Delivery in day(s): 5
Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Structure and Culture Assignment
Organisational behaviour refers to the study of an individual’s behaviour within the organisation. It includes many things-
- Tasks to be undertaken
- Technology involved and methods of working
- Behaviour of the people
- Management process
There are internal and external forces that affect their behaviour. These factors affect the performance of an individual because he works for an organisation and is connected with the organisation. Internal sources are the structure of the organisation, values, rules, regulation etc. and external sources involved the external activities and events that affect individual’s job performance and behaviour.(Osborne, 2008)
It is necessary to maintain interrelationships between management practice and behaviour in the organisation. It is important to provide trainings to the employees of the organisation as per the requirement. Employee satisfaction affects the job performance and there should be such practices that motivate the employee. There are different approaches that are used for maintaining proper organisational behaviour in the organisation (Karthick, 2010).
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation of your choice. Show differences and similarities in these two organisations.
CAPCO is an organisation that provides consultancy, technology and managed service solutions to financial services industry. Its organisational structure has designed as per the needs of its operations. An organisation selects its structure according to the size, purpose, needs and tasks to be performed. Each type of structure has some benefits and some deficiencies so structure should be chosen in a way that can fulfil the requirement of the organisation. Structure of an organisation defines the pattern of the operations within the organisation(Robbins, 2007).
CAPCO has a team driven flat structure which has many layers. It has a short hierarchy from top to bottom that reflects that communication is very strong in this organisation i.e. very effective and clear. Same structure has been seen in project based organisations where teams are created for specific projects. Team includes people that possess different employability skills that are required to achieve the objective.
Its organisational structure focuses on innovation because there is integrity and an open work culture which is open for all. It emphasizes on employee motivation and care for employees by providing rewards, trainings, learning, guidance which helps them in performing in a much better way. There is a flexible environment in CAPCO. They believe in risk taking and creativity of employees (Coffey, 2010). Its employees possess the capability of facing difficult challenges as they are involved in each function of the organisation and they have a clear vision.
Cadbury has an open work culture as all the employees work together in a group. Employees are given a lot of importance as they are involved in decision making process by top level management. It is an organisation involves in producing different varieties of chocolates like milk chocolates, fruit and nuts chocolates etc. It is a successful business who has a lot of customers. Cadbury has a hierarchical structure which shows the level of employees. Managing Director is responsible for giving instructions to subordinates in this organisation. Employees focus on the motives and objectives of the organisation and do all the tasks accordingly.
Organisational structure and culture are very much related to each other in this organisation as they both moves in the same direction as per the characteristics of the organisation. It uses many strategies to motivate the employees(Sedgwick, 2007).
1.2 Explain how the relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.
Organisational structure and culture creates an impact on the performance of business as an employee has to work as per the culture and structure adopted by the organisation. Every organisation should have a structure that can make their employees more comfortable. CAPCO has a small organisational structure and that is the reason, there is a close bonding between the employees and the management. Every employee takes part in decision making process as management treat them in an equal way and give them importance. This creates a sense of belongingness within the employees. Teams in CAPCO are created as per the requirement of the project. Once the project gets completed, the employee moves to another team and it creates a different organisational structure(Tracy, 2014).
Its organisational structure is motivated as employees are treated as an important resource. They can freely ask any question and suggest anything for the benefit of CAPCO. It believes in team building as team consists of many people with different skills that can make the project more effective(Halsall, 2015). Employees of CAPCO focus on different aspects at a single time and as a result there are less chances of mistake and it gives many opportunities to the employees whenever there are more potential in the market. Organisational structure mainly describes the working manner of an organisation and how authorities and responsibilities are delegated from superior’s to subordinates. It shows the communication hierarchy in the organisation(Coffey, 2010).
Organisation culture describes the way of working and the relationship in the organisation. It also effects on the employees working efficiency. In CAPCO all the superiors are very much familiar with the employees and due to this all the employees easily understand the instructions of the superiors that lead in an effective communication. Proper communication creates a better control in the organisation.
A strong organisational culture helps in reducing employee turnover as they feel like as valuable resource for the organisation. It attracts high level of talent. High level talent mostly like to enter in an organisation that has opportunities for advancement and where they can show their talent. CAPCO believes in providing quality services to the clients that can satisfy their expectations(Osborne, 2008).
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO or in any other organisation of your choice.
There are many factors that influence individual behaviour in CAPCO as every individual has his separate entity and nature that makes him separate from all the other employees of the organisation. Some of the factors are-
- Abilities- It includes the traits of an individual that a person learns from the environment as well as those gifted by the God. The traits are classified in three parts-
- Intellectual abilities- It refers to intelligence, verbal reasoning abilities and memory of an individual.
- Physical abilities- It means physical strength and stamina of an individual.
- Self- awareness abilities- It is related with the thinking and feeling of a person in reference to any task.
Hence, there are some psychological, physical and self-assurance traits of a person that defines the behaviour of a person in his personal and social life:
- Gender- It is proved that men and women stand equal in terms of any job performance but still society does not treat them equally. Some factors affect manager’s perception in allocation and evaluation of work, when it comes to gender. Absenteeism is an area where differences are found as women is considered as a primary caretaker for children.
- Race and Culture- A group of people sharing similar traits are considered as race. It is considered as a base to define person according to different traits. Culture is defined as ideas, customs and traditions followed by a group of people. Race and culture plays an important role in influencing both the society as well as workplace. Factors that influence individual’s behaviour are the stereotypes which are assumed as per the race and culture. As per today’s modernize work culture, the management should learn different cultures so that they can easily adopt them(Robbins, 2007).
- Perception- Perception refers to a process in which people converts impressions of senses into a coherent and a unified view of the people around them. It includes interpretation of something that we hear or see in our mind and use it to judge any situation, person or a group. It can be related to any sound, speech, touch, taste etc.
- Attribution- It refers to observing behaviour of people and it’s caused based on the personality of an individual. It has three criteria and they are-
- Consensus- Same reaction of people in reference to a particular situation.
- Distinctiveness- The extent to which behaviour of a person can be associated to a particular situation.
- Consistency- It refers to the frequency of a particular behaviour.
- Attitude- It is a reaction or response of a person’s entire cognitive process over a time period. It means how a person takes the things i.e. in a positive way or negative way.
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice.
CAPCO uses different leadership styles as per the situation and circumstances. It is not necessary for every organisation to use every leadership style. They can choose one or more than one style according to their suitability.
There is many leadership styles and they are-
- The pacesetting leader- This leader never does compromises and always expects the best outcomes. He believes in self- direction. This approach works when there is a skilled and motivated team of workers. This style focuses on innovation and leader motivates employees to use innovative practices(Tracy, 2014).
- The authoritative leader- This style mainly focuses on the goals, objectives and vision that results in achievement of goal. It is suitable for a situation when team needs new vision due to changing circumstances or when proper guidance is not needed (Osborne, 2008).
- The affiliative leader- This leader emphasize on creating a good relationship within the organisation that results in motivation of employees. This style helps at stressful situation and whenever any team members are suffering from any problem. It is not suitable for a situation when members do not have the eagerness for learning something new or they are not ready to accept changes.
- The coaching leader- This style is adopted for making employees more comfortable for upcoming challenges. In this approach, leader focuses on all of his team members for developing their strength and makes them ready for achieving goal.
- The coercive leader- In this style, leader expects immediate reactions. It is suitable whenever there is any emergency situation, or a situation of crisis. This approach is adopted when everything else gets failed. It promotes flexibility in the organisation(Coffey, 2010).
- The democratic leader- This style encourages participation. A democratic leader tries to build consensus with the help of more participation. This style is suitable to a situation when leader wants to delegate responsibilities to the team members related to decision making . It helps the team members at the time of confusion by providing them new ideas. It is not suitable at the time of emergency.
Cadbury’s management style is democratic. They believe in working in a team. Managers consider the ideas of employees and take their suggestions at the time of decision making. This style is used in both small and large groups. Employees are motivated in the organisation, and have a power of decision making which results in involvement of them in business activities (Karthick, 2010).
2.2 Explain how organisational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management.
Organisational theory refers to the study of organisation for understanding its nature and behaviour It suggests the ways by which an organisation is capable of facing rapid changes. There are different organisational theories in contrast to different situations and they are-
- Bureaucratic approach- This approach is related with the structure and characteristics of an organisation. An organisation is considered as a close system as per this approach. Principles are created according to the experiences of manager under this approach. Education programs and trainings are provided to the employees for developing their skills those results in increasing efficiency of them.(Robbins, 2007)
- Administrative approach- It includes 5 functions of management which are mentioned by Henry Fayol. They are planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. Planning is necessary before the implementation of a plan. Implementation has been done by providing proper commands so that activities have been done in a coordinated way. All the activities must be in control to achieve objectives.(Sedgwick, 2007)
- Scientific approach- Scientific approach works on human resources and makes them understand that what organisation expects from them. It suggests the ways by which the work has been done in the effective and efficient way. It includes betterment of tools and activities that results in the best way of doing a job.
- Human relation approach- This approach focuses on social and psychological needs of the employees. People want to be a part of a team that facilitates growth and development. Special attention should be given to the employees that encourage participation of them.(Osborne, 2008)
- Systems approach- According to this approach, an organisation is a complex structure which includes elements, inputs and outputs that are interconnected. All the elements affect each other. This approach provides a proper framework that identifies the problems and suggests ways to resolve it.(Sedgwick, 2007)
- Contingency approach- According to this approach, the way of doing a task in the best way is not defined. It is according to the situation and circumstances. Because of this, it is essential to know about the internal and external factors. Management theories and principles are applicable for this approach.
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your Chosen organisation.
CAPCO uses classical approach of management which is related to development of individual’s skills that is based on practical aspects so proper selection and training of the worker has been done. This helps the management to cooperate with workers so that all the tasks can be done according to the principles(Coffey, 2010).
There are many situations like conflicts, delegation of responsibilities, decision making, CAPCO uses different classical approaches according to the situation. It believes in working together in a team because in this situation scientific approach is appropriate. All the members of group knows that what are the tasks they need to do, what are the things expected from them and the way in which they need to do the tasks. This approach describes the effective utilisation of resources. All the principles are maintained in the organisation and al the tasks are done as per the principles(Tracy, 2014).
Five principles are given by Henry Fayol for getting the task done in the best way so that commands can flow in the right direction. CAPCO uses administrative approach for the betterment of the society by providing them best products and services. As per Bureaucratic approach, CAPCO provides best training and development facilities to its employees so that their efficiency can be increased(Robbins, 2007).
The management approach used by Tesco is democratic approach which is also called as participant leadership. In this organisation employees suggestions are considered in the decision making process. It focuses on employee’s motivation and due to this; it provides good services to their customers. There is a leader for handling every organisational process. The management delegates responsibilities to all employees and there is clarity in the organisation. The managers are responsible for daily and weekly audits to identify and resolve issues in the organisation and also perform routine operations.
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change.
Leadership helps the organisation in managing the workforce as well as the work in a proper manner. With the help of leadership organisation could ensure that the objectives that are planned for future can be managed. Every organisation should have a good leader as a good leader could lead the people in a direction which can help the organisation in attaining its targeted objectives and goals. A wise and good leader is one who uses appropriate leadership styles (Halsall, 2015). Applying the leadership styles will help in motivating employees to work more hard and staying with the organisation. Change is a term which is not liked by many of the people working at the workplace. Reason behind this is either people do not want to come out from their comfort zone or they have the fear of losing their jobs due to change. Therefore, in such case leader should motivate the employees so that they can prepare themselves for the change and accept the change that organisation wants to implement in work process. In such case leader will have to work on various leadership styles with the effect of which people working at the workplace could get motivated. Therefore, certain leadership styles are as follows:
- Participative Leadership Style: Participative leadership style is the style in which people working in the organisation are encouraged to participate in various activities and various development plans. In this leadership style leader motivates the people to participate in each and every activities of organisation so that people could refine their skills and abilities (Ammersley, 2014; 2013).
- Delegative Leadership Style: Another leadership style is delegative, it is a leadership style in which duties and responsibilities are delegated on the employees by the management. This is a style used by the leaders so as to help the employees understanding their responsibilities towards the organisation. Delegating authority on the employees helps in motivating them and building confidence of processing out the work with quality. This is an effective leadership style as with the help of this style people could work more efficiently and more responsibly.
- Free Rein Style: Free rein style, also known as Laissez-Faire, is a leadership style in which people working in the organisation are given freedom of taking decisions regarding the work process (GAKI, et. al., 2013). This style is used by the leaders to build trust among the employees regarding the organisation in which they are working. Free rein style helps in motivating the employees working and helps in bringing new and innovative ideas to the workplace.
3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories (e.g. Maslow’s and Herzberg theories) within organisational setting.
One of the most important aspects attached with the organisational process is motivation. An organisation could attain all its objectives if its employees are motivated. Motivation is the factor which builds positive vibes within the environment of organisation and helps in attaining targeted objectives and goals. CAPCO should ensure that employees working in it should remain motivated and should work on the verge to help organisation in attaining its objectives and targets. CAPCO should work on two motivation theories which will help it in making effective strategies which in turn could lead to motivate the employees working in it. Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg theory of motivation are the two theories which will help in providing direction to the organisation and will help in motivating the employees working at the workplace. Comparing both the theories will help in developing better understanding with why these theories need to be applied in the workplace by CAPCO (FERREIRA, et. al., 2013).
Maslow’s theory of motivation suggests that each and every individual working in the organisation has several needs. He suggest that people working in the organisation never gets satisfied with the needs they attain and after fulfilling each need they comes at different level of the need and gets motivated to attain that particular need. Maslow has bifurcated the needs in a hierarchy and explains how people get motivated to fulfil their needs and wants.
In the above picture each and every stage of the needs of people could be seen. It is necessary that CAPCO should understand all the stages. Preparing strategies according to these stages will help in making effective strategies to motivate the employees working at the workplace. Understanding each and every stage of needs and fulfilling them accordingly will help in motivating the employees with the effect of which they will prefer to work more hard and will help the organisation in attaining its targeted objectives.
Coming on the Herzberg theory of motivation which is also known as two factor theory. According to Herzberg people working in the organisation gets motivated if their hygiene factors are fulfilled.According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are pay or salary of the employees, policies of the company in relation with the benefits of people, fringe benefits provided by the company to its employees, physical working conditions, status of the employees, interpersonal relation of the employees, job security provided by the company (Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen, et. al., 2015). These are some of the hygiene factors on which motivation of the employees are dependent. According to Herzberg, people working in the organisation can get motivated if these small things could get fulfilled, they will work hard for the organisation and will ensure that organisation could attain its targeted goals and objectives.
Having a brief discussion of both the theories it could be concluded that CAPCO should work on both the theories of motivation (Ammersley, 2014). It should firstly focus on the Herzberg theory of motivation and try to fulfil the hygiene factors so that employees could build trust with the organisation. After fulfilling the hygiene factors then CAPCO should work on Maslow’s theory and should make the strategies to fulfil their needs accordingly which will help the employees in remaining motivated and will help in reducing employee turnover.
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace.
Mangers of the organisation play a very vital role in managing the people as well as work process. They play very crucial role as they have to manage the work as well as the people processing that work. Therefore, somewhere it becomes their responsibility to keep balance between the employees and the work they are processing in the organisation. Employee turnover is one of the most concerning factor for manager (Tracy, 2014). It is necessary that a developing manager should make the strategies which could help in reducing employee turnover ratio. One of the best strategies is to motivate the employees. Managers will have to understand the importance of motivation at the workplace so that they could work on motivating the employees and could reduce employee turnover ratio.
By motivating the employees managers will be able to manage the work process of the organisation in proper manner. To motivate the employees manager should gain information related with Maslow’s theory and should try to fulfil the needs and wants of the people. Doing so will help in motivating the employees. To gain the information related to employees’ managers could hold discussions with the employees (Halsall, 2015). Discussions with the employees will help in gaining information related with their needs and wants and issues they are facing at the workplace. Understanding all the aspects related with the employees managers will be able to provide proper solution which will motivate the employees which will help the employees focus on the work process. Providing appraisals to the employees will also help in motivating them.
Therefore, indulging in such kind of activity will help managers to motivate the employees which will help in attaining organisational goals and objectives.
4.1 Explain the nature of the groups and group behaviour within CAPCO on your chosen organisation.
In CAPCO different groups are formed so that they can process out the work more effectively and could help the organisation in attaining its objectives. It is necessary that different groups should be formed and each group should be formed on the basis of the nature and behaviour of the people at workplace. Doing so will help in forming effective groups which can process out the work effectively. Further discussion in relation with the nature of groups will help in developing better understanding with groups and group behaviour in CAPCO (Ammersley, 2014; 2013).
There are several groups that are formed in CAPCO according to their nature, these groups are:
Normative group is a group in CAPCO that focuses on the special tasks and in meantime also supervise the groups. This group is formed by the organisation so that people could process out the special activities with more quality and within the time prescribed to them.
Another group is formed on the basis of the critical thinking. In this group CAPCO has placed the people who have the skills of critical thinking. These people are placed in research and development team and they ensure that some or the other new and innovative ideas should be presented at the workplace. Critical thinkers provide lean ideas to the organisation which helps in making the work process more simple and easy.
There is an internal nature of group which works on all the internal processing of the organisation (Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen, et. al., 2015). People of this group process out operation work and helps the organisation in meeting its targets.
Group Formation Dynamics:
People working in the group perform far better than an individual. Groups can process out each and every work of the organisation and could provide quality to the work. Classical theory helps in building an effective group in the organisation. Proximity theory is the theory which helps CAPCO to bring people together and influence people to get emotionally attached with the organisation. Balance theory is the theory which helps CAPCO to understand the attitude and behaviour of the people working in the organisation and helps in providing direction to the groups and people working in the group (Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen, et. al., 2015).
Therefore understanding each and every aspect it could be said that groups plays a very vital role for every organisation. It is necessary that organisation should understand the behaviour of each and every group so that proper functioning of the work could be maintained by the organisation.
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO.
It is being analysed that people in a team perform far better than an individual. Work that is being processed out by a team is of more quality and is being processed within the time frame which is being provided by the management of the organisation. Team plays a very vital role in an organisation as it helps in attaining organisational goals. CAPCO will be able to manage its work more effectively if it will bring people together and will ensure that they could work as a team. There are several factors that will promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO, they are:
Effective communication is one of the factors that will boost up teamwork in the organisation. CAPCO will have to ensure that people working in the group should have freedom to communicate with each other and flow of information should be there in a proper manner (Pegler, 2012).
CAPCO should organise various team building exercises and should encourage people to participate in those activities so that they could learn how to work more effectively in a team. This kind of activity will help in the development of teamwork.
Training and development programs will also help the organisation in developing team. Providing training will enhance the skills of the people working in the team which will refine their working. This will also help in developing teamwork(FERREIRA, et. al., 2013).
1.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO.
In present scenario technology keeps on upgrading rapidly. It becomes necessary for the organisation to remain up-graded and becomes necessary that the organisation should ensure that internal technology should also get up-graded so that smooth functioning of the organisation can be ensured. This change in technology has a great impact on the team and on the people working in the team at CAPCO. Further discussion will help in developing better understanding with the impact of technology on team functioning in CAPCO:
Email is one of the most important technological aspects that help the people working in the team. With the help of emails people working in the team could share the documents and work related files with just few clicks. Email helps in saving the time and paper as all work could be processed out on systems only with the help of emails.
I-Phones and Smart Phones are the gadgets that have changed the way of processing out the work. With the help of I-Phones and Smart Phones people working in the team could communicate effectively with each other, they can search location of the required thing; they can share heavy files and can process out the work by sitting anywhere (Udechukwu, 2009).
Computer helps in saving all work related files at one place. Computers have made the work process more easy and simple. Team members could keep the work related files in a share drive so that anyone requiring that file could easily get it and process out the work.
Internet is most important technological aspect. Without internet no work could be processed. Without internet no files could be shared and communication system will also get affected if there will be no internet at the workplace. Internet also gives access to the necessary information which could help in processing out the difficult tasks of team.
With the help of the above discussion it could be said that technology is one of the most important aspect related with the work and workplace. Technology helps in reducing the workload from the workplace and helps in maintaining the decorum of the organisation and the team (GAKI, et. al., 2013).
With the help of understanding developed on various factors indulged in the report it could be concluded that understanding behaviour of the people working in the organisation is one of the most important aspect. This will help in managing the people accordingly. Organisations should have effective structure and should work on building effective culture as both these aspects helps in maintaining the decorum of workplace. It could also be concluded that motivating the people working in organisation is equally important because motivated people work more effectively and bring quality management to the workplace. Building team will help the organisation in processing out the work more easily and will help in attaining targeted objectives set for the future.
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