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Unit 22 Assignment on Human Resource Development
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 22 Assignment on Human Resource Development
The process ofHuman Resource Management includes recruitment procedure, selection of employees, deliver proper orientation and induction, train properly for development of skills, assessing the employees on the basis of their performance, fairly compensate them and provide employee benefits, motivate the employees, improve relationship with trade unions, ensuring safety, health and welfare of employees and see that they comply with the labour laws. Every organization requires human beings to work effectively for them accompanied by money, machine and materials. These resources are not competent enough to fulfil the requirements and goals of the organization by themselves.There has to be a driving force behind them. This task is performed by the Human Resource Managers who co-ordinate all the factors together. Management of human resources is a very vital task. It includes, proper analysis of job, make planning about the requirement of personnel and their recruitment, choosing the correct people who are suitable for the job and train the accordingly.
According to Edwin Flippo, Human Resource Management is “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of procurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are achieved.”
The term learning styles refer to the different theories which aim to create an understanding about the differences in individual learning. As per this classification of people are done on the basis of their style of learning. Moreover, different people learn in different ways. Hence, it helps in understanding the differences in learning of individuals. A lot of research is required to understand human mind, and the way they operate, perceive and processes information. The concept of individual learning style gained popularity in the 1970s. There are different learning styles, each of which is discussed as below:
David Kolb's model: The model of David Kolb is on the basis of experiential leaning model. He has explained this in the book Experiential Leaning. The Kolb’s model involves four learning styles such as, Accommodator, Converger, Diverger and Assimilator. There are two related approaches towards grasping experience such as Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization as well as transforming experience such as, Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation(Askegren, 2005).
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford's model: They adopted the experiential model of Kolb. Under this the stages of learning styles are Activist, Reflector, Theorist and Pragmatist. The given learning styles are done under the assumption that they are acquired preferences which are not supposed to be one’s fixed personality rather adaptable at will or changed circumstances.
Gagné’s Theory of Learning Styles: According to him the four main categories of learning are; verbal (includes learning English word), intellectual skills (learning mathematics formula), cognitive strategy, attitude and motor skills. Gagne believes there are nine instructional events which help in learning effectively. The events are; receptive capability of the learner, expectations must be known to the learner along with required objectives, retrieval of previous learning, existence of selective perception, learners must be provided with guidance, eliciting of performance, provide feedback and reinforcement, assessment of performance and enhancement of retention and transfer.
Comparison: Although the Peter Honey and Alan Mumford model is adopted from that of Kolb’s Learning style inventory but it differs from the later by making an invitation to the managers for completion of a checklist indicating work-related behaviour inspite of directly questioning the managers their way of learning(Dessler, 2000). The Kolb model is weak as it consider only limited factor. The fact is that different people tend to learn in different environment and different ways. On the other hand the Gagne’s Theory considers a much wider scope. Under this model it is ensured that the managers retain and get engaged with more knowledge than they are taught. This helps in structuring a whole presentation or session through which learning can be enhanced.
In an organization the term learning signifies a process of acquiring experience about products and processes, achievement of higher efficiency with the help of automation and several capital investments and bringing several improvements in the personnel and methods of administration. The model of learning curve creates an understanding of making prediction about the time it may take for undertaking a future task. There are certain decisions which can be effectively taken by using learning curve:
- Making decision on pricing by estimating the future costs;
- Schedule of workforce on the basis o future needs;
- Projection of capital requirement;
- Setting up structure of incentive.
In the case study, Greenwood and Sharp Company is transforming a section of their operations by introducing new technical skills which requires introduction of new staff along with removal of traditional craft skills. Moreover, many old employees are seeking early retirement and the new ones are not committed to stay for long. Thus, with the help of learning curve the company will be capable of assessing the possible retention rate and on the basis of that can arrange for handsome perks for the old employees in order to retain them along with adequate training to them for increasing their workflow and support the new ones with career development programmes which can raise their interest level(Dessler, 2000). This curve will help in identifying the strength of the employees and use them wherever they suit best, it increases the bond among the employees and the new employees will gain confidence of enhancing their career in the organization.
The induction session of Greenwood and Sharp Company acknowledges the employees with the history of the company, mission and objectives, ethics, organizational structure, pay and benefits, arrangements for holidays and leaves, policies regarding health and safety of employees and company’s rules and regulations. However, the whole induction session does not allow the employees to introduce themselves and neither let the managers gain any understanding about the new joiners.
Through learning styles and theories the management will get the scope of interacting with the new joiners by undertaking several activities which can make them well aware with the efficacies and competencies of the new ones. The learning style models initiates’ decision making by assessing the nature of the individual(Grieves, 2003). An Activist will get involved with everything irrespective of any criteria. They will not have any problem if dominated; the ones who will try to gain more and more details or knowledge are the theorist. They are very rationale and observing. The ones who are likely to bring new ideas are the Pragmatists. These are generally the new graduates who seek to apply theoretical knowledge and the ones who try to gain experience by observing others are the Reflectors.
Again if Gagne’s model is considered it will raise the interaction with the new ones and help in assessing their performance, recognize their experience and gain knowledge about them. This will enhance the manager’s capacity of understanding the motive of the new ones and in which way they can be utilized efficiently by the company so as to increase their interest and productivity.
Therefore, a checklist can be prepared which will help the managers detailing how they will deal with the employees and what are the checkpoints.
Training is a potential undertaken to develop the skills and abilities of both new as well as experienced employees, starting directly from junior level staff to higher level management in fulfilling their job responsibilities and achieve organizational goals. Managers are divided into three categories, top level, middle level and low level. The need and way of training varies in each case.
The sources which will help in determining what the needs are and their appropriateness in applicability are listed below:
- Organizational analysis
- Person Analysis
- Work Analysis
- Performance Analysis
The organizational analysis answers questions which are related to the requirement of training, why is training required for business? who plans for training? Why is training recommended? and past experience of the organization with regards to training. This analyzes the reason for providing training. Under this both the new and senior managers will be treated equally. The mission is selected on the basis of what developments are required by an employee. For the senior managers the concern is how effectively the training can be given and what will be the benefits out of it. In case of the less experienced managers the concern is what are the take away from the training and development of skills(Grieves, 2003).
Person analysis involves the potential participants in the training process. This analyzes who requires training and what knowledge do they have on the respective matter, what is the style of their learning and who will be conducting the training? For the senior managers the need is to understand the knowledge and experience of the trainees and organizing the training on the basis of that so that the required areas are covered. For the less experienced managers the need is self development and gain expertise.
The work analysis analyzes the task which has to be performed. The senior managers make an assessment of analyzing how the less experienced managers react to the aspect and what is their level of skills and what improvements are required. The senior mangers ensure that the training provided helps the new managers gain enough knowledge about the process. For the less experienced managers the need is to gain more and more knowledge about the line of service through the training so that they can improve their level of performance.
Performance analysis establishes whether the employees are performing their required level? the senior managers will analyze the performance of the less experienced managers and see whether their performance it up to the mark as or they require more training on that particular subject. For the less experienced managers the need is to improve their level of performance in order to offer more expertise(Mathis and Jackson, 2003).
The training methods which are used by an organization are, On-the-Job training and Off-the-Job training. On-the-Job training ensures conducting of training while an individual is working. This type of training involves coaching, rotation of job, mentoring, apprenticeship and study. Whereas, off-the-job training is conducted at a location away from that of the actual work place. It includes lectures and conferences, vestibule training, transactional training and simulation exercises.
the training is planned depending on the capability and experience of the trainee;
the process followed by the peers or the managers for completion of the task may not be similar;
under this method the trainee learns exactly what is applicable to the job;
does not take into consideration demonstration, feedback and practise which are very essential aspects for on-the-job training;
this method saves cost of training;
if the OJT is not properly structured it cannot ensure properly trained employees.
as the trainers are peers the training can be provided at any point of time(Mathis and Jackson, 2003).
this is more like a classroom sort of training where trainers deliver training to a group of employees
trainees may face problem to adjust with the work environment once they hit the company floor;
this training helps in creating a clear understanding as the trainers undertake Audio Visual methods
the training may become ineffective when compared to real context;
the rate of error committed by trainees under this method is relatively less;
the quality may deteriorate;
the method is considered to be economical;
the production may get hindered;
time is saved to great extent under this method;
as the trainees get elaborative and in depth training the productivity rates are also high
An off-the-job training will be best suiting the organization as it will enable the senior managers interacts with the newly appointed managers wherein they apart from offering training on the required areas will be able to assess the knowledge and experience of the employees and on the basis of which they can judge who will be suitable for which area. A checklist will help the senior managers in this perspect.
The area upon which training needs to be imparted is to enhance the technical skills of the experienced trainees and the new management trainees. The training focuses mainly upon the new management trainees as they are fresh resources to the line of service. The objective of the training is to offer technical knowledge on the new products and their manufacturing process. As this is the first time that this process has been involved a group of technical experts have been invited from one ofits supplier company who will give two days training to the new joiners as well as the existing ones(Mathis and Jackson, 2003). An off-the-job training has been arranged in the company’s training room with audio visual effects, where the trainers attempted to give a clear idea about the work would be so that the senior managers can outline a structure wherein they can conduct the next training themselves.
Although the training event lasted for two days, it was quite effective as the trainees are in a position to briefly outline their next course of action.
The existing induction training programme does not seem effective to most of the new joiners. The existing induction session involves more of descriptive rather than interactive session. Instead of talking much about the company policies and other aspects initiative must be taken to make the session much interactive so that the existing managers know who they are inviting to work with and what are the possible outcomes of the same. The training programme being conducted for a very short time will be effective if the following is followed:
- A toolkit handed over to all the trainers which involve company policies and a brief discussion on the same;
- The trainees need to be made accustomed with the areas they will be working;
- Increase interaction with the trainers in order to understand their background and their nature;
- The performance appraisal programmes needs to be highlighted upon;
- Entertain the trainees through quiz and other activities;
- At the end of the training arrange for a quiz session including questions from the overall session and give surprising gifts to the winners(Noe, 2007);
- Handover the toolkit to each of the employee.
B) (P3.2, P3.3)
The training proved successful where the employee’s participation was lively and interesting. The employees shared lot of incidents with the management which they have experienced in their real life during the training session. The trainees identified several issues they have faced in their previous service and the ways they inherited to overcome them. The trainers also suggested measure how they could have dealt those issues to relate them with those of the trainees. According to the management still there lie problems with the organization. After the training session the trainees were almost through with the nature of the work and how they have to handle individually things. The training also helped them develop new theories, resources and the ways of upgrading their performance. This ensured improvement in performance and capability of early detection of challenges and addressing them.
The method of assessment proved beneficial for undertaking a judgement and evaluating the method. The method was in complete match with the required output and the output expected for searching for the areas of problem for the program. An assessment was made on the quantitative variations in cost and profit ratio for the purpose of ensuring that the program will smoothly run in the future as well and whether the expectations of the employees within the organization will be fulfilled or not(Noe, 2007).
Overall the event proved to be successful as it involved almost everything required for making it a success. The management put forward their experience and the problems they came across during the session and the ways in which these can be resolved.
The government in UL has taken several steps in providing training and development of employees. Programmes such as QCDA and Ofqual, Learning and Skills Council (LSC), Sector Skills Council (SSC), Leardirect, etc. The 1944 Education Act or Butler Act introduced Tripatriate System of Secondary Education and also made schooling free for the students. The age for leaving school was raised to 15 years. In the year 1964, the Industrial Training Act came into existence which provided for establishing an Industrial Training Board (ITBs) for every industry. As per the Industrial Training Act 1982, the employers were made to finance the activities of ITB and the employers are to share the training cost of their respective industry. Under the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992, many universities came into existence along with incorporation of more colleges for further education and initiation of FEFC (Further education Funding Council) and HeFCE (Higher Education Funding Council)(Werner and DeSimone, 2006). The FEFC and Training and Enterprise Council (TEC) were abolished by Learning and Skills Council. The 2010 Apprenticeship, Skills, Children and Learning Act proved beneficial to the youths who can take time from their work for training purposes. The Learning and Skills Council gets dissolved under this act, the local authorities are given the responsibility for funding the education of youth between 16-18 years of age as well as the offenders are given education with due respect. The other initiatives of the government involved Investors in People, National Skills Academies, national Vocational Qualifications, Train to Gain, etc.
The government of UK is playing an active role till date in ensuring, training, development and learning of human resources in both public and private sectors. The reason for doing this is to increase the efficiency of the workforce which will in other way benefit the economy. As the companies start focusing on investment plans towards development of skills of the employees they can have the desired manpower which can effectively ensure great turnover to them.
With an intension to challenge the competition the UK based companies started sharing knowledge and increase competencies. For the purpose of combating the competitive disadvantage huge amounts of money are being spent by the organizations for improving and developing their performance, production level, service and adaptability. For example, Georgia Armani, a famous fashion firm based in UK, believe in serving their customers in the best possible way by taking their feedback, undertake performance appraisals and frame training programmes for developing the competency and efficiency of their human resources. The main intention should be to concentrate on providing best services which will any day be distinct from that of its competitors. A professional as well as friendly work culture is maintained for encouraging the workers give their best in performance and increase their competence level along with sincerity. Moreover, the public companies are giving similar effort to improve their worker base by initiating training programmes, creating of friendly work environment, conducting performance appraisal and developing their personnel and services(Werner and DeSimone, 2006).
These initiatives have not only developed the competency of the employees but also successfully created a wonderful work culture for the industries.
The contemporary system of learning was initiated by the government of UK with an intention of strengthening and developing the workforce of private and public firms based in UK. The contemporary learning is considered to be one of the useful methods of faster learning curve. The quantitative and qualitative learning scopes are provided by the government and competitive factors on the basis of the situation in the market. The savings of an employee is dependent upon the performance of an employee the government has stressed more on the learning options in the firms depending on the acquisition needs of the employees. Under the context of Greenwood and Sharp Company, the contemporary opportunity of training introduced by the government will prove beneficial for the purpose of developing the skill and human resource of the organization. The capability of the employees in realizing structural value and detecting of necessity of improvement will grow. Contemporary learning facilitated increased rate of growth, improvement and standardization in other factors of human.
The report gives an elaborative knowledge about Human Resource Management. Need for HRM in an organization and how an effective induction can be planned so as to ensure satisfaction of employees and know their perceptions. The report acknowledges how can competency and skills of workforce can be enhanced and the role played by the Government of UK in development of workforce ensuring proper training and learning facilities. The government has taken several steps towards this aspect. The report also highlights on the need of training and how effectively they can be planned.
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Dessler, G. (2000). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Grieves, J. (2003). Strategic human resource development. London: Sage Publications.
Mathis, R. and Jackson, J. (2003). Human resource management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-western.
Noe, R. (2007). Fundamentals of human resource management. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Phillips, R. (2016). Human Resource Management - what is human resource ?. [online] Whatishumanresource.com. Available at: http://www.whatishumanresource.com/human-resource-management [Accessed 26 Oct. 2016].
Werner, J. and DeSimone, R. (2006). Human resource development. Mason OH: Thomson South-Western.