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Malaysia Sustainable Tourism Development
Nowadays, Travel and Tourism Industry has become one of the largest industries in the world. The Malaysia Sustainable Tourism Development Assignment has been prepared to study the different aspects associated with Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development. The industry has been growing at an exponential pace and not only the existing big tourism organisations but also the new start up organisations with innovative ideas are coming in the tourism sector. Social and Environmental factors play an important role in the development of a place into tourism attraction which will be studied in this paper in the context of Malaysia.
AS the travel and tourism industry is large, so are the number of stakeholders which are the part of this industry. Stakeholders are the people who are related to a particular organisation or industry either directly or indirectly. In case of Malaysian Tourism Industry, main stakeholders are:
The main role of the government (public sector) in the working in partnership is to make the rules and regulations to govern tourism activities, preparing policies regarding every aspect of the tourism industry, providing resources to the private organisations so that they can develop the sites which could attract more tourists, easy visa processing and maintain the safety and security of the tourists. Government also makes sure that there is fair competition in the tourism industry and every organisation should be provided equal opportunity to grow (Blanke & Chiesa, 2013). But there is one disadvantage of public private partnership in the tourism industry. If the political condition of the country is not stable or there is an economic crisis, it would lead to the lack of coordination among the public and private sector which would finally harm the tourism in Malaysia.
Sometimes there are conflicts of interests among the various stakeholders at a tourist destination. The National Park of Pahang – Taman Negara is an example of conflict of interest in the Malaysian tourism. Although, the park is known for ecotourism, the heavy inflow of the tourists in the park has been causing damage to the environment at the park (Evans, Stonehouse & Campbell, 2012). The carrying capacity of the park is exceeded its limit and this has created a conflict between the tourism organisations and government of Malaysia. If the inflow of the tourists at the park keeps increasing, the development of the place is going to suffer which would further result in the diminishing number of tourists. Not only the air, but also the water in the nearby areas is being polluted by the tourism industry. The green area has been decreasing gradually which could affect the whole tourism in the area. Since, the government of Malaysia has been taking tough steps to save the national park; it is affecting the interests of the tourism industry. Government has asked the local tourism organisations to reduce the carbon emission by installing latest equipment which are very costly. Government has also declared some areas restricted for private use and tourists. Tourism organisations are facing fall in the revenue because of this. If government and tourism industry could work in collaboration to save the national park, the condition could be changed. Tourism organisations could use some of the profit from the park into its development which might trigger the support of other organisations. In this manner, the environment could be maintained at the park and ecosystem of the place would come back to its original condition.
Sustainable tourism means a balance between the supply and demand so that the tourist destination could be developed without harming the interests of the stakeholders. It is necessary that the tourists are satisfied by the destination and destination is also not affected in a negative manner because of the tourism activities. The demand in the tourism industry has increased exponentially in the last decade and Malaysia has been seeing a continuous increase in the foreign tourists in the country. People are now willing to expand more on the tourism which resulted in the high demand of the developed tourism destinations such as Malaysia (Chambers, 2009). But the supply or the availability of the tourist destinations is not able to match the demand. Because of the increased demand of Malaysia as a famous tourist destination, the carrying capacity of the country has crossed the limit. This violation of the carrying capacity because of the absence of balance in demand and supply is hindering the development of the tourism industry in the country.
Although, the tourists are now more aware of their responsibility and understand the problems caused by their insincerity, the problem persists. The government of Malaysia is working on the infrastructure development to support the excess inflow of the tourists and formed partnership with the private organisations. The partnership between the government and tourism organisation is working in making the less explored tourism destinations easily accessible so that the burden on the main sites could be reduced
When tourism is restricted to a specific destination which has a small geographic area but provides entire experience of tourism to the visitors, it is called enclave tourism. The main reason behind the enclave tourism is to make profit by reducing the spending on the facilities by the tourism organisations in that area (Newsome, Moore & Dowling, 2012). Big tourism organisations are now focusing on enclave tourism in not only the domestic market but also in the foreign markets. Many foreign tourism organisations have entered in the Malaysian tourism sector which resulted in the domination of these organisations over the domestic organisations. Multinational tourism organisations have lots of assets on their dispersal which cannot be matched by the smaller local tourism organisations of Malaysia. Because of this, the tourism sector is not able to contribute a lot in the economic growth of the country.
Economic weakness of the host country (Malaysia) has become an issue for the government which could not be justified as an ethical activity. To counter the domination of the foreign organisations in the enclave tourism, Malaysia needs to form the tourism policies and strategies which could protect the interest of the country and its people along with the growth of the local tourism organisations. Kuching and Kota Kinabalu are the example of enclave tourism where the contribution of the foreign tourism organisations in the economy of Malaysia is affected a lot. Malaysia could limit the foreign direct investment in the tourism industry so that the local organisations have the power over the foreign organisations when they are working in partnership. This would help Malaysia in having a substantial revenue generation (Blanke & Chiesa, 2009).
Emerging –Costa Rica
Malaysia is known for its natural beauty. When it comes to tourism destinations, Malaysia is a rich country. Cultural and heritage tourism are the main attraction for the tourists in Malaysia.
Costa Rica is focusing on the development of ecotourism to support the environment (Blanke & Chiesa, 2013).
The growth of tourism industry in Malaysia has been contributing a lot in the economy of the country and generating foreign currency.
Costa Rica is known for enclave tourism. Costa Rica has become the first choice of the foreign tourism organisaitons.
Malaysia has been facing the problem of exceeding the carrying capacity because of its capability to attract the tourists from all around the world.
Costa Rica is in the phase of tourism development and still able to accommodate the more tourists.
Tourism in Malaysia has generated many jobs and solved the problem of unemployment in the country to a great extent but it has reached at the stage of saturation (Jaafar & Maideen, 2012) even though the structure and culture and environment is being affected by the high traffic of the foreign tourists
Costa Rica is still valued as a good employment opportunity to the locals (Bhuiyan et al 2011)
While Malaysia is packed by the tourists from all around the world, Costa Rica is yet to reach at the same level. Although, the tourism industry has provided employment to many people in Malaysia, the quality of the job is still not up to the mark which is affecting the development of the country and the people. On the other hand, the integration of the services by the foreign tourism organisations has helped these organisations in increasing their profit. Tourism industry at Malaysia has reached to a point of saturation which seems to be a big challenge for the government of Malaysia to handle. It has become essential that the access to the tourism sites which have high carrying capacity is provided by the government. High resource requirement in the development of these destinations could be addressed by the public-private partnership. This partnership would help Malaysia in the development of a sustainable tourism industry.
Costa Rica is focusing on the development of the tourism industry which has been proving right because of the increase in the tourists in the recent years. Tourism organisations in Costa Rica have been spending a part of their profit in the form of reinvestment in the development of the sites. This has facilitated the control on the pollution as the organisations are using latest technologies to restrict the harmful gases and other waste materials.
The public private partnership in Malaysia has contributed a lot in the development of the tourism industry in the country. This is one sector which has been continuously growing and helping Malaysia in resolving the problems like unemployment. But in order to maintain sustainable tourism in the country, it is necessary that access to untouched sites in the country is provided by the joint efforts of the tourism organisations and the government of the country.
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