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Unit 9 analyse main tourism destination assignment has been constructed over the tourist destinations and different concept of the tourism destinations. Top 5 tourist destinations are taken in account in order to analyse the visitor number, income generation from the tourism, and the contribution of the tourism in the employment of the nations. Different statistical data are undertaken in order to determine the current tourism destination trends and predict the future trends. The appeal of the tourism is defined by taking in the comparison between the appeals of the current leading tourism destinations and the developing destinations. Different characteristics of the tourism destinations have impact over the appeal. These characteristics and their influences are discussed by taking information of different destinations. The popularity of a destination has been affected by different issues. These issues are summarised through this report. Responsible tourism concept and the potential measures taken by different tourism destination in enforcing responsible tourism are analysed.
The main tourism destinations in terms of tourist arrivals and income generation:
France has placed itself in the first position in among the world top tourism destinations. The nation has been generating large amount of revenues from the tourism industry. The travel and tourism of France directly contributed EUR77.1bn in the GDP of nation in 2014. This was 3.6% of total GDP and a raise of 2.6% pa is forecast within 2015 to 2025. It has served 84.7 million foreign visits in 2013. In 2014 France travel and tourism had directly supported 1,132,500 jobs which were counted as 4.1% of the total employment. A rise of 1.7% pa is been estimated in 2025. Apart from the direct contribution France tourism supported 2,714,000 jobs including indirect support. A rise of 1.2% pa in 2025 has been expecting. (wttc.org., 2015)
The destinations are gaining the tourist number through the popularity of cultural tourism destination. The tourism of UK has been directly contributing GBP 61.9bn in the GDP, considering the statistics of 2014. This is 3.5% of the GDP. The forecast has been made on the rise by 3.2% pa from 2015 to 2025. In 2015c it has encountered 36.115 million visits. The foreign visit spent was US$22.072 billion. The domestic tourist is the biggest component of UK tourism. The domestic tourism visit generated 81% of the direct travel and tourism GDP in 2014 compared to the foreign spending which was 19%. UK tourism has been afforded by the leisure tourism rather than the business tourism. The leisure tourism considering both inbound and domestic tourism was 58.5% of the direct GDP, while business travel spending was 41.5% in 2014. 1,892,500 jobs were directly supported by the tourism industry of UK. Total contribution in the employment of UK tourism was 4,228,000, including indirect support. (wttc.org., 2015)
China has been noticeably placing itself in the profitable position in the world tourism ranking. China inbound tourism has witnessed a balanced flow of increase in the end of 2015 compared with 2014. 133.8204 million tourists have been encountered by Chinese tourism. The direct contribution of the travel and tourism of china was CNY 1620.3bn in 2014, 2.6% of the total GDP. Total contribution was CNY 5810.7bn. Chinese travel and tourism has been directly supported 3.0% of the total employment which has been considered as 23,160,000 jobs. It has been expected that a rise of 26,710,000 jobs can be encountered. (wttc.org., 2015)
The Spain tourism directly contributed EUR58.8bn in the GDP of 2014. A rise of 2.3% has been expected from Spain tourism by the end of 2025. Total contribution of this tourism has been 15.2% which is EUR161.0bn. The industry has been directly supporting 870,000 jobs in the employment. It has considered as the 5.0% of the total employment. The rise is expecting of 5.4% in the total employment. (wttc.org., 2015)
The destination has placed itself in the top tourism destination by directly contributing US$ 458 billion in the travel and tourism GDP. It has been supporting 5,302,000 jobs directly in the USA employment. It has been considered as the largest employer sector in the USA. The total investment of the tourism was US$144.3 billion in 2014. (Burns, 2011)
Trends and emerging changes are the driving forces within the travel and tourism industry. The demands of tourism and travel have been rising all over the world. Analysis of these trends and adapting efficient strategies are needed by destination in order to have proper flow of tourist numbers. The trends are impacting opportunities as well as threats for the destinations. By adapting the opportunities advancements within the services or development in the tourism sector are needed to be done. In this regard the future prediction has been essential in case of destinations. (Granas, 2014)
The statistical data of UK destination has been directing the current trends which are impacting over the destination. The increase demands over the leisure tourism have been influencing the services of the travel and tourism sector. The increased spending of leisure tourism rather than the business tourism are driving changes in the tourism product development planning.
In order to retain proper flow of the leisure tourism the government of UK has focusing on the development of eth tourism products and the related subsector like cruise lines, accommodation or hospitality services, airlines, tour operators etc. The increasing demands over the low cost charters in Europe have been impacting over the airlines transport. Analysing this trend the tourism of UK has been focusing on developing more low cost airlines to attract the mass tourism market. Having proper knowledge over the future trends would be beneficial to organise the strategic planning. Potential increase in the sport tourism in Britain or in UK is placing opportunities for the destinations. The government has been organising more sports events in order have more sport lovers. (Granas, 2014)
The trends of the technologies are also impacting over the travel and tourism of UK. Booking through the online methods or having proper knowledge over the destination and its amenities through the online research is placing changes in the management of the tourism. Technological implementation within the services of the travel and tourism and in its subsectors is one of the main trends in tourism of UK. The tourism of UK has been predicted to have growth of an annual rate of 3.8% in 2025. The growth of this sector is faster than the other sectors like manufacturing, construction and retails.
Apart from UK china has been gaining popularity in the tourism sector with the increased tourist number in the outbound tourism. The international expenditure of china is better than other nations while USA is in the second and Germany is in the third. The Chinese market has been reinforcing its lead in the global tourism expenditure. A record of US$1298 billion has been boosted by the Chinese market. Rise in the disposal income, less restriction in the foreign travels and welcoming currency are the factors in the future prediction over emerging markets like china. (e-unwto.org , 2016)
Long term forecast can be depicted in case of emerging economic destinations like Latin America, central and eastern Europe, Asia middle east countries etc. in this regard the arrivals in the emerging economic has been expected to exceed before 2020. The future prediction is considered 43% arrivals in the advance economic destinations and 57% of arrivals in the emerging economic destinations by 2030. (e-unwto.org , 2016)
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The appeal of any tourist destination can be referred to those features for which the visitors chose to have visit to those destination. There are certain features which make any destination appealing to the customers such as:
Comparison of appeal of current leading tourist destination and currently developing tourist destination:
Appeal of the destinations
Currently leading destination (UK)
The destination has been one of the top ten tourist destinations. This destination has positioned itself as the 8th largest destination regarding the tourist arrivals. The tourism has placed different appealing features in the tourism market. The rich cultural features along with the heritage impact are attracting the tourist towards the destination for decades. Diversity within the physical features has been placing it in the leading position within tourism and giving it competitive advantages over other tourism destinations. The destination has been gaining 29.3 million international tourists which have been directly contributing in the nation’s GDP. Domestic tourism has been the biggest component within the travel and tourism of UK. UK tourism has been one of the largest employers as it has generated 1,892,500 jobs in 2014. (wttc.org.,2015) Through destination management planning the UK government has been renovating and improving the destination features. The transportation system has been comparatively improving for all target markets which make improvements in accessing the destination.
Currently developing tourist destination (Cuba)
Cuban tourism has been famous for its ecotourism features and appeals. Diverse flora and fauna, national parks etc are placing sustainable tourism in nature or environmental friendly way. The Cubans have been developing their features in such a way that the small and stoic nation has been able to put itself in the global position. Through the natural beauty the nation has been generating 3 million arrivals per year. The tourism has been one of the main sources for income generation of the nation. There are 7 World Heritage Sites, 257 national monuments, 7 natural biosphere reserve, 253 protected areas, 13 fauna refuge. (Suarez, 2015)
There are different appeals of the destinations considering the features of the destination. These appeals generate the customer motivation in visiting the destination. Different destinations have differences in their appeal, they can be historical, cultural, natural etc. Through manmade features several destinations are also generating appeal within the tourist markets. Different characteristics of a destination can impact over the appeals in negative as well as in positive way.
Considering the Cuban tourism characteristics, the destination has potentialities in the rapid changes as it has been looking to emerge from decades of isolation. In the recent context U.S government has been proceeding to normalise the relationship within two nation major tours and cruise lines are opting to have access to the island. It has been providing a growth infrastructure for handling the influx of American tourists. The Cuban tourism has been potentially increasing the growth rates and resulting in 20% up over the last year. (Clifford, 2016) The appeal of Cuban tourism has been stemming from the unique conditions under which the nation has been developing for last half century. The destination has unique culture and combination traits of the Caribbean culture, heritage along with American culture and elements of communist society around the world. This combination has been attracting the American tourists for centuries within the destination. (Clifford, 2016)
New industry, affordable construction and foreign investments are impacting over the appearance of Havana and the neighbouring cities and villages. The old architecture and the buildings are decaying over the years in Cuba, which are one of the main tourist attractions to the cities. The glory of classical architecture has been faded over the time and new constructions are taking place. (Clifford, 2016) These changes in the characteristics of Cuba are impacting over the tourism preferences.
Old glories of Cuba:
In early 20th century the Cuban tourism has been placing its characteristics for appealing the business needs and desires of the American tourists. The inequalities in the employment sector of Cuban tourism regarding race, gender and class status are impacting heavily over the reputation of the Cuban tourism in the global market. The historical aspects and the Colonial Cuba along with the foundation of racism are allowing the issues of racial, gender and class inequalities in the Cuban tourism. (Parker, 2015).
The U.S restriction on the trade with Cuba in 1960 had put an end to the American travels in the Cuba by creating anomaly which has long confronted technology, geography and globalisation. The increasing growths of the emerging markets like India, china Europe are also attracting the American tourists’ attractions from Cuba. (wharton.upenn.edu., 2015). Apart from these issues in the characteristics of Cuba tourism, the natural; features of Cuba has been considerably attracting the tourism attention towards the destination. The iconic hillocks, valley of Vinales which has been declared as the world heritage site by UNESCO along with other characteristics of Pinar del Rio and National Monuments and parks are attracting the nature lovers to the destination over years.
The tourist destination has been chosen by the tourists reading their popularity. Considering the popularity of the tourist destination different features and related elements of tourism are considered by the tourists. There are different factors and elements which play significant role in the decision making processes in selecting the tourist destination for visiting purpose. Every destination has been considered as the set of the tourism products which are tangible and intangible in nature. The products and the features of tourism along with the popularity are influenced through the external as well as the internal features of destination. The tourism products and services are impacted through the social, local and also the global factors. The influences are visible through the popularity of the destination. (Burns, 2011)
The term responsible tourism has been considered to any form of tourism which can be consumed in a more responsible way. The responsible tourism minimises the negative impacts over the social, cultural, economic and environmental components. The responsible tourism tends to generate greater benefits for the local society and increases the responsibilities towards the host communities. All the principles of social and economic justice are complied with the term of responsible tourism. It also puts forth full respect towards the environments and its culture. The centrality of the welfare of the host communities as well as the local people and their right to act as protagonist in the matter of development of a responsible and sustainable tourism, are recognised by the concept of responsible tourism. The term responsible tourism and its activities actuate to cultivate an optimistic interaction between the local communities, tourist industry and the travellers. (Spenceley, 2012)
In 2008 the European Alliance for Responsible Tourism and Hospitality (EARTH) was created in order to transform and unit the whole Europe nations into “One Europe for responsible tourism”. The principles of the sustainability solidarity and the fairness in the tourism perspectives and activities are enforced through this alliance. The responsible tourism concepts have been implemented by EARTH on all sector of tourism by linking them to the ethics and sustainability. (earth-net.eu, 2016) After the year of 2002 the map of the responsible tourism in Europe has been changed. The responsible tourism values are being applied within the activities of the tour operators mostly in Spain. (Fadini, 2015) Tourist destination Cuba has been considering the responsible tourism by taking proper measures in the marine conservation. The biggest threat to the marine conservation of Cuba has been directing to the current high volume of tourists arrivals. The government has focused on the marine work of conservation by WWF Canada as this project has been directly contributing within the effective management of a network of marineprotected areas or (MPAs). (wwf.panda.org, 2016) Caribbean tourism has been taking initiatives in protecting the natural components. 50 new marine or coastal protected areas are constructed in this project. Main goal behind this project is to protect at least 20% of the coastal environment and nearshore marine lives by 2020 and also to attract 40 million tourists who can donate in this cause. (sustainabletourism.net, 2014) The turtle tourism in Dominican Republic is also a bigger step in the responsible tourism which has been pointing towards saving the turtles and attracting the tourists.
The Jamaica has been talking steps as responsible tourism through improving the coastal towns. The Ministry of Tourism which has been referred as the Tourism Product Development Company has been aiming to place the destination in the top rank while developing the tourism products through increasing the security, implementing the environmental and tourism awareness programmes in the schools and communities, etc. (sustainabletourism.net, 2014)
The foundation Save Elephants of Thailand has been aiming towards the preservation of the wild life of Thailand. Costa Rica has been one of the world’s top ecotourism destinations. ACTUAR organisation has been promoting the social, environmental, cultural and economical sustainability of Costa Rica tourism which is based on the rural tourism. (sumak-travel.org, 2016)
The report has been developed by considering the tourism destinations around the world. Through the report different activities which are associated with the tourism has been analysed with research. The income generation of tourism along with its employment capabilities are dependent on the tourist arrivals in the destination. The tourist arrivals are associated with the attractions and different features of the tourism destination. These are considered as the appeal of the tourism destinations. By advancing these appeals the tourism destinations are able to generate more revenues and expenditure from tourism. the emerging economic destinations are having more growth through placing different and unique features than the westerns advanced destinations. different destinations and analysed such as Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Costa Rica, Thailand, Egypt along with their sustainable activities in the tourism. Through the sustainable activities the destinations are enforcing responsibilities within the tourism growth and sector.
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Clifford, A. (2016). Tourism in Cuba. [online available at:]. https://www.tcsworldtravel.com/blog/tourism-in-cuba-5-ways-the-experience-is-about-to-change . (assessed on 7/7/16)
earth-net.eu.(2016). What is the sense of the network. [online available at:]. https://earth-net.eu/about/ . (assessed on 7/7/16)
Estevez, D. (2015). Mexico’s Two biggest challenges. [online available at:]. http://www.forbes.com/sites/doliaestevez/2015/04/21/mexicos-two-biggest-challenges-corruption-and-the-rule-of-law/#4d1542e0230e . (assessed on 7/7/16)
e-unwto.org. (2016).UNWTO tourism highlights. [online available at:]. http://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284416226 . (assessed on 7/7/16)
Fadini,S. (2015). Responsible tourism in Europe and Accommodation. [online available at:]. https://wp.nyu.edu/cts2015/wp-content/uploads/sites/657/2015/06/Fadini.pdf . (assessed on 7/7/16)
Granas, B. (2014). Tourism destination development. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Kozak, M. (2010). Managing and Marketing Tourist destinations. Routledge
Labelle, R.M. (2014). Costa Rica’s current political problems. [online available at:]. http://sites.psu.edu/comm410globetrotters/2014/12/01/costa-ricas-current-political-problems/ . (assessed on 7/7/16)
Parker, A.M. (2015). Race and Inequality in Cuban Tourism During the 21st century.[online available at:]. http://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1231&context=etd . (assessed on 7/7/16)
Spenceley, A. (2012). Responsible tourism. Earthscan
Suarez, L.G. (2015). The appeal of the Cuban ecotourism. [online available at:]. http://en.granma.cu/tourism/2015-11-12/the-appeal-of-cuban-ecotourism. (assessed on 7/7/16)