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Organizations remain one of the most complicated social systems which desire to take out the best essential and vital resource from each individual (Bamberger et al. 2014). These possesses distinctive identities which gets shaped and developed from the combination of in what ways there are choosing for creation and how they are presenting their business to the world (Kalshoven and Boon, 2012).
Corporate strategies and tasks are needed to drive the structure of organization so as to provide facility in terms of delivering:
An organizational structure would be defining the different ways using which a task and a job gets grouped, divided as well as coordinated. Such can be attained using different techniques (Balet al. 2013, p.546).
They offer a team that includes:
Figure 1: Restaurant Organizational Structureof Mama Mia
(Source:Bamberger et al. 2014)
Owner: These are the people who can oversee the future of the restaurant. Infact they possess most of the control regarding the functioning of bar and restaurant as well as the delegate task allotment to everyone instead of the book keeper. As per any occasion getting hosted in the restaurant, the owner will be delegating each task to the kitchen manager and assistant manager (Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2).
Book keeper: The accounting and finance sector primarily gets focussed by the organization book keeper. He will be the head behind ensuring the restaurant’s financial status which needs to be healthy and henceforth Mama Mia is ably compliant with that of the federal as well as local laws. He will be reporting to the general manager and the owner of the restaurant.
General Manager: The duties performed by GM include:
Leading, hiring, mentoring and coaching of the kitchen manager and assistant managerDevelopment as well as relationship maintenance with the local business and the customersMonitoring and creation of the budget of restaurantEnsuring that the financial goals get achieved by enhancing the process of monitoring the profits and costsEnsuring that the company policy gets maintained and followed by implementation of the new policiesTraining, hiring, monitoring as well as scheduling their team membersTracking the inventory of the locationOrdering inventory whenever neededEngaging the client so as to make sure about satisfaction
Figure 2: Restaurant Organizational Structure of Gordon’s Wine Bar
(Source:Kalshoven and Boon, 2012)
General Manager:He is the person taking care of the restaurant earning along with monitoring of the records and payroll with an additional advantage of overseeing the annual budget. Additionally he will be taking care in management of human resources as well as making sure about the customer satisfaction.
Assistant Manager:He ensures that the employees are performing several tasks beginning from food preparation to stock supplying along with serving as well as billing to customers.
Head bartender: These are the workforce who supervise every facets of bar along with scheduling of the bartender’s shifts and serving of non-alcohol and alcoholic beverages to patron its bar (Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2).
Executivechef:They will be training as well as managing the personnel of kitchen with coordinating and supervising the related culinary activities along with estimation of the consumption of food.
Leadership gets defined as the procedure in which every person provides guide and direction and along with it an influence towards a shared vision in terms of achieving goals that are common. Leader includes a vision of gathering the common vision with an intention of changing and bringing modification to make a better future. Several styles have been implemented by leader in context of this. At Mama Mia‘Authoritarian Style’ has been implied where the leader will be guiding his followers about the things which they are needed to achieve. The leader will be the sole decision maker over here and no employee can have their any influence over the leader’s decision. Infact the leader would never be consulting about it with his followers (Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2).
Although by hearing such the reader may come up that if the leader is wrong then following such may hamper the restaurant reputation. But what Mama Mia follows is recruiting years’ experience in this position which enables them towards taking the perfect decision where experience will have its best influence and the consequence comes out with the finest output.
At Gordon’s Wine Bar, democratic style gets used where leaders take the decision alike to authoritarian model. But here they takes input from the other members and consider the process as a mass input. They primarily rely on consultation with each other and henceforth sticks to a decision that have been taken by discussion with everyone present over there. The main disadvantage of this is that the entireemployee panels are needed to be enough experience about the particular topic on which the company is making discussion. Every employee while sharing their views are required to be utmost informed about what they are saying and how much impact it would be having over the decision making process (Bowen and Schneider, 2014).
Several factors are there which have their biggest effect at the workplace. Generally individuals get influenced by the work environment, leadership, job responsibilities, self- perception, personality and effective communication. Below comes a detailed discussion about how Mama Mia and Gordon’s Wine shops are influenced with these:
Leadership: For success, a powerful and good leader remains absolutely necessary. The leader offering enough influence can give a good leadership to his subordinates which remain a must for every company. At Mama Mia, few employees are present who actually works under one single boss. Henceforth, shaping up the behaviour of the employees is not that tough.Work Environment:It can be considered as one of the primary conditions where an organization can have its maximum influence. In both the restaurants, safety remains the root cause of achieving success.
Effective Communication:The other significant factors which have its best influence over any organization if used in the effective ways. The effective communication would be ensuring a timely and proper information flow. At Gordon’s Wine Bar, an effective channel of communication gets carried where the higher authority remains on constant check to what their lower level employees are upto.
Self-Perception:The last factor which in comparison to the others have enough significance. An employee may be conscientious, agreeable, emotional as well as creative in terms of their character. In Gordon’s Wine Bar it offers such an environment where the organization encourages agreeableness and creativity helping the restaurant cum bar reaching a soothing situation.
The above mentioned remains the various styles of leadership which gets utilized for the diverse situations in the operation of the two concerns ‘Mama Mia’ and ‘Gordon’s Wine Bar’. The former follows the style of ‘opportunist leadership’ whereas the later follows the ‘diplomat style’. For Mama Mia, their leadership style gets used when they are actually imposing any efforts. It actually stands as good in the sales opportunities as well as during emergencies. But Gordon’s Wine Bar leadership style helps them in avoiding any kind of conflicts and henceforth they sticks with the group norms only.
Leadership Style:These have one of the most significant roles not only in the small business but also to the largest restaurants of the world like Mama Mia. These styles have impact over almost anyone such as from the senior manager of the organization to the newest employees.Autocratic Effects of Styles:This is also known as authoritarian leadership where clearly autocratic style gets defined with a distinction between workers and leaders. AN autocratic leader takes decision with almost no or a little involvement from each of its employees. With the implication of this style, the employees may get a feeling of disconnected.Effects of Participative Leadership:Democratic Leadership is the other name of this leadership. Unlike the autocratic leadership, it would be emphasizing that guidance get offered with management to its department and teams while admitting input from its each staff. 2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management
Management occurs within a setting that has a structured organization within itself with some suggested roles. The role of management gets directed towards objectives and aim achievements through the influence of efforts and certain other things.
Classical Management Theory:The theory remains a branch that evolved during the 19th century. Its management approach professes to the management thought of the body on a credence that an employee would only be having a physical as well as economical requirements where either the job satisfaction requirement and social necessities are whichever not that vital or does not exists.
The diagram for its constituent theory is shown below:
Figure 3: Classical Management Theory
(Source:Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2)
The classical management theory enables both the restaurants for:
Giving emphasis on the structurePrescriptive about the things that are good and beneficialPractical manager except a sociologist or some weber
The right for giving any order and should never be considered for any responsibility without having any kinds of references
Division of Work
Makes a reduction to the effort or attention span for either a group or for an individual
According to the informal and formal agreements, outward marks of respect is given between the employees and their organization
Unity of Command
Here one man is considered as superior
Unity of direction
One plan along with just a single head stands as superior for activities considering the similar objectives
Need to be fair enough with both the company as well as to its employees
Stands as a combination of both justice and kindliness towards its every employees
Considering this, both the restaurants have mend up their management style linking to the organizational theory.
According to ‘Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2’ of Mama Mia, leadership is takenas a group process where the focus is on the personal attribute which is taken as an art of inducing acquiescence. This form of art is also taken as an influence for exercise, some specific act kind and a form of persuasion with some effective means of interaction that acts as a vital initiation for structure.
An effective form of leadership which Mama Mia carries on and for which they have become one of the prominent names in terms of restaurants is because of their effort in smart achievement of goals with the jobs completion that remains guaranteed with the imposition of effective leadership. Mama Mia consists of a classical history in terms of leadership and nowadays, they maintain a modern way of directing the restaurant and manage the same. For them leader is the person who will be motivating all his followers and would get appreciation because of the introduction of some of the perfect leadership qualities. For Gordon’s Wine shops leader remains the figure who will be meeting other people as well as would direct them as them accordingly.
A person offers different mood and behaviour and henceforth understanding those remains one of the toughest decisions. A leader is the one who is well aware of such and can enhance company decisions and applications accordingly.
Both Mama Miaand Gordon’s Wine Bar make use of such a management approach in order to make a management of their organization. As it has already been mentioned earlier, MamaMia cares about its employees a lot but their attention was put in a wrong way. The Human Resource Management applied a system of management which actually damaged the creativity of the people and made them bore towards what they are about do. But for Gordon’s Wine Barthey cared a lot about all their employees in several means. Infact they provided each of their employees’ facilities enhancing their ability to work more and develop a mass of satisfied consumers. However, this approach can make out about the thinking of an employee and never takes into account about what leaders can think.
A strong control maintained over the group
Less control maintain
Ego and economic awards get used for motivating employees
If requested, motivation is provided through assistance
Through suggestions and guidance others get directed
Almost no direction gets provided
Communication can be flown up or down
Only upward and downward communication gets used
Others would be involved for decision making
Throughout the group dispersion decision making get utilized
‘We’ gets emphasized more instead of ‘I’ or ‘You’
Emphasis is proffered onto the group
Constructive criticisms can be obtained
Criticism does not obtained
The leadership style which gets used at Mama Mia is Laissez-Faire where a number of limitations are there for the employees. Although manager likes to make a discussion with that of the employee for taking some particular decisions but communication here strictly gets used from upward to downward. On the other hand for Gordon’s Wine Bar they make use of democratic style where consultation on some particular issue gets attained with almost every employee before taking a specific decision. This kind of leadership style also encourages their staff to put forward their ideas as well as can increase their motivation.
The primary task of personality management is offering a capability of implementing motivation and encouraging people in working efficiently and makes use of their potential all the more effectively. Henceforth motivation methods and mechanisms remains one of the vital elements for the preparation of experts and leaders in management of human resource. Motivation comes as a mean of technique in pushing self and employees with several activities that will be contributing in achie3ving personal objectives and goals as well.
A manager can motivate his entire employee squad by making use of three approaches that have been defined below:
The traditional approach where salary will get utilized as a mean of stimulating labourAn approach related to human relation where membership in some specific social group would get satisfied with that of their workA technique for collaboration and participation with the restaurants for increment of motivation. 3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace Maslow’s Theory: According to Maslow, all people works with diverse needs and such have been divided into five parts:
Figure 4: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need
(Source: Giauque et al. 2013, p.124)
Physiological Need: This remains necessary in order to meet up the physical needs of human being. Necessities include food rest, water etc. in workplace. These needs include a suitable working condition as well as salaries. Both Mama Mia and Gordon’s Wine Bar are making use of the similar methods by paying compensation and bonuses in order to give motivation to the employees.
Needs of Security and Safety:Receiving pension remains one of the prime requirements for every human being. A business is needed to assess their working environment with the implication of such kind of securities so as to create the safest conditions for working.
Social Needs: The satisfaction of employees gets primarily expressed with the team cohesiveness because of the on-going meetings. Activities of employees residing outside the restaurants carve a spirit of life within their workplace.
Esteem Needs: This comes as the demand of power and honour for Gordon’s Wine Bar which has decentralized in terms of empowerment to its every employee among the hierarchy of command. In Mama Mia, the employees offer an authority of managing responsibilities and duties.
Needs of Self-actualization: It remains one of the most necessary parts in bringing growth to the potential of the organization.
Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory: Also known as hygiene theory, Herzberg is recognized the many features which can make people satisfied as well as happy in terms of their job.
2013, p.124)et al.(Source: Giauque Figure 5: Two Factor Theory
According to ‘Gupta and Shaw, 2014, p.2’, motivation gets defined as an individual’s driving force. Thus managers should be influencing those factors which will be motivating employees as well as receive a productivity of maximum quality. The discussion of the McGregor’s Theory of X and Y has been discussed below:
The diagram of Douglas has been shown below:
Figure 6: McGregor’s Theory X and Y
(Source: Jiang et al. 2012, p.1267)
According to Mc. Gregor, Theory X, remains traditional that is based on the fundamental plays. Employees did not took it positively when Mama Mia has their own penalties which remained between oral warning to staying out from their performance. However, application of Theory Y, the company came out with positive thinking where employees remained enthusiast towards their performance with the search of their responsibilities where an employee group got selected. The company team is necessary to make use of positive incentives in terms of monetary and a reward remains an absolute necessary.
According to Vroom’s expectancy theory, three basic conditions are needed in terms of motivation. The diagram has been provided below:
Figure 7: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
(Source:Jiang et al. 2012, p.1264)
At Mama Mia, Victor Vroom model gets successfully used and in Gordon’s Wine Bar too. Meanwhile of each company’s leaders can make application of the characteristic function which their everyday work so as to maintain well the employee expectations.
Necessarily, all the managers are needed to make use of the motivation theory with the intention of showing best performers in terms of work who would also be stimulating employees’ productions. In Mama Mia the employees are making use of the McGregor’s Theory. In the workplace, all the employees are forbidden to tell or share any information regarding their salary. The leaders have made an evaluation about the performance in several months. If any worker is putting an effort more than 80% of what have been targeted for six times, they will be getting a motivation with review of their salary.
Inside anorganizationthe group nature and their behaviour: ‘Group’ can be termed as more than two people interacting or working together for the similar purpose. Instead of working as individuals, when two people work together, aim of some organization can easily be achieved within the shortest time. However, together working remains a task of ‘multifaceted’. Working altogether remains one of the essential parts where both the restaurants ‘Mama Mia’ and ‘Gordon’s Wine Bar’ lack this specific quality.
Group Nature: Different types of group are there which gets crafted because of some particular reason within an organization. All the team members within the workforce would be agreeing of attaining some particular general task, mutually become dependent to each other in their performance, and working organized with every one of the team for supporting their success. Three views are there on the acting nature between each team members. These are:
Normative: This implies the ways of carrying out some specific performance and makes a good management of the team.A set of method in terms of building group, role playing and groups that are self-managed and ‘sensitivity training’ among all the members of the team.Team Dynamic
Figure 8: Five Stage Model
(Source:Giauque et al. 2013, p.124)
Forming: It remains the initial step of ‘group creation’ where every team members would be aiming of identification of a suitable behaviour from inside their groups. Each of the team members would be making a try of identifying a suitable behaviour inside their group.
Storming: It remains the second step for forming a team. Here members will be in disagreement about choosing leaderships. But at the end of the discussion all will come up with the acceptance of taking the concept of leadership into account (Minbaeva 2013, p.378).
Norming: Here all the members would be coming together as well as will motivate each other for giving cooperation to everyone.
Performing: Group Members will be working effectively towards what have been fixed as their target goals.
Adjourning: This is the last step where a task group would be formed for achieving a mission.
Group viabilitySatisfaction of each membersPerformance of the finest levelUseful communicationDiversityPlan for disagreement decisionsA better leadership
Figure 9: Teamwork
(Source:Caligiuri 2014, p.64)
At present many restaurants, bars or both have introduced modern technology within their present trading. Infact Gordon’s Wine Shop have found that involvement of technology can make an increment to the profit and henceforth it can stand as one of the most effective ways of attracting more number of customers within their competitive arena. Infact in Mama Mia also they had taken technology seriously where they have implemented home delivery options in a more attractive ways which enable simplified take away of cuisines. Also because of the more implementation of technology, Mama Mia is also reducing staff capacity, develop a more responsible role and make increment of the job satisfaction with a much better communication process.
The utilization of modern technology can bring improvement within certain sectors which will be hindering the functions of that particular group. Because of the change of technology, a team is needed to make maintenance and updating of their knowledge so as to have an effective task. Nowadays, Gordon’s Wine Bar can have the most effective communication with their other teams at almost every place simply and effectively by additionally keeping themselves updated each time (Chang et al. 2012, p.627).
The inclusion of the diverse technologies make the work of a team all the more challenging as well as it makes it better for the future. It is one of the greatest challenges of any organization for introduction of the updated technologies to attract more number of customers and make their job all the more secured as well as easier.
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