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Human resource management – the name itself is quite intriguing, reveals a few of its functions but one would find that the subject is deeper and has huge importance for any organization. Human Resource Management is the specialized field of studies and a department in an organization that helps manage human resources: from the recruitment of the most suitable candidate into an organization, to training them to shoulder responsibilities, from managing and evaluating employee performance to creating an atmosphere that encourages employees to deliver their best performance. Thus, the most important function of human resource management is to achieve organizational efficiency, the most important ingredient that can propel an organization towards successfully completing its goals and moving on the path of its desired results and success.
Human Resource Development Distinction Copy will talk about several important features, functions, methods and practices of human resource management. The paper attempts to answer one of the most essential questions about human resource management and looks deep into the subject to clearly illustrate the reason that makes it an indispensable part of any organization. Human Resource Management or HRD, as it is popularly known is perhaps the department that has the responsibility of ensuring that the organization achieves the efficiency that it needs to achieve the success it desires in a competitive market where every company tries its best to grab their share (Armstrong, 1992).
Learning and development programs are the basis of growth of an individual that is responsible for the transformation of an individual with talent and harnessing the same to become an individual with efficient skills.
Learning is extremely important for the growth of an individual and, the process one adopts to acquire his knowledge is also important since every individual reacts to the teaching methods in different ways. It may not be entirely wrong to say that two individuals would in most cases, not react in similar ways. So, it becomes prudent for the individual to have a discussion with his teacher and follow the most suitable method that would help one acquire maximum knowledge.
Behaviourist approach is the method of learning that believes in acquiring knowledge through one’s interactions, observations and experiences gained from one’s own surroundings. The individual learns on the basis of positive and negative reinforcement that teaches several important lessons.
Cognitive approach of learning is the method of learning where the teaching of important lessons and knowledge happens through a series of instructions in a systematic manner. This form of teaching is useful in imparting knowledge and the virtue of discipline and the quality of retaining and following instructions.
Social Learning Theory is another important method of learning that has been extensively used in several instances and cases in the past. In this method of learning, the knowledge is acquired through one’s interactions with the society. The other important feature of this method is the standard set of guidelines that arte put in the shape of a model that prescribes, guides and helps an individual follow the correct methods and acquire the necessary knowledge and skills (Keefe, 1979).
The learning curve represents an important strategic tool for a business organization. The curve shows that learning is faster initially, and then it slowly increases and ultimately has a gradual decline. The main takeaway from the learning curve is the fact that as one learns; the improvement gradually increases and then decreases. The learning curve can be used for two purposes, one, to identify the improvements of an individual from the imparted knowledge and also the rate in the change of costs of a project.
The method is also used in planning resources and monitoring the costs of a project. This method helps in analysing the utilization of resources for a project and helps ion the assessment of its resources, by checking the costs. One of the easier methods of checking costs is to follow a structured plan based on a specific time-frame. The learning curve makes it easier to manage resources of a project and keep the work according to the schedule and plan that has been laid out during the designing phase.
Learning styles and methods have a significant contribution to the leaning and growth of an individual. It is perhaps correct to say that most individuals would react differently to the same learning style since every individual has different behaviour patterns, abilities views and perceptions. So, having a standard method of learning may not be able to justify individuals’ learning needs to the maximum. For this purpose, there are several learning styles and techniques all of which have unique approach towards learning. This helps individuals choose the methods that are most suitable to them, based on their views and perceptions and learning needs.
The learning methods allow individuals to identify the method that suits them the most, with the help of their teacher and use the method that will help them acquire the maximum knowledge. One may adopt several ways and methods to continue on their path of learning but in today’s age of competition, skills, knowledge and right behaviour and approach has become critical to one’s success. So, acquiring maximum knowledge and being able to implement the same are important skills for an individual’s growth (Senn, Kendal, R., Willetts & Trieman, 1997).
Evaluation of the training method is an important tool for the organization to assess the results of the training program. Since the organization has to put in a lot of its resources to conduct the program, it is necessary to assess the same and analyse if the program can produce desired results.
Formative Evaluation is the process of evaluation where feedback on the course and its materials are collected during the implementation of the program. This allows the trainer or the instructor to assess the progress of the program and make slight adjustment, if required. This process allows the instructors to work on the quality of the program based on the feedback of the trainees.
Process Evaluation can be carried out after the program where critical questions on the program are asked. This program allows the evaluator to assess if the trainees are better equipped than before to implement their skills in the tasks assigned to them. This method is useful in assessing the quality of the program.
Outcome Evaluation assesses the final results of the program. It answers important questions like if the employees would be better equipped to use their newly acquired skills and implement the same in their work. It also assesses the final results of the program that can give a clear indication if the program had been able to achieve what it intended to do – impart greater knowledge to the employees and make them better equipped to fulfil their duties towards the organization.
The evaluation form is an important but simple method of assessing the results of a training program. It consists of several questions that the trainees need to fulfil. These forms consist of several questions that can indicate the success of the program, from the knowledge learnt, to the quality of the instructions. Positive feedback would indicate a success in the program. However, most negative feedback would also mean a failure of the program (Kraiger, Ford & Salas, 1993).
The evaluation form is one of the simpler and effective methods of assessing the results of a training program and is followed by several organisations. This method adopts the usage of assessing training results through a series of questions that can clearly illustrate the feedback of the trainees.
Fig: A sample evaluation form
Resented above is a general evaluation form that carries seven questions and asks the trainees to present their feedback, ranging from ‘strong agreement’ to ‘strong disagreement’. These questions can let the managers assess the effectiveness of the program based on the reactions of the trainees. A more positive feedback would hint at the success of the program whereas negative responses would mean a failure.
Assessing the expectations of the trainees is important to evaluate the program because unless the employees are satisfied with the program, the instructor’s participation in it, the course taught and its effective implementation in one’s professional duties, the program would be rendered ineffective. So, it is important that the management analyses the needs of the employees and present them with an opportunity of fulfilling them through the program.
Assessing the knowledge and its usefulness in implementing the same and achieving better work results is crucial for the success of the training program and the organisation. Training programs are conducted to quip the employees with improved skills for greater efficiency, which can only be possible by successful implementation of skills and knowledge (Price, 2011).
Trainer’s skills and the quality of instructions hold a lot of significance in a training program. The trainer is not just dispensing information to the trainees, he also has the responsibility of presenting his course before the trainees in a manner that encourages their participation, convinces them about the utility of the program and interests them with the course taught. The trainer needs to be well informed and skilled to understand the perspectives of the trainees and communicate better to help them understand the subjects (Tannenbaum & Yukl, 1992).
The success of the evaluation method used can be understood by relating the results that one has been able to conclude to after the training evaluation and the actual results seen ion the organization over a period of time. If the evaluation has yielded successful results and the same can be reflected in the form of growth, better productivity and improved efficiency, it effectively means that the evaluation practice was used correctly and it concluded to the correct answer. If on the same hand, the evaluation has yielded positive outcome for the organization, which is contrary to the results of the evaluation, it would be an indictment of the adoption and implementation of the used method.
So, if the evaluation for and the results and the ultimate results speak in the same light, both indicating positive changes, it means that the evaluation process used, had been able to gauge and present the suitable results of the training program (Armstrong, 1992).
Governments in the modern day have had to cope with the changes of evolving times and focus extensively on training and development for the overall growth of the society. In this regard, most governments have had to adopt new measures to promote training and development and encourage greater participation in these programs. One of the standard emphases of most governments is on lifelong learning that promotes learning and education without barriers of age or formal education.
Skill development has not just assumed great importance in the present day but has also made governments sit up and take note of the same. Most governments these days have emphasized educational institutions in schools and colleges to adopt specific professional skills in their curriculum which would make one more equipped to choose one’s preferred line of interest and make oneself more qualified to seek employment options.
Community based programs have also added to the growth of the society by teaching specific skills that could make one more eligible to seek employment options. These programs carry a lot of value since it encourages the entire community to participate and improve their skills, giving them an opportunity to improve one’s standard of living through better employment. (Brinkerhoff, 2005).
The competence movement of management emphasizes the utilization of skills, resources and capabilities to fulfilling the duties that have been allotted. In today’s competitive time’s efficiency is not a virtue anymore but a necessity. Competence movement allows performance management with greater efficiency and facilitates the performance of critical projects with more efficiency for grater results.
Competence movement in public sector allows public agencies to function with significant efficiency by bridging the gaps in various procedures, ensuring timely delivery of assistance and working towards completing projects of public benefit with proper planning and timely completion.
Competence movement in private sector also allows organizations to assess the performance of its employees and monitor their growth to ensure greater efficiency. The movement specifies on two main issues of dealing with project management. Firstly, it promotes resource utilization where the company uses its resources to their optimum level to ensure efficient productivity. Second application of the competence movement can be seen in the process of meticulous project planning by adhering to the specified time frame, thereby minimizing costs (Carnevale & Goldstein, 1983).
The UK government has taken several initiatives of training programs for the benefit of its citizen in recent years.
Literacy programs for the entire family have been initiated to promote learning where everyone can participate irrespective of age, formal education and other limitations. These programs not only add skills and values but also help in community integration.
Community based training initiatives have proved to be a significant help to many who have felt the need for skill development programs to achieve better future prospects in one’s profession. (Jones & Moore, 1995).
So, as stated, human resource management offers significant value to an organization and forms one of the most important arterial lines that lend an organization the oxygen it requires to perform its actions smoothly with greater efficiency, control, discipline and propels it towards its desired road to growth progress and success (Price, 2011). The functions of the human resource management in an organization are limitless and it’s important, perhaps indefinable. But yet, no organization can survive without proper human resource management. To summarize in a nutshell human resource managements the driving force of the organization. It is the fuel that injects energy in the organization and carries it forward to its desired goals.
Human Resource Development Distinction Copy has highlighted several intricate functions of human resource management, particularly its role in training employees and facilitating their growth by assessing their needs.
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