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In this Organisational and Behaviour in Team Management Assignment we are evaluating the different leadership style adopted by the management of different organizations. We will try to understand the reason behind each approach that is taken and how it is different from the other. We would also shed some light on the importance of motivating the employee and how this benefits both the employee and the employer. Also, success is professional environment is never for an individual but for a team and importance of team work is also discussed at length.
When an individual induces his view in an organization and shares his idea among the individual in such a way that they align themselves to the bigger object, then this phenomenon is said to demonstrate leadership. Leadership style is all about how a leader choses to enforce his principals on the people. How he gets the support of his community and mobilizes his assets is also determined by leadership style.
In the current work scenario different organizations adopt different management style. The style chosen in according to the structure of the organization and the vision they are operating by. Each management technique marks the usage of different leadership style used by organizations and their effects can be summarized as follows:
Organizations are collective units of people working together to achieve a common goal. Businesses make use of organizational theory and management theory to achieve success. Theories dictate practices and policies that can make an establishment successful, but adhering to a theory involves putting personal goals on line and entails some sacrifices too. Organizational theory is a study of organizational structure and aims at creating knowledge that helps in understanding how the organization works. If an organizational theory is followed to the boot then it might lead to some tough decisions on the management front (Hersey et. al, 1988). For example, human resource department creates some policies and procedures to ensure that the vision and goal of an organization can be achieved. But these decisions affect the working of all the employees in the organization and might face some doubts. At times an individual spends more time in adjusting to the mould that they start ignoring their duties and responsibilities. These theories might clash with the individual personal values and this might reduce the efficiency of getting the work done. These people might not agree completely with the rule and policy that the organization has in place but being a part of a well-defined structure they need to work with it and execute something which they cannot completely believe in. This dilemma can prove harmful in certain places. If one tries to put all organizational theories into practice then this might lead to certain conflicts in leadership and staff. The vision is always at a broader level and might not always be according to the individual but they agree to go by it because they are part of group. This can work only if the employee is treated with respect and is valued and their belief in policies must be strengthened. This has led to the evolution and usage of various management practices across the organizations depending upon the structure and overall goals. They can be summarized as:
There are several leadership styles and each aims at motivating the employee to get the task done efficiently and achieve the vision and mission of the organization. The way this motivation varies according to the style. Each leadership style aims at motivating the employee but the approach used might be different. In autocratic style, by taking all the important decisions themselves managers are able to get work done at a very fast pace. They motivate employees by establishing their trust and confidence in the decision making ability of the top echelon. The employees feel safe and secure in the direction that the organization is moving into because the manager is competent and surefooted. On the other hand in democratic style, motivation is done with the help of inclusion. Employees are included in the decision making process and they are emotionally linked to the success of the organization (Jung & Avolio, 1999). Every important decision is taken by taking their opinion into consideration and hence they are closely linked to the process and take interest in things that are taking place. Collaborative leadership style motivates employees by making them feel part of an equal opportunity group. Organization is treated as group of different people working together to achieve common interest and each individual is as important as the other. This sense of equality leads to peaceful collaboration which motivates the employees to put forward their best effort. In managerial style of leadership as the main work of the leader is to manage the policies and progress of the organization, the employee is motivated by putting in place a clear vision and goals of the organization. Everyone is given a clear idea about what the organization as a group is set to achieve and what role they are to play in this. They are made aware of the benefits performing and downside of non-performance. The friendly and stress free environment that is generated in this leadership style further motivates them to perform their best (Pool, 1997).
There are several motivation theories that are prevalent across the organizations. Their main aim is to generate a work force that is enthused with positive energy and would work towards attaining the vision, mission and goal that an organization has set for it. Below is the summary and comparison between three famous motivational theories:
Maslow: He came up with the idea of need pyramid which showcased the hierarchy of needs of employees. The base of the pyramid is made up by the most basic needs and the intensity reduces as we move up. The basic physiological needs like food, shelter etc. must be met first. Unless, they are met there is no point in motivating the employee as they would not be up to it. Once this is met, employee can be motivated by giving them a sense of security. They are motivated by assuring that they are in a stable environment which can take care of them during difficult times. After this is achieved, motivation via social aspects is explored next. Positive work environment in which friendly relationship can foster motivate employees to perform better. Once a strong social network has been put in place, there comes the question of rewards. Employees need a self-esteem boost which can be given with the help of rewards and recognition. The pyramid is topped by self-fulfilment. When every need is met employee is comfortable and happy in his surroundings (Maslow, 1943).
Fig. 1 Maslow pyramid of need
Herzberg: Another very popular motivation theory was put in place by Herzberg. He said that putting certain aspects in place is necessary for satisfying and employee but this will not necessarily motivate them. He coined the term ‘hygiene factor’ that refers to things which must be in place so that employee is satisfied. Competitive pay package can be sighted as an example. An underpaid employee cannot be motivated at any cost. Once these hygiene factors are in place, effort can be made towards growth and self-development of the employee which will allow them learn and hence motivate them to perform (Herzberg, 2005).
Fig. 2 Herzberg ‘hygiene and motivation model’
Emmet: He came up with certain factors which are needed to motivate an employee. They are listed as:
If these factors are taken into account and worked upon, then employee will always be motivated and happy (Spier & McFarland, 1997).
Motivation is one of the most underutilized factors by managers that can revolutionize the work place. Motivation techniques if applied carefully and successfully can inspire people to work. The mission of an organization is standard and it might not be in line with the individual goals of the people. This may cause friction and half-hearted work. With motivation technique the managers can inspire people to look at the bigger picture. They can help people to align their personal goals according to the vision of the organization. It helps them realize that this is a win-win situation. Motivation can be used as a tool to inspire people to work either individually or in groups in a manner which is efficient and effective. It is very important for the manager to understand that for every individual the motivating factor is different. If the manager is able to apply motivational technique successfully in an organization, it will lead to creation of work force which is looking in the same direction. They have full understanding of what they need to achieve and also know how to do that. The employees are emotionally attached to the success and failure of the organization. This will boost the performance of the staff which directly boosts the productivity of the organization. Motivation techniques are useful because they allow both the leaders and the staff to achieve what they want (Maslow et. al, 1970). The top tier is able to achieve the overall target and the staff is able to achieve job satisfaction, security, self-esteem and a successful career.
Group refers to a collection of individuals working together to achieve a common task. They have their responsibilities and duties defined at the individual level and continuously interact with each other to achieve the final objective.
Nature of groups
When groups come into existence so does group dynamics. Group dynamics involves various techniques which give us an insight into the internal nature of the group. Information about how we can organize a group and monitor its activities to achieve a set of goals is referred to as normative views (Kernberg, 1998). Groups are broadly categorized into:
Formation of Groups: the formation of groups takes place in various stages. These stages can be summarized as follows-
Group Behaviour Issues- Some issues that need to address while group formation are:
In order to create high performing teams there are certain points that we need to keep in mind. Somen Factors that promote effective teamwork
Factors that act as barriers to effective team work:
Technology has revolutionized every aspect of human life and an organization or their cultures are also not left untouched. Team functioning and interaction mostly stands improved by the usage of technology. Teams include technology in their functioning to interact better and to get the tasks done faster. They need to be updated regularly to ensure that everything is up to date. Personal computers and laptops allow the groups work effectively and remain connected across the globes. Manual tasks are automated and this reduces time and increases efficiency. E mails ensure easy, safe and fast information sharing among people working in different teams which might be located across the globe so that they can work without and hindrance. Mobile Phones allow team members to communicate with each other from anywhere and anytime. Important update or information can be shared anytime. Phones are now equipped with Wi-Fi connectivity and data cards which ensure data connectivity on the go. Mails and instant messaging applications are accessible all across the world on compact devices like smart phones (McGrath & Hollingshead, 1994).
At a broader level technology helps in keeping a team together but if any of the tools are misused or used excessively for leisure purpose, it can destroy the group dynamics and might lead to delays and bad quality deliverables.
A good leader is one who can inspire a group of people to come and work together. Individuals might be high performing but if they cannot work well as a team then the tasks will not be accomplished. This is where the importance of leadership and motivational techniques lies. Leaders and managers need to bring employees together and motivate them so that they can deliver their best and work in tandem with others so that all the cycles and modules work without any delay and non-performance. A motivated team would perform well without hiccups and deliver on what has been promised.
Above Organisational and Behaviour in Team Management Assignment gave us a sneak peek into the broad and varied world of management and leadership. We were able to establish the fact that success of the organization depends upon its employees and the performance of the employee depends upon their leader or the manager a great deal. The style that they use will affect the final output and hence must be chosen with utmost care. We also established the groups need to be established and managed for successful task completion and this is where the concept of motivation and leadership would be put into place as the whole process involves getting together people and making them contribute towards the greater purpose for achieving the goal set by the organization.
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