensure that these people get significant help in making their lives convenient (Albrecht, 2005). 

The current enactments include:

Health Act 1999: Health Act 1999 incorporates the three adaptable forces for the social and human resource services providers: to pool their funding, to make the combination of service providers and to create the main commission courses of action.

Care Trust: It has 10 organizations and is responsible for looking after care activities.

Children’s Trust: It underlines on surveying the basic needs for youth care and is also responsible for information imparting and working with youth

Personal Health Budgets: This is fundamentally implied for social forethought of adults. This strategy permits the patients to get the money for the services they have taken from the health care providers. This coordination is useful for destitute to get the great health offices.

Learning Outcome 2

2.1 Analyse the care needs of individuals with specific needs.

Maslow’s Model

The hierarchy order of requirements is generally depicted as a pyramid with diverse levels showing particular needs. Beginning from the lowest part of this pyramid it contains:

Physiological needs: These are the most fundamental and this incorporates things like sustenance, sleep etc. Until these physiological needs are met the individual will be centred on simply staying alive.

Security needs: Security needs allude to those things that keep the individual sheltered from harm.

Social needs: Humans are alluded to as social creatures and this implies that they have social needs. Once the individual has dealt with their physiological and security needs their next worry will be fellowship, affection, and love.

Next up on the chain of importance of necessities is esteem. The individual needs to feel esteemed by other individuals.

At the highest point of the pyramid is self actualization. This alludes to the capacity of individuals to satisfy their potential – they won't have the capacity to do this until the lower needs are fulfilled

Autism is a health disorder wherein a person has a neurological developmental disorder. An autistic person is hardly able to communicate properly and react to the environmental changes. Here, HL is a person who is an autistic man, not able to talk and do his personal tasks of washing and dressing. Many children who are diagnosed with autism have unusual sensory issues for instance, they may be sensitive to sound, sniff the things around; eat food only with certain textures etc. The intelligence level in autistic people are low and often repeat a particular kind of behaviour again and again (O’Brien &Daggett, 2006).

Specific needs of autistic people

Today, people with autism have become the most vulnerable section of the society. Autistic people have special care and demands which must be fulfilled to treat them properly. Below are some specific needs that are mentioned:

  • Value and work-  Autistic people demand time and value of others. To have a sense of accomplishment, they possess the need to work and spend time in leisure activities.
  • Safety& security- These mentally disable people are in need of safe, caring and secure residential place where they can spend their living comfortably (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2008).
  • Health-  Complete and continuous health services is the basic need of the autistic people. They require sensitive health services special attention of the support programs and medical experts (Ontario Adult Autism, 2014).
  • Interaction- Though people with autism are not able to speak and communicate properly; they also need someone to talk to. Whatever they can communicate, they are always in a need of a person with whom they can interact meaningfully (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2008). For instance, HL had Mr. and Mrs. E to talk but when he was detained in the hospital, his condition worsened.
  • Familiar surroundings- Structured and familiar surroundings support autistic people in a great way. They show signs of improvement as the environment becomes familiar to them. Their homes must not be shifted frequently as these people resist changes.
  • Human rights-  This is the most essential need of the autistic people. Like others, they also have human rights which are not to be violated in any case (Ontario Adult Autism, 2014). They have the right to be protected and avail services which are meant for their wellbeing. For instance, Mr. and Mrs.E has been struggling for the rights of autistic people and has been successful in bringing changes to the way autistic people are treated under British law.
  • Financial support-  More importantly, these people are to be supported financially. Since they are not able to even perform their personal tasks like washing and dressing, they always need a person besides them. They require financial support so that all their demands must be fulfilled. For example, Mr. and Mrs.E used to perform all the tasks of HL and be with him throughout the day.

2.2 Explain current systems for supporting individuals with specific needs.

Throughout the world, there are different community-based models of service for autistic people, organizations and health care groups that have emerged in the recent past. These include National Autism Society centres in Britain, The Indiana Resource Centre for Autism, Kerry’s Place Autism Services in Ontario, Bittersweet Farms (northwest Ohio), Community Services for Autistic Adults and Children (CSAAC, in Maryland), Benhavens Residential Program (Connecticut) and many others.

There are some mutual features that are shared by these model programs. They all aim at funding the welfare activities for the autistic people. These organizations have well-staffed and structured programs with individualized program fulfilling the needs of a specific person. In additional, occupational therapists, language pathologists, psychologists, physicians etc. are a part of these models to support the autistic people (The National Autistic Society, 2014). To remain updated with the new technology and advancements, families and students also are a part of it. Involvement of family in the early years of the treatment is recognized by each of these organization and model. They have also recognized that provincial plans must be developed to support the autistic people generic programs must be made compulsory for all of them. For instance, Autism Society Ontario recognizes all the exemplary programs for the autistic people by the means of awards of distinction (Ontario Adult Autism, 2014).  The society also endeavours to educate the general public about autism through different campaigns.

2.3 Evaluate the services available in a chosen locality for individuals with specific needs

In the locality there is an Autism and Ageing Advice Service under which proper advice, benefits and better housing conditions are made available to the people who are over 40 years of age and are struggling with the autism. These people are informed of all the benefits that they are entitled to under any government programs and take a proper decision regarding it. On the other hand, Community Care Service aims at offering information about the community care issues and providing benefits of local social services department to the autistic people. Thus the locality provides strong support to the ageing individuals and people suffering from Autism.


Following are the Advantages:

  • The centre in the locality serves the needs of the people irrespective of the age and sex of the person.
  • The awareness program helps the people in raising their understanding about the benefits they are entitled to under government programs.
  • The shelter program provides shelter to the people who do not have home or proper access to facilities.


  • The building where the program is run does not have enough space to support the number of patients. Residential patients find it congested to stay.
  • There is facility of permanent psychologist and physiotherapist , this hampers the treatment


Overall the centre is doing a good job, however by a appointing a permanent psychologist and physiotherapist, the centre can certainly improve the facilities it provides to the patients. Also the centre can be located to a spacious place where the patient can be more comfortable.

Learning Outcome 3

3.1 Explain the approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs.

Today, the number of people with disability has increased in the world. Though people have become more educated and aware, they still have some general assumptions about the people with disability. They think that these people have been examined with the issue of impairment which limits their activities. They consider disable people less capable and believe that they must be excluded from any social activities or programs (Goodman & Williams, 2007).  The worst assumption of the people is that they consider disable people as poor and consider that they only require sympathy of other people. To prove these illogical assumptions wrong and making people aware about the real condition of the disable people, different interventions and approaches have been developed by the health and social care sector, medical organizations, government and other social care groups.

Following type of intervention strategies could be used:

Physical interventions:  it incorporates the suitable activity and therapies that helps the patient. It helps the patients in restoring the lost capacities and aides in keeping up the physical status with the goal that he can return to ordinary life.

Psychological interventions:  Since the patient has the challenging behaviour, the mental mediation is critical. It helps him in raising his spirit and manufactures the inspirational disposition towards the life. This treatment helps in treating depression, self-destructive inclination, identity changes and tension.

Professional interventions:  In this we are trying the efforts to advance the professional preparing that suits the level of inability. This helps him in procuring something for himself. This serves to suit working and procure a vocation for an autonomous life.

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for an individual   with specific need(s).

The health policies aim at improving the quality and are basically based on the themes of empowerment, citizenship, participation in the social activities, making decisions and having choices, having equal rights and opportunities etc. (Halfon, 2012). Some of the different UK policies on people having learning disabilities include a ‘new three year strategy’ by England, ‘Equal lives- Review of policies and services’ by Northern Ireland, ‘The keys to life- Improving the quality of life’ by the Scottish Government, ‘Learning Disability Advisory Group (2001) Fulfilling the promise’ by Wales and are just to name a few. Intermediate care supports the aged people who are in need of special care all the time in the comforts of the home. This way, aged people get convenience and their treatment becomes easy. There is regular counselling sessions for the patients so as to understand the issues of the patients. The care centres at different places have specialized counsellors and psychologists. This type of intervention comes under Psychological interventions.


  • Psychological interventions have a very positive impact on the treatment of the patients. The counsellors motivate the patients and as a result the patients take part actively in the treatment.
  • As the sessions are closed and the details of the session are between psychologists and patients, as a result the patients can disclose their issues freely.


The no. of counsellors available at the care centres is very less and inadequate.


The intervention methodology followed is suitable however. There is a scope of improvement in the methodology. The number of counsellors should be increased and training should be provided to them.

3.3 Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments on support   for individuals with specific needs.

Technological innovation has today transformed the functional impact of disability. With time, there have been technical improvements in the physical environment for instance, poison-prevention packaging, safer and better housing, better roads etc. Advanced technology is today considered as the best way to ensure absolute opportunity of a healthy life for all the disable people. Decades of disability advocacy and new scholarship have recognized the significance of including societal and environmental factors as they are essential for optimizing the health and development of the disable people (Halfon, 2012). Further, technology can be referred to therapeutic and preventive intervention which can take different forms including engineering, pharmaceuticals, alterations etc. With this, there have been advancements in the education of disable people and more focus has been put on giving special instructions to these people (Harris, 2014). The potential impact of these developments is to be encouraged in health and social care sector as they have become the life savers of many people with specific needs. In turn, these people with special needs also get a confidence of living with freedom and spending their life meaningfully (Guyer, 2009).


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Understanding Specific Needs in HSC Assignment to be concluded that major advancements have been seen in the health care sector all across the world. Different organizations, social care groups and government have come up with new programs to support the people with specific needs. The importance of protecting the rights of these people, providing them safer place to live in, better education and giving them opportunity to convey their feeling meaningfully has been recognized through this essay. 


Albrecht, G (2005). Encyclopaedia of disability. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-2565-1.
American Academy of Paediatrics (2008). Autism: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorders: A resource toolkit for clinicians. Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.
Banda, D. R., Grimmett, E., & Hart, S. L. (2009). Activity schedules: Helping students with autism spectrum disorders in general education classrooms manage transition issues. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(4).
Darling, P (2007). "Disabilities and the Workplace". Business NH Magazine 24 (8): 28.
DePoy, E; Gilson, S (2004). Rethinking Disability: Principles for Professional and Social Change. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole. ISBN 978-0-534-54929-9.
Goodman, G., & Williams, C. M. (2007). Interventions for increasing the academic engagement of students with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6)

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