Communication is defined as a process to make contact with others in order to understand their needs and requirements. It involves sending and receiving messages in a continuous cycle. This continuous cycle repeats and becomes an important part of relationships.
FIGURE 1: CYCLE OF COMMUNICATION
Communication skill is the ability of a person to express information to others clearly and the exchanged information must be clearly identified by the receiver. It is a process of expressing your views to the audience in an appropriate way that they could understand it completely. A good communication skill is a must required in health and social care organization in order to effectively communicate with the patients.
Unit 1 communication in health and social care assignment aims at use of communication skills in context with health and social care providers. It explains the various forms of communication used in HSC and its importance in delivery of services. The assignment further throws light on the different communication systems used in an organization and the influence of various factors on the system. It focuses on the impact of legislation and code of practice on communication process in HSC.
Finally, it explains the use of information and communication technology to support work in HSC and its benefits for the users of the service, care workers and organization. If the people with health and social care will not have good communication skills, the effectiveness of the work will be reduced and there will be many things that can go wrong. It is always important to overcome all the problems and have an effective communication in order to achieve the best interaction (Kolb, 1991).
Theories of communication
A healthy and effective communication is a two-way process in which the person who listens tries to understand the other persons view point. A good communication involves a process of active listening and checking the understanding. In context to HSC, a good communication is really required between the customer and the staff. The staff should have good communication skills in order to develop a good relation with the customer. There are many theories of communication. Out of all Abraham Maslow’s theories are applied in HSC sector. It includes,
- Humanistic Theory: This theory explains that all individuals who need care are loving members of the society and possess a great potential to be good. It is applicable in situations where self-esteem, dignity and honour of the individual is involved. In HSC, the staffs are given training to care for an individual in a humanistic way.
- Cognitive Theory: This theory is implemented suddenly. This is related to the brain and intelligence of an individual. This deals with coding, encoding, processing and storage of particular information.
- Social Theory: It is a study of social facts. This theory deals with discussions over many consistent methods.
- Behavioural Theory: This theory deals with the behaviour of an individual and how to deal with it. It is the study of mental status of an individual (Bales, 1990).
- Psychoanalytic Theory: This theory deals with the stress, emotion and type of behaviour of an individual.
It is the duty of the HSC to train their employees in order to provide right source of communication to their customers. These techniques should be implemented using knowledge and skills. In case of Ms G, Humanistic theory is applicable to communicate with her, to know her needs and show her respect in her desires. This theory of communication with her will help to make her happy and boost her motivation.
1.2 use of communication skills with ms g
To achieve the goals and objectives of Health and social care organizations, many communication techniques are introduced to provide effective services to their customers.
FIGURE 2: TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Health and social care workers need effective skills of communication to understand and meet the need of the customers. The communication skills needed by the people in HSC are listed below.
- Understanding communication cycle.
- Understanding non-verbal messages.
- Understanding cultural differences.
- Knowing how to question effectively.
- Able to organize a conversation.
- Using skills to continue a healthy conversation.
- Using listening skills and checking understanding.
Modern equipment and communication aids are used to monitor the services provided by the care workers to the individuals. Different types of trainings are given to the HSC workers to enhance their communication techniques in workplace and to provide better services to their customers. Each department in HSC has a communication book. The staff members are updated about the happenings in the workplace with the help of such books. There is also a notice board that gives information about the name of attendant allotted along with the name of patients (Rajendra, 2009).
Encouraging communication: This includes,
- Speaking to her slowly in small sentences so that she can get familiar to the new language.
- Giving her time to respond so that she doesn’t feel pressurized to answer.
Body language: Use of gestures and facial expressions can also serve as an effective communication skill with Ms G. These types of communication skills can make her life happy and worth living.
1.3 methods to deal with inappropriate interpersonal communication
Communication difficulties can make a person alone and rejected from the entire community. It is important for a HSC to overcome such kind of problems. Many new technologies like IT, communication devices, trained staff and constant monitoring have helped a lot in dealing with communication problems between the individual and care provider. It is the duty of the care provider to use different verbal and non-verbal techniques with the individual to understand the needs and to provide them with the required assistance. Also, the other working staff of the organization should also contribute and help in communication with the people with special needs (Argyle, 1992).
Various interpersonal communication skills like verbal and non-verbal are implemented in order to achieve the objectives. The verbal communication skills include clear understanding and respectable communication so that it is easy to communicate between the client and the care provider. The non-verbal communication that includes the communication that is done by the use of gestures and facial expressions serves as good communication method between the two people who have language problem.
FIGURE 4: WAYS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
The effective interpersonal communication skills should be developed among the staff of care providers. Proper trainings are given in order to fulfil the demands of communication skills of people with special needs. An effective communication needs analysis of behaviour of care workers and other people.
M1 identification and application of strategies to explain complex communication problems:
There are numerous forms of communications such as body language, sign language, verbal, lip reading, verbal communication and written word. In case of complex communication problems a patient can develop communication issues due to physical conditions. The physical condition may be a stroke, hearing or visual problems leading to increase the problems in communication. The complex communication problems can occur unexpectedly which results in leaving the caring person unaware and unsure about the patient and not able to communicate with them. The strategies to solve various complex communication problems are:
- Selective mutism is the “phobia of talking”; it is generally a disease where the patient is able to speak and communicate but fails to speak at certain scenarios. It can be deal with patience and encouraging patient to communicate.
- Deaf blindness is the combination of impairment which causes both vision and hearing problems. The patient cannot be communicated with normal communicating ways, so it should be done with extreme patience and build a strong trust with the patient for developing communication.
- Rehabilitation after a stroke is very crucial. A stroke causes mental and physical damages to the patient and it makes very difficult to communicate with them. It is very important to provide full attention to the patient’s behaviour and try to support them for the communication.
- Makaton language can be utilized for communicating with various complex issues, it is a combination of gestures and picture symbols which are similar to the British Sign Language (BSL).
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2.1 influence of values and culture to eradicate communication barriers
An effective communication is a fundamental to maintenance of health care, especially with respect to needs of members of cultural and language minorities. Culture includes collection of information and knowledge , rules, habits, attitudes, beliefs and customs that are related to identify a group of people at a particular time. There is a culture in all the social units. There is a development of culture between two people over a particular time. They share their expressions, history, customs and rituals with each other (Moss, 2007).
FIGURE 3: INFLUENCE OF VALUES AND CULTURAL FACTORS ON COMMUNICATION
- Beliefs: It is the duty of the workers in HSC to respect the beliefs of their patients. They should give their clients freedom to practice their religion and beliefs.
- Age: The care workers should treat and interact with their clients keeping the age of the individual in mind. The communication skills used with children and adults are very different. So, age has a great influence in communication.
- Sex: Special care should be given to female patient, as they are more sensitive. It is the duty of the care providers to provide female attendants to female patients and male attendants to male patients in order to retain their comfort ability.
- Education: The people who are educated tend to be flexible than those who are not educated. The uneducated people stay firm with their own beliefs and practices.
- Social Class: Communication may have different effect on the person’s social class. The services given to the individual by social care providers should keep in mind the social class in order to satisfy their customers.
2.2 impact of legal, code of conduct and practises on hsc services
Before using any devices it is necessary to adequately examine the condition and basic diagnosis of patient. The Ethical consideration calls for the understanding of four basic guidelines. Noble practice in HSC communication within an organization is accomplished through several methods. The Act devised for Data protection is a significant contributor of legislation within the organization. Any HSC information should be safeguarded against the potential threat of intelligence theft to TP devoid any approval of the care user. Therefore this act entrust the safeguarding of information of the service users that endorses good health service practices and smooth operational functions.
The first ethical consideration necessitates taking into account four principles of Non-malfeasance, Beneficence, Autonomy and Justice for effective assistive device selection. Non-maleficence entrust safety, Principle of Beneficence ensures that there is a benefit of the device usage, Principle of Autonomy encourages the safeguarding of the individual’s right like privacy, decision making on selecting alternatives and Principle of Justice that ensures equal treatment of all individuals.
The second ethical consideration guideline acknowledges the weighing of the possible positive and negative aspects of the device/ technology to be adopted.
The Third ethical consideration should suggest the selection of technology that empowers the patient to perform task that is beyond reach at present while the fourth consideration necessitates the understanding of the fundamental need based analysis. This assist to understand if there is any need of technology, evaluate different alternatives, suggest non-technology alternatives.
This essay studied the literatures concerning qualitative as well as quantitative study on service providers as well as it transacts with the circulation of blood pressure across the body as well as the historical presence or occurrence of Health illness of the teenagers comprising of threat factors of multiple sclerosis development. Besides all parents along with their medical history were scrutinized and examined.
2.3 ways of improving communication process in hsc
In a HSC the staff and the customer are in good link with each other. So a good communication process is really required between both of them. If communication process is improves there is a great scope of improvement in the care services. The daily progress and patients records are saved on the system of the organization. All the information regarding the patients can be obtained from these portals. These kinds of systems are used extensively in many care service companies to improve the communication process. Proper trainings should be imparted to the care providers in order to keep them updated with the latest technologies. Modern system of communication should be implemented in HSC homes. The care standards must be monitored regularly to improve the system in HSC organizations. The care quality commission should conduct regular audits in order to access the performance of their care providers (Schramm, 1994).
There are many other techniques that are used to support helpless people in HSC sectors. Staffs of HSC are updated time to time on the usage of these technologies with the special need people and provided knowledge to perform better and satisfy the desires of their customers. Few strategies used to support Ms G with her specific communication needs are:
- Makaton: It is a way of communication using sign and symbols. It uses picture cards, facial expressions to make conversation easy between two people. This strategy will help Ms G to get familiar to the use of English and can speak and interact with the people around her.
- Technological aids: It deals with the usage of electronic aids. For example: Ms G can use her mobile phone to talk to her kids in India when she misses them. This can give her a feeling of satisfaction and happiness.
- Human aids: This includes the use of interpreters and translators. Ms G can use such kind of human aids to express her needs and interact with the people around in their language. It will be easy for her to make other people understand what she wants to say.
2.4 recommendation for improving hsc communication
This type of health promotion communicates the objective of decreasing the influence instigated by the widely spread Health illness health issues besides continuous monitoring and controlling high blood pressure (Starfield, 1998). Tertiary promotional activities related to health are directed on entities as well as their acquaintance with Health illness or those at increased health risk. Kids of parents who have an inherited Health illness suffer a high probability of developing Health illness themselves. Inherited or presence of Health illness on family upsurges the possibility of Health illness in young children. An elevated level of parent is BMI in an indicator of childhood Health illness. This result is significantly apparent through a consequence of genetics study as well as the literature supporting the implication of family health history as well as analogous lifestyle selections set up concerning families. Although through extensive literature review it is apparent that there is a genetic and the probability of occurrence in children through predisposition is feasible, however, relations of genetic as well as environmental dynamics results in the occurrence of Health illness.
Initially the health and social care must embrace the need for change and initiate linguistic competency in health and social care organizations. Then there must be a main emphasis over improving translation process and understand the consequence of poor communication with patients. The organizations dealing with health and social care must invest in encouraging communication skills by providing language professionals and researchers.
3.1 Supportive ict software package evaluation and application
The technology that can be used should adhere that endorse nutrition as well as physical activity throughout initial phases of life along with integrating it into broad-spectrum of work and office life. Bring together further lifestyle promotional programs in both colleges and offices that impart adults and teenagers to minimize stress quotient. Integrating parents as well as family member participation in healthy way of daily life as well as inspiring complete families to share their concerns and spend time with each other for leisure and entertainment activities for entrusting healthy and full of life standard of living through-out the lifetime. Business necessarily has as a feature that offers taking up of QA procedures and undertakings to entrust safety and appropriate health environment for the safety. It advocates standard examination as well as equips the safety doctrine for growth and advancement of business processes moreover smoothing the progress of the stakeholder’s interest. It is apparent, as an integral universal tradition for Quality monitoring and assurance, all the supplier auditing is simultaneously required to entrust successful quality (World Health Organization, 1980).
Care worker (Jeff) can use the ICT software package in order to manage the data of the patients such as medical history, current medications, preventions etc. These software packages are made for managing following data:
- Record of patient
- Medical history of the patient
- Accessibility of data
- Transfer of data
- Medical records
- Future recommendations
Through the filing the Data of patient’s records such as time of admission, bills, and treatment etc using ICT software packages useful information about the patient is accessible effectively. If a patient is to be transferred into another facility or other medical organization then the valuable data of patient is transferred effectively and securely. The patient’s record must be kept secure in order to follow the legal consequences.
3.2 advantages of using ict in hsc
The advantages of health support as well as safety services are very critical for entrusting an operative health administration as well as needs contentment. These analytical tools and diagnostic tools allow keeping a routine check on the knee numbness and vision check. These analytical and diagnostic tools relate to insignificant modifications or compromises in the offering health care services and in its approach towards communication process (Katz, 1997).
The positive impact is:
From the perspective of Services Provider:
- Minimal occurrence of critical hospital patient’s admittances
- Further, appropriate critical hospital release
- Minimal prerequisite for housing as well as personalized nursing care for day-to-day life at home
- Effectively and increased capability to reallocate expenditure on health as well as social care services rendering it to be cost and time effective
- Encourages health as well as safety environment for caretakers as well the patients
- Augment health and safety service quality boosting trust
From the perspective of Services User:
- Better service alternatives, care, independence as well as controlling service
- Enhanced life health quality
- Conservation of skill concerning health and safety to stay at household
- Minimized liability sited on service providers
- Better-quality sustenance for individuals like Service User whose condition critically worsen in the long run
- Minimized accidents as well as drops or health care at home (World Health Organization, 1980)
To understand the need and apprehend the emotion of leading a usual life very critical for effective care as well as nursing. This emphasizes the acknowledgement of the Service User as well as community individual interactions as well as contributes in Service User for answering the apprehensive difficulties besides the prerequisite of daily assistance.
- Operational Amendment of metabolic anomalies
- Identification as well as health support administration to analyse as well as precisely observing mental illness
- Avoiding likely health difficulties owing to harmonizing incidence of some mutual mental long-term illness like multiple sclerosis
- Reducing the occurrence of patient missing due to lack of thinking ability
- Distribution of effective disease analysis and care assistive devices, individual health care, besides offering and taking self-care
Of all potent health as well as safety concerns along with monitoring the possible occurrence of preventive and precautionary measures while entrusting occurrence identification and documentation that help out in perfect statement documentation (Jha, Perlin, Kizer & Dudley, 2003).
3.3 Impact of legal consideration in hsc for ict implementation
According to the case study Jeff must perform following legal considerations:
- To follow Human rights code, there should be unbiased decision making on visitors recruitment and selection irrespective of the candidate’s age, gender, race, marital status, religion, native place, or physically challenged aspect
- To safeguard the interest of the visitor by avoiding any questions related to any prohibited grounds that qualifies in the discrimination of employment provision during the process of recruitment both deliberately or not deliberately
- The Data Protection Act 2001 and Data Protection Act 2008 are responsible for controlling and handling the personal information of the client or patient by organizations, businesses and the government. This act holds everyone responsible for using data to follow ‘data protection principles’ strictly. The data can be ethnic background, political opinions, religious belief, health, sexual health and criminal records.
- According to Health and Safety (offences) Act 2008 Jeff cannot provide patient’s personal information, private details of medication and progress to anybody other than patient and the person with medical attorney of patient without the permission of them or a legal order from the court. Failing to do so can result in legal actions upon care worker (Jeff) and organization legally.
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There are many strategies developed by HSC in order to fulfil the requirements of the people with special needs. The government implements these strategies in order to provide assistance required by the people with special needs. It is the responsibility of HSC to use these strategies and train their staff to use them effectively. Many verbal and non-verbal techniques are used as a communication technology in these care homes. The Staff is given rigorous trainings to use them efficiently.
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