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Organization and Behavior Assignment – CAPCO
The Organization and Behavior Assignment CAPCO revolves around observing what employees do in an organization and how their individual behaviour leaves an impact on it overall performance. Organisational Behaviour study comprises of the interaction amid the formal structure, tasks to be attempted, technology adopted and the methods of work execution, employees behaviour, management process and external environment. With the help of research, teaching and course development, organisational behaviour conceives and propagates knowledge useful in advancing the understanding of how to effectively lead and manage with intent to enhance both personal and organizational performance. The key reasons behind studying about organizational behaviour is to understand the ability to using the tools of organizational behaviour and for learning how to implement these concepts, theories and techniques for improving behaviour in organizations so that employees as an individual and in groups along with the organization can attain their respective goals. Managers are asserted for finding out new methods for employee motivation and establishing coordination ensuring that their professional goals are aligned with that of the organization. For better understanding the concept of organizational behaviour, the example of CAPCO’s case study has been considered.
CAPCO is a prominent international marketing solution provider for consulting, managed services and technology in the sector of financial services established 15 years ago with 20 offices across the globe and over 2,000 employees.CAPCO was rated in 27th position in The Sunday Times 100 Best Companies to Work. One of key thing that differentiates CAPCO is that the organization is completely committed to global financial industry which is constantly facing numerous challenges such as increase in customer demand and expectation, new entries in the market, need for innovation and a momentous regulation that is following the recent universal financial crisis.
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation of your choice. Show the differences and similarities in these two organisations
The key reason behind the establishment of an organization is meeting a need such as providing goods and services to customers. The structure of an organization can be of many forms and generally are influenced by factors like its purpose, size and the intricacy of the tasks it performs, external environment and its culture. Moreover, an organization’s products, services or location also determines the kind of structure is best for the company. The kind of structure an organization chooses will eventually govern the way it will operate and might have its own positive and negative impacts.
It has been observed that CAPCO promotes an innovative and enterprising culture and has a flat structure that is non-hierarchical and team-driven. Moreover, within CAPCO’s flat organizational structure, there operates a matrix structure for the accomplishment of specialized projects where a variance in skills is needed and once the project is over, the employees work on another project with an entirely different group of employees. The matrix structure in CAPCO’s flat organizational structure is beneficial in building an eminently motivated and empowered workforce where the employees involved have the access of advising and teaching others. (Zheng, Yang and McLean, 2010) CAPCO focus on being innovative which eventually has given rise to a ‘bottom up’ approach of leadership where there is very limited scope for bureaucracy and employees are free to query and give suggestions. The organizational culture in CAPCO is entrepreneurial and innovative which further supports the structure. CAPCO’s culture promotes uniqueness, sincerity and openness in workplace and the employees are given the freedom for realizing their aspirations. CAPCO’s culture has embraced the opportunities of personal growth, performance and reward, challenging work portfolio and experience and learning. Both structure and culture of CAPCO cultivates flexibility, creativity and an element of risk-taking in employees. (Burke, 2013)
DHL follows a hierarchical structure which has many layers and a long command chain from the top to bottom layer. Hierarchical organisations were popular in the 20th century when organizations were growing as it ensured effective command within the organisation as a result of its definite span of control. DHL’s hierarchical structure has helped the logistic company in establishing a clearly defined job roles and responsibilities and offers the employees with scope of promotion which drives their motivational levels and encourages them in acquiring competence in their job roles further escalating job interests. (Zheng, Yang and McLean, 2010) DHL’s culture promotes adhering to management rules and regulations and company standards further advocating fair practices and maintaining transparency and meeting customers’ needs.
1.2 Explain how the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of its operations
The effectiveness of CAPCO is based on its culture and structure effectiveness and the development of the effectiveness is eventually dependent of numerous factors that are helpful in the company’s growth in the longer period. One can describe an organization’s structure as system determining the hierarchy with the organisation and further is helpful in identifying every employee’s job and responsibilities and how it is divided and coordinated whereas the culture of an organization relies on beliefs and attributes that guide the employees and the satisfaction levels at workplace determines an individual employee’s performance at workplace. A positive effect on the overall performance of employees working in a flexible environment can be seen further keeping them motivated in this kind of an organizational culture. (Moran, Abramson and Moran, 2014). Performance of the employees is also very effective as a result of well defined job roles and responsibilities and presence of creativity and innovation at work. The kind of structure and culture practiced in CAPCO can be considered as a decisive element in the continuous growth of the company further fostering employee commitment and loyalty towards the organisation. It has been observed that CAPCO’s culture to a large extent identifies its performance as its goals and objectives are aligned with that of employees’ goals and performances. CAPCO’s structure gives workplace communication a structured process and also gives stress on teamwork enhancing employees’ productivity levels. Dynamic and recognition features for employee contributions encourage them in giving their best performances and earn fringe benefits and performance bonus resulting maintenance of uniformity around the function. (Moran, Abramson and Moran, 2014)
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO or in any organisation of your choice
Factors influencing individual behaviour in CAPCO
- Positive Environment: colleagues actions is a critical internal force influencing employee behaviour at work. CAPCO has noticed enhanced productivity and an improved customer service when an effective internal culture based on mutual respect, teamwork and support is established
- Technology: one can see both positive and disruptive influence on employee behaviour as result of a technology which is a significant factor. Although using technology can be helpful in streamlining processes and making work simple for employees, it can be stressful in learning how to use new technology and remain productive at the same time. (Caroline Martins and Meyer, 2012)
- Customer Demands: is an external force constantly exerting pressure on CAPCO in staying forward of the competitive curve and thereby, it is important for monitoring the external environment and be aware of the changes that can leave an impact on its operations.
- Locus of Control: both internal and external forces influence employee behaviour and the impact of these forces depends on an employee’s own internal and external locus of control. Employees having an external locus of control look out for managers for giving directions and feedbacks whereas employees with internal locus of control make decisions and act on their own. (Dolan, Hallsworth, Halpern, King, Metcalfe and Vlaev, 2012)
- Strategic Plans: at CAPCO, employees expect the manager to define a proactive action plan to deal with threats after assessing the external and internal factors influencing the company. Being aware of how internal and external factors will influence the employees helps the manager in being prepared to counter the employees changing behaviour.
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leaderships at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice
- Participative Leadership: in this style decisions are collectively made with the help of techniques like active participation which helps the leader or manager in identifying the issues or areas of problems. Employees are encouraged to give opinions ensuring increasing in their productivity levels and at times letting the management to design strategies. (Norman, Avolio and Luthans, 2010) This style keeps the employees motivated and committed to their roles as result of importance given by the manager. CAPCO’s managers pursue this leadership style while seeking employees’ opinions in particular from the sales team for understanding the customers’ needs. At Microsoft, CEO Satya Nadella practices participative leadership style for reducing the rate of employee turnover and eventually improving relations amid the management and employees and establishing job satisfaction
- Transformational Leadership: by implementing this kind of leadership style CAPCO ensures impartiality in the process by setting goals that are clear and a well framed communication process. Use of this style at workplace has helped in cultivating a supportive environment eventually reducing issues and problems. In this style, the leader’s activities help in precisely highlighting the strong vision and the business objectives and influence the employees to perform like the leader or manager. A relation based on trust is established amid the leader and the employees as they feel motivated because of the support and constant encouragement. (Ulrich, Zenger and Smallwood, 2013) At Microsoft, this leadership style is helpful in supporting and driving the employees towards the higher productivity level. The managers set a supportive environment by promoting the company’s vision and various aspects in business objectives to keep the staff always motivated
- Transactional Leadership: when CAPCO’s manager follows this leadership style, they make the employees attain the predefined objectives and goals of the business by provisioning either rewards or punishments. There are times when certain issues remain unsolved as a result of the managers’ sternness and his/her way of managing the employees. With the help of this style manager can easily trace the underperformers also the employees adopt a serious approach while giving their efforts. The leader or manager motivates the employees with a system of rewards or punishment. (Norman, Avolio and Luthans, 2010)Microsoft makes the best use of this leadership style for appreciating the employees’ performances and highlighting the underperformer who fail in achieving the given targets
- DemocraticLeadership: managers of CAPCO pursuing this leadership style believe in involving employees in the process of decision making and establishing employee interest by further practising social equality. Microsoft being a multinational company gives importance to employees’ suggestions but the final decisions related to the business are mostly taken by the top level authorities.
- Laissez-faireLeadership: the leader pursuing this leadership style gives the right to make decisions to the employees as they are highly skilled and experienced in their respective fields. (Ulrich, Zenger and Smallwood, 2013) At Microsoft, this style is often been practiced as workers and managers tend to grow in such leadership approach whereas despite of believing in employees empowerment, CAPCO does not believes in Laissez-faire leadership style.
2.2 Explain how organizational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management
Organisation theory has an integral role to play in underpinning the practice of management
Scientific Management: this organizational theory focuses on developing performance and output with the help of scientific studies of employees’ processes. It evaluates the flow of work for improving the economic efficiency and in particular the productivity of employees. The essential factors of scientific management consist of evaluation, amalgam, logic, rationality, experimentation, work ethic etc. It has been observed that all these components generally have focus on employees’ efficiency and not on any particular quality of behaviour. (Feldman and Orlikowski, 2011)
Key principles of scientific management
- Employees must use the scientific method for studying work and determining the most efficient way of executing a given task
- Matching the task with employees’ skills and their capability and training them for maximizing their efficiency.
- Monitoring employees performance and providing them with instructions and supervising them for ensuring that the most efficient ways of working are been used.
- Allocating of work amid the manager and employees so that managers can spend his/her time in planning and employee training further allowing them to perform efficiently.
The theory of scientific management can be linked with CAPCO as the management encourages the employees in being creative and innovative at work. The theory which also involves quantitative analysis such as process designing, cost accounting, ergonomics, quality control along with planning leaves an impact on the usual business practices. CAPCO pursues the approach of scientific management for organizing, leading, planning and controlling the operational activities. Furthermore, the implementation of this theory also helps CAPCO in simplifying the processes improvement
Human Relation Theory: this theory was developed in response to the scientific management theory further denying both biological and mechanistic approaches of the theory. The theory of human relations emphasizes on implementing the measures of considering the employees as human beings and takes into account the human psychological and moral qualities like goals, motivation and values for escalating and enhancing the productivity of employees. (Bratton and Gold, 2012) Using of factual data on employee satisfaction and impact of shared demand of employees on their productivity levels has triggered the need of developing a program for harmonizing the relations amid the employees for brining in the maximal efficiency in CAPCO has a whole. Capitalist productions practical needs has determined the study of crucial issues such as factors that foster either a negative or positive attitude towards work, workgroups influence on an employee, effectiveness of supervision method, improvement of work conditions etc. within the structure of the theory of human relations. This theory also relates with CAPCO’s practices of management where opportunities of training and development are provided to motivate the employees. The HR department frequently organizes game competition, outings and happy hours for cultivating a positive and healthier workplace environment.
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your chosen organisation
At CAPCO, one can see that the management advocates the application of a participative environment for developing a healthier and robust relation amid the employer and the employees and simultaneously promotes accuracy in command and better understanding of employees’ roles and responsibilities ensuring development in their individual performances and productivity and customer commitment in satisfying them with quality financial services. Moreover, CAPCO also propagates the practice of management approaches whose success and failure at large mostly depends on the employees who are the brand’s representatives and are the front face in serving the customers. (Aaker, 2012) In CAPCO, integration of core values in the system can be see which the employees are expected to follow. The approach of the management has helped in establishing teamwork culture in the workplace for fulfilling common goals and interests. The approach undertaken by the management has helped in focusing on meeting with customers needs stimulating repeated purchase of various financial services. In addition, the management can conduct analysis in a proper way and identify the areas of problems and finding out the solutions for resolving the same.
It has been observed that at Microsoft stress is given on the approach of practicing steering management where more focus is given on encouraging the employees to participate and achieving expected outcome that is result oriented. The steering management approach has further allowed Microsoft in acknowledging and recognizing employees’ contributions in driving the company towards its business goals and objectives. (Aaker, 2012) Moreover, the management of Microsoft emphasizes on planning and coordination amid all employee in different departments and at different levels by constantly developing the prearranged company regulations and policies further maintaining transparency in the undertaken process in the given timeline.
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change
Leaders are the ones who not only help themselves but also the others in doing the right things. Leaders are the ones who set direction and build a vision that is inspiring for all and finally creating something new. The leadership style of a leader maps out the direction employees need to take for winning as a team or as an organization as a whole. It is important that a leader has a dynamic nature and is an inspiration for every follower. A person as a leader is must make the best use of management skills for guiding the followers towards a right direction by adopting a smooth and efficient way. (Miller and Rollnick, 2012). Motivation has a significant role in improving employees’ performance and that of the company as a whole. It is a proven fact that employees who are motivated work more hard and are more committed in reaching the company’s goals further ensuring its overall growth. CAPCO has decided to rotate its certain employees to new job roles in order to enhance their existing skills and expand their knowledge base and prepare them for handling multiple roles at a time.
In a period of change like this, it becomes important to keep the employees motivated by following different styles of leadership. With an increase in demand and employees preferences and the continuous change in the business environment, it is essential that CAPCO’s managers also bring a change in the motivational style used in workplace and get adapted to the needs of the situation. To deal with this period of change the manager can follow Participative style of leadership and make the employees aware of the changes and provide them with an orientation related to the change. (Dinh, Lord, Gardner, Meuser, Liden and Hu, 2014) This is needed to be done for clearing the doubts and misinterpretations amid the employees. The manager can easily organize an open discussion allowing the employees to share their opinions and reviews regarding the change. Manager can convey the benefits of the change to the employees and how it will be beneficial in enhancing their own professional skills and future growth prospective and escalate their confidence levels. McGregor’s theory of motivation can be implemented in such a situation where the motivated employees will not only give their 100% best performance and take up challenges in meeting the goals but simultaneously will also inspire their colleagues in accepting the change.
Apart from Participative leadership style, CAPCO’s manager can also adopt the Transformational style of leadership for influencing the employees in following the clearly defined goals and objectives. One can see that the period of change in CAPCO is clearly linked with the goals of the business which the employees follow as a result of easy to perceive communication structure which also at the same time is transparent. The motivational theory of McGregor’s can be related with the Transformational leadership style. (Dinh, Lord, Gardner, Meuser, Liden and Hu, 2014) The motivational theory will keep the employees satisfied and then they willingly will accept the changes and perform to meet the goals and objectives of the company.
3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories (e.g. Maslow’s & Herzberg theories) within organizational setting
Motivation is a process of initiating, guiding and further maintain behaviours at workplace that is goal-oriented. Motivation is something which inspires a person as an individual and as an employee to act and involves a biological, emotional, social and cognitive force activating behaviour. Motivation in general is an internal process making a person to move towards the goal and alike intelligence, it cannot be checked precisely and can be understood by observing the behaviour of a person. (Erez, Kleinbeck and Thierry, 2012)
Maslow’s motivational theory emphasizes on first fulfilling the employees very basic need such as food, shelter and clothes that are in the pyramidal hierarchy. The fulfilment of this need is then followed by the safety and recognition at work, achievements and self-fulfilment. One can see no need of applying this motivational theory in CAPCO as the management ensures that the very basic needs of an employee is fulfilled through a modest pay structure. Knowing the employees as an individual and working towards understanding their needs helps the manager in identifying the actions needed to be taken for keeping the employees motivated. He/she as a manager must also ensure that the lower level needs are fulfilled. The Physiological Needs can be fulfilled by providing the input for employee salaries and bonuses. Safety Needs can be fulfilled by ensuring the availability of correct tools for completing the job and creating an atmosphere where employees are comfortable in taking up challenges. The Social Needs can be fulfilled by organizing project team meetings once in a week and by getting the team together in celebrate the success of a project. (Erez, Kleinbeck and Thierry, 2012)Esteem Needs can be fulfilled by rewarding the team members for their contributions in making a project successful and by ensuring that every member understands their importance in completing a project. Lastly, the Self-Actualization Needs can be fulfilled by taking into account every team members professional goals while allocation of tasks and by empowering them.
Herzberg Motivational theory is linked closely with that of Maslow’s and emphasizes on a two-factor theory of motivation. Herzberg contends in introducing certain factors i.e. motivators for directly keeping the employees motivated in working hard. However, there are hygiene factors whose absence de-motivates the employees. Motivators are concerned with the job itself in actual. Take for instance, how intriguing the task is and the kind of opportunity for taking responsibility, recognition and promotion it will give whereas the Hygiene factors are the factors surrounding the job rather than the job itself. Take for example, an employee will come at work only if the company satisfies him/her with a reasonable pay and safe working environment but these factors will not motivate him/her in working hard. (Erez, Kleinbeck and Thierry, 2012)According to Herzberg, an organization must motivate the employees by embracing a democratic approach of management and making improvements in the nature and content of the job with certain methods like Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Empowerment
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace
One can see that CAPCO’s managers make the best use of motivation theories for encouraging the employees and enhancing their levels of productivity in attaining the predefined goals and objectives of the organization. Moreover, it is equally helpful in instilling competence and knowledge within the employees motivating them to outperform and establishing the sense of job satisfaction. With the implementation of motivation theories, it is easier for the manager in understanding the roles and responsibilities, provide recognition and opportunities of growth for satisfying the needs of employees further leaving a positive impact on their individual perceptions. (Yuan and Woodman, 2010) CAPCO’s manager is responsible in cultivating the impulse of outperforming and achieving the desirable outcomes. For improving the employees’ performance with that of the organization, managers must necessarily evolve significant knowledge in respect to motivation theories application at the workplace. It is a proven fact that motivational theories just not inspire the employees in improving their knowledge but simultaneously escalates their loyalty for CAPCO. Several factors motivate the employees and thereby, managers must analyze the driving factor of every employee. As a result of rapidly changing customers preferences and constant rise in market competition, CAPCO must deliberately amplify itself for sustaining its market position. Employees who are motivated work for the company’s betterment and willingly accept the organizational changes needed for the industry’s survival. By making use of motivational theories manager can enhance the level of employee satisfaction. (Yuan and Woodman, 2010)
4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
Different types of group are there which work for improving CAPCO’s operations namely formal group and informal group. The formal group is categorized into command and task group. The behaviour of a command group is equivalent to that of a leader and usually includes the employees who lead the company and are responsible for making key business related decisions and plan for the betterment and growth of the company along with that of contributions made to the society. The members of task group perform for the company and are bound to execute the instructions given by the command group. (Farnsworth and Boon, 2010). Informal group categorized into interest and friendship group. Interest gro
Informal group categorized into interest and friendship group. Interest group in CAPCO usually includes customers, employees, stakeholders etc. and are mostly benefitted the services, salaries and company’s profit. Friendship group, on the other hand include employees at different levels who are liable for monitoring and task execution and always expect the company’s prosperity. The group behaviour at CAPCO can be identified by Belbin’s team role
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO or your chosen organisation
One can see that teamwork is an imperative issue for achieving any kind of improvement within the organization. An organization’s achievement cannot be possible in the absence of teamwork and its best performance. In CAPCO, there are certain factors acting as a lubricant in developing and managing effective teamwork. The team within CAPCO focuses on reaching the goals which is eventually driven with the help of a common goal which is conveyed well in advance and is understood by every team members. Another factor promoting effective teamwork within CAPCO is employees’ compensation and it has been observed that employees give their 100% best in completing a task for getting a pay hike or bonus in the end of a financial year. CAPCO also aims of satisfying the employees with high pay structure in order to get high outcomes from the team. Communication is yet another factor promoting effective teamwork in CAPCO. The manager establishes open communication in the team and in return, the team tries in giving their best effort in doing a job. (Weaver, Rosen, DiazGranados, Lazzara, Lyons, Salas, Knych, McKeever, Adler, Barker and King, 2010)
4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO or your chosen organisation
The employees in CAPCO are benefited by making the best use of well -established technology structure in the workplace. Use of technology has made it far easier for the team members to coordinate with each other while working together in order to gain a specific accomplishment. The privilege of technology transfer has allowed the researchers and the service givers to establish communication in well manner eventually enhancing CAPCO’s efficiency in the service system. CAPCO’s technology, on the other hand is moving ahead of research laboratory type to a new service user supported with the contributions of technology. With the use of email and phones information is shared and conveyed in a more fast process. Use of computers and smartphones have allowed the team members in storing huge data of customer details. It has been observed that both user and beneficiaries of technology are highly influenced from it. (Kopcha, 2010)
At the end, we conclude by saying that CAPCO’s organizational behaviour is organized in a well-defined way. Moreover, CAPCO’s structure and the nature of business can get benefit from making the best use of structure and the nature and formulating adequate strategies. In the Organization and Behavior Assignment CAPCO we have also discussed how an employee gets motivated in the influential leadership of the manager or the topmost management. Motivation is important for the smooth execution of business operations.
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