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Unit 7 Assignment on Sustainable Tourism Development
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 7 Sustainable Tourism Development
Sustainability refers to the use of the resources without an impact on its capability to serve the future generations. The concept of sustainability in tourism is gaining significance in order to limit bad impacts of the tourist on the culture, economy and the environment of the destination. Here the destination taken for the study of the sustainable tourism understanding is Philippines. Thus through the understanding of the tourism activities and their impact on the environment and society, the tourism aims to build up only the positive impacts on the local people(Gossling et al, 2009).
Philippines is located at north to Indonesia and east to Malay peninsula and is rich in tropical rainforests, mountains and the volcano eruptions. It is the most popular destination in the south East Asia and is home to many culture and religion diversities. Tourism is one of the most important contributors to the GDP along with having impacts on life of people in society (Cohen et al, 2014). The trend of tourist in this region is towards the cultural and heritage of the local Filipinos and the trend is continuing on rise.
The discussion aims to discuss the various approaches to planning and development of the sustainability with respect to the Filipinos case study. Also it aims to discuss the various hurdles and issues in planning for the sustainable practices in the tourism along with laying focus on the benefits for the local community, environment and the economy at large (Mawforth et al, 2012).
Lo1 Understand The Rationale Of Planning In Tourism Industry
1.1 How The Stakeholders Benefit From Planning Of Tourism Developments
Stakeholders are the individuals, groups or the organizations that have any interest or are impacted by the operations of a particular entity. In case of tourism industry, the stakeholders includes all those organization, individuals, businesses, community, etc who are impacted by the tourist activities or have an impact on the tourism activities in the destination or more precisely Philippines (Cohen et al, 2014). Planning is related to the setting up of strategies for the attainment of the desired goals in the area taking in to account the various social, economic, environmental and technological factors. Planning can benefit the various stakeholders in the tourism as in case of Philippines as through developing an analysis and understanding of various factors that impact the economy, society and the environment of the region.
In Philippines it helps in creation of additional revenues and job opportunities for people in society. Also planning of the tourism developments as laying down the infrastructures and use of the land can be based on attainment of certain goals as attaining sustainability for the Philippines Government (Larsen et al, 2013). Planning will allow proper decision making as to be based on the pre set policies and guidelines thus benefitting the public and tourists through better and more organized development of the industry in the region. Through planning for the tourism activities, the local businesses, society and community will be benefitted through generation of profits along with positive impacts on economy. Also planning will help in optimum utilization of the resources thus benefitting the society at Philippines and nature. Also this will help in generation of tourist satisfaction thus attracting more tourists and revenues in the region.
1.2 Advantages And Disadvanages Of Public/Private Sector Tourism Planning Partnerships
The advantages of the participation of both the sectors in the planning of tourism activities at Philippines include:
- This partnership will help in overcoming of the finance shortages in the Philippines tourism development
- Government will be able to keep effective check on the short term interest of the business from exploiting resources (Larsen et al, 2013)
- Government regulations and policies can help in raising funds for the private firms in the industry in Philippines in order to gain profits along with sustainable development
- Productivity in Philippines tourism can increase due to PPP and the cooperation along with professionalism (Cohen et al, 2014)
- This helps in prevention of the exploitation of the resources along with proper usage of the non renewable resources.
- This also help in effective analysis of the statistical data through the PPP in the tourism industry
- Also this help in creation of awareness and collaboration among public and private sectors for gaining better sustainable operations in tourism along with conservation of cultural and heritage at Philippines which are main attraction to the tourist from around the world.
The disadvantages of PPP may be as follows:
- Harming to the nature due to over utilization of resources
- As the PPP is a long term contract hence it may create chaos if the business partners are not clear about future plans of the other partner
- The PPP in the tourist destinations often lack in good quality standards for both the tourist and the local people thus it is not a win-win strategy (Gossling et al, 2009)
Lo 2 Understand The Different Apporaches To Tourism Planning And Development
2.1 Features Of Tourism Development Planning At Different Levels
The success of the tourism in the Philippines will be dependent on the development planning and the main goal is to attain sustainable operations in the area in order to generate long term profits and revenues along with minimization of the negative impacts on the culture, heritage and the diversity of the area (Malhado et al, 2014). The various levels of planning involve:
- International level- the development planning in tourism at Philippines is done at broader level in order to continue attracting the tourist from various countries across the globe along with making them feel comfortable and pleased to visit Philippines now and again (Aas et al, 20008).
- National level- the national coordination among the institutions in tourism development planning is required for the formulation of the policies and the standards for working of organizations and institutions in tourism in Philippines. This planning involve the way of treatment to the tourists visiting Philippines as including non discriminatory behaviors, etc
- Facility level- this planning includes the development of the necessary facilities in order to promote the tourism in the region with due concern to sustainability incorporation, thus limiting negative impacts of the tourism activities at Philippines (Pizam, 2008).
2.2 Significance Of Interactive Planning Systems And Processes
There are various kinds of planning as inactive, interactive, proactive and reactive planning. The interactive planning is laying focus on the design of the present activities in order to create a better future. In terms of the Philippines tourism, the interactive planning aims to yield a better future for Philippines tourism and nation as a whole through placing emphasis on the efficient design of the infrastructure, systems and facilities (Cohen et al, 2014). The interactive planning is a continuing process with the involvement of all the stakeholders in the decision makingin order to enter in to a better future as through attainment of the sustainable tourism activities at Philippines. Thus the interactive systems in planning of the tourism activities are very important as it involve tourist coming from across the globe thus participation of all the institutions and other stakeholders help in generation of comfort and safety for tourists while also limiting negative impacts on host nation through policy formulation. Also interactive planning helps Philippines helps in design of services through segmentation of the markets and effective analysis of the market needs (Larsen et al, 2013).
2.3 Different Methods Available To Measure Tourist Impacts
The tourism has various effects on any region and these impacts in case of Philippines could be measured as below:
- Environmental measures-many of the countries spend on assessment of environment impact as a result of tourism activities including Philippines in order to determine any disturbances in ecology as rise of green house gases emissions in Philippines, pollution as increased carbon emissions, land erosion, depletion of natural resources, water and soil pollution, etc (Cohen et al, 2014)
- Social measures- this measurement is relatively qualitative and quite subjective in nature and is analyzed by observing the impact on the self or Philippines art forms, culture, diversity and language as a result of the tourism interventions. Also the change in the culture of Philippines through tourism activities can be examined and studied as Philippines is involved in creation of specially designed places for Taiwanese and Korean tourists thus impacting own culture (Reae, 2007).
- Economic measures- this is very crucial consideration for any country like Philippines and is determined in terms of the employment creation as presently at 8 percent in Philippines, contribution of tourism to GDP as 7% in Philippines, benefits in taxes, creation of business opportunities etc and the tourism impacts the economy boosting through gaining valuable foreign exchanges (Brohman, 2010).
Lo3 Understand The Need For Planning Of Sustainable Tourism
3.1 Concept Of Sustainability In Tourism Development
The concept of sustainability is that places emphasis on the conservation of the resources to be available for the future generation as in this case the culture, mountains, scenic beauty, rainforest, biodiversity, environment, etc of the Philippines through attaining sustainability in tourism. Thus the planning for sustainable tourism at Philippines is needed in order to limit the negative influences on the environment of the region along with conserving biodiversity and the tropical rainforests (Aas et al, 2008). Also management of waste and administration of the environmental management systems including resources management is a key concern in sustainable tourism planning. The sustainable tourism in Philippines could also help in preserving the culture and the rich heritage which is main attraction to tourists from around the world. Sustainable tourism planning in Philippines will also aim to attain economic sustainability as through creation of jobs, continuous revenues streams, increasing foreign exchanges flow, etc (Malhado et al, 2014).
3.2 Factors That Prevent Sustainable Tourism Development
There are factors that prevent the effective operation of the sustainable tourism in the Philippines as:
- Lack of local participation- the local people at Philippines are involved in tourism only as suppliers or employees, etc and they are not involved in the planning of sustainable tourism as under stakeholder theory which impact sustainability development (Cohen et al, 2014).
- Natural environment changes- the tourism in the Philippines has created negative impacts like erosion of beaches, depletion and degrading of resources, pollution, etc along with impacts on the climate. This is preventing the sustainable tourism development at Philippines (Gossling et al, 2009).
- Social impacts- though tourism has brought cultural pride among Philippines society but the locals have to accommodate immigrants and shift livelihoods to foster development of sustainable tourism infrastructure which is causing resentment in locals at Philippines (Hoyer, 2010). Also prostitution had been risen due to tourism activities in Philippines along with specially designed establishments fro Korean and Taiwan tourists, which has impacted local culture and heritage.
Factors Hindering Sustainable Tourism Developmnet At Philippines
3.3 Different Stages In Planning For Sustainability
The local or the Philippines government plays major role in the formulation of the policies for the development of such activities or sustainability in the region and this is the initial stage in planning for sustainable tourism as through identifying development of facilities and infrastructure for tourists along with planning for use of resources and the management of tourist relationships (Pizam, 2009). Tourism operators and the organizations are the next stage which lay guidelines and policies based on the government policies in order to plan the way tourist will be offered various benefits as packages, stay, etc in order to meet their needs along with making them feel comfortable and fostering recurring relationships (Raea, 2007). The tourism businesses are also contributing to the sustainability as through utilization of resources and being helpful in limiting adverse impacts of the tourists on the community and environment (Peters et al, 2010).
Leaflet For Government
Lo4 Understand The Current Issues Related To Tourism Development
4.1 Resolving Conflict Of Interests To Ensure Future Well Being Of A Tourist Destination
Conflict arises as different stakeholders may have different and conflicting interests sometimes (Hoyer, 2010). The various stakeholders in the Philippines tourism may have various interests as the local government may be interested in the conservation of the natural resources along with its proper distribution among various sectors while the local businesses may aim to maximize the profits through extensive utilization of the resources in order to attract tourists. All the stakeholders must be involved in planning and development of the sustainable tourism activities in Philippines to make them understand the benefits of sustainable development and need for a better future through investing in sustainability practices. The resolution of the conflicts among the stakeholders is necessary to allow long term benefits and the benefits for all the stakeholders including society as through rise in living standards, better and cleaner environment, preservation of cultural and heritage, etc; businesses and individuals as through rise in income, finances and employment opportunities and to the whole economy as through gaining valuable foreign exchange thus enhancing competitiveness of Philippines (Malhado et al, 2014).
4.2 Implications Of Balancing Supply And Demand
Demand is the amount of the product or services that are required by the customer to fulfill their needs while the supply is related to the availability of the products or services in the markets. Demand in case of tourism at Philippines is the number of tourist who wishes to travel to Philippines from across the world in order to meet their needs and by paying certain price as for the package (Gossling et al, 2009). Currently in Philippines, the tourism demand had been increasing for last few years and the contribution to the economy is around 7 percent along with around 8 percent contribution to employment creation in the country. However the demand is dependent on the prices, seasonality, competition in the tourism markets, etc. The supply is the goods, facilities and services that are available to the tourist visiting Philippines at any point of time. Thus the supply includes the development of the infrastructure facilities for the tourists along with the utilization of the resources which may be natural or manmade to produce goods and services for tourist. If the supply exceeds demands then Philippines will be at loss by investing in infrastructure, food, transportation, etc for tourist without gaining much returns on investments while if the demand exceeds the tourist will return empty handed or will be facing lack of facilities and comfort thus leading to generation of negative image of Philippines tourism and hampers the image along with low future demands due to quality fails. Balancing of demand and supply are utmost important concern for Philippines (Scheyvens, 2009).
4.3 Moral And Ethical Issues Of Enclave Tourism
The planning and location of the tourist activities in small areas along with the provision of the facilities in one place such as on the cruise liners or the resorts is enclave toursim, the guests are provided with all the facilities including food, foreign exchange, pool, bar, scuba diving, laundry, etc which impact the local businesses and all the more this revenues will not stay in the host country (Cohen et al, 2014). Thus ethical issues in the enclave tourism developments in case of Philippines include lack of business opportunities generation for the locals and the host country people will not be benefitted positively due to draining of the money spent by the tourists to other country while the negative impacts on the business environment and the economy remain in the host country with lack of the returns on money spent in the infrastructure developments for the tourists. Other moral and ethical issues in the enclave tourism in Philippines include the rise of the prostitution activities in Philippines and also this has impacted the local culture along with causing rise in violence due to rising criminal activities in Philippines (Brohman, 2010). The rise of the sexually transmitted issues in the region has been an important concern about the development of the enclave tourism activities in the Philippines. The various moral and ethical issues are posed in the development of the enclave tourism activities and the resentment among the local people along with the violence and crime continue to rise in Philippines.
Lo 5 Understand The Socio Cultural, Environmental And Economic Impacts Of Tourism In Developing Countries And Emerging Destinations
5.1 Issues Associated With Tourism Development
The various issues associated with the development of the tourism activities in developing nation and emerging destination can be discussed as below:
Issues And Impacts
The tourism development leads to rise in the pollution along with causing the land erosion and water pollution. But the developing nations are working on the development of sustainability in order to control effects on the climate and the environment through rising tourism activities.
Emerging destinations are less aware and working on the development of sustainability in tourism in order to limit the negative impacts on the climate and the environment through rising tourism activities. This makes it less attractive to tourist (Cohen et al, 2014).
Rise in violence and criminal activities due to the tourism developments but the government and the control mechanism are effective in controlling the situation (Hoyer, 2010).
Effective control over terrorism as in Nepal thus it is a safer destination for tourists
Due to high level of education services, local people are well conversant at English in Nepal and other developing nations thus helping tourists (Cohen et al, 2014).
The signboards on the road are written in regional along with English language making it easy for tourists.
Also the warm and welcoming society at Nepal is pleasing the tourist to visit (Gossling et al, 2009).
Rise in violence, prostitution and other criminal activities due to the tourism developments are witnessed in emerging destinations as Philippines (Scheyvens, 2009).
High number of terror attacks and activities at Philippines poses threats to the tourists and the local people thus making it an unsafe place for tourists.
Due to low levels of education, the people use the regional languages and this makes it difficult for the tourists.
Philippines is known for its rich culture, heritage, temples and scenic beauty which helps in attracting tourists.
The signboards on the road are not available in most parts and many use the local languages thus irritating tourists.
The tourism development helps in generation of the employment for many people in the developing nation along with rise in incomes and the per capita income (Gosslings et al, 2010).
High level of the development and the facilities along with the infrastructure in the developing countries (like India) is helpful in attracting the tourists. The good and developed roads were helpful in providing ease to tourist.
High support of the partners like IMF, OECD, etc which help in financing the development in the nation and thus finance is not an issue in tourism development as in India (Peeters et al, 2010).
Helps in generation of revenues and employment for the local people but the enclave tourism activities allow lessening of the benefits to the local people and increased tourist spending drains to outside countries.
The low level of the infrastructure facilities and the development makes it a less valued option for the tourists. As the traffic issues persist due to narrow roads and lack of infrastructure developments, makes it problematic for tourists (Malhado et al, 2014).
As the tourism is still in emerging stages thus there are certain problems regarding financing of the infrastructure developments.
The development of a tourism destination can have various stages as shown below:
- Exploration stage is when tourism spot is discovered
- Involvement involves less number of business established to support tourism activities
- Development is when the well set tourist industry is defined at destination
- Consolidation is when the industry becomes a well known contributor to the economy and society
- Stagnation Tourism growth declines as the carrying capacity is reached and there are no more new spots to be developed and pollution prevails (Gossling et al, 2009)
(Cohen et al (2014) Retrieved on 30 Oct, 2016)
- Decline happens as the tourists choose other destinations to visit.
5.2 Evaluate And Recommend Future Development Of Tourism In These Destinations
Future Tourism Development At Philippines
The future development of the tourism in the emerging destination Philippines could be helped by the initiatives of the government including policy formulation in tourism thus leading to:
- Better road infrastructure and connectivity
- Good transportation facilities along with the signboards to help tourist (Cohen et al, 2014)
- Development of better sanitation conditions
- Control of the green house gases emissions and pollution
- Restructuring of the hotels and resorts
- Taking initiative and creating awareness to preserve the cultural and rich heritage
- Planning sustainability and creating a better image in minds of tourist (Pizam et al, 2009)
Future Tourism Development At Nepal
In case of the developing nations like Nepal, the government along with partners like OECD, IMF, etc must plan for sustainability in tourism and also look for the following concerns as:
- Control of pollution including land, water and air
- Better protection of tourists
- Government appointed guide for tourists (Gossling et al, 2009)
- High Prices of the goods for tourist must be checked
- Stringent rules to reduce crime like pick pocketing
Sustainability is the need of the hour not only in case of the tourism industry in order to maintain the nature and the environment while making a control on the negative impacts of the activities on the nature, ecology, community, culture and society (Cohen et al, 2014). As discussed in case of Philippines, the government and the community must participate in order to manage the various social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of the tourism industry, the balancing of the demand and supply is particularly necessary in planning for sustainability(Scheyvens, 2009). The emerging nations as Nepal are compared to the characteristics of Philippines in order to understand the tourism characteristics and developments. The future of tourism in Philippines will depend on the effective planning and policy formulation of the government in order to limit crime, development of infrastructure, attaining pollution control, managing us of natural resources and preservation of cultural heritage,
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