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Unit 21 Human Resource Management Assignment Tesco
This unit 21 human resource management assignment Tesco document has been drafted with adding different theories of Human resource management. The differences between the personnel management and human resource management have been formed by taking two suitable organisations. Different human resource management functions and their impact on the organisational approaches are described. The roles and responsibilities of the line managers are illustrated on taking the Tesco as example. Legal and regulatory frameworks which are attached with the human resource management system have been evaluated. The causes behind development of human resource planning are analysed. Different stages of human resources are outlined. The current recruitment and selection processes of two different organisations are compared. Effectiveness of these practices is given within this report. Link between the motivational theory and reward system, effectiveness of reward system, different processes of job evaluating and payment determination have been analysed. Different exit processes are evaluated by considering the Faisal case study.
1.1 Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management giving examples in two suitable organisations.
After NCR had opened the office of personnel in 1890s the personnel management has been a recognised function in the USA. The personnel managers of HRM in USA had been working within the unitarist tradition by identifying the organisation’s objectives. Though the orientation was not managerial the concept personnel management had arrived within the countries like South Africa, Australia and UK in a slow pace. In the first stage of personnel management development the conflict between the activities of line managers and the welfare officers evolved. The welfare officers placed the personnel management as the buffer between the employees and the business in terms of management. This was not politically viable as there was no position or the employees in wishing further in terms of their careers, increasing the status and earning higher wages. (cipd.co.uk, 2011) In the nineteenth century the people management has evolved UK in the first Industrial Revolution. Through the Factory act 1840 the welfare of the factory workers were enforced in the people management. Later the rise of industrial trade unionism had led to the negotiation and communication with the collective representatives on behalf of organisation. Rise of scientific management along with Taylorist lines led to the increased interest of personnel administration within the management.
With the increased awareness of semi skilled works, closed supervision, pay being linked to the quality and quantity of output, assemble of technologies, higher financial reward system are concerned upon the effectiveness of the personnel management in the mass production industry. Technologies played a large part in shifting the managerial concern from personnel management to human resource management. The needs of continuous learning of the employees for the continuous changes in the technologies were changing the perspectives of personnel management which led to the concept of human resource management. (cipd.co.uk, 2011)
The differences between the personnel and human resource management:
Human resource management
Performances are evaluated through different appraisal system
Job evaluation is considered for the basic pay
Transformational management system
transactional Management system
Communication system is higher through the adaptation of technologies
Low concern over the communication
It focuses on the acquisition, motivation, development, maintenance of human resource within the organisation.
Focus is on the employee welfare, labour relation, personnel administration. (cipd.co.uk, 2011)
The success of Tesco organisation is the result of the successful implementation of HRM system within the organisation. It is the biggest employer in the UK supermarket chain having more than 260,000 staffs. The human resource management of Tesco has placed their focus on the key features like work generalization, unwritten rules which are challenging, rolling put of core skills, connection of the performance management to the activities in leading the staffs to achieve the steering wheels targets. They include training and development with the perspective to increase individual performances. The coffee shop Kaffeine has been dealing the management issues of staffs through personnel management system. The management has been considering employee welfare, personnel administration in the management. Fixed promotional policies are considered within this coffee shop. (cipd.co.uk, 2011)
1.2 Assess how human resource management functions help your chosen organisation in achieving its purpose.
High commitment, high involvement of work practices are the key themes of human resource management. The management system has been considered as the organisation system to manage human resource with strategic practices. The high performances along with employee commitment are the key focus of HRM system of chosen organisation Tesco in order to achieve better individual, organisational and team performances. In order to increase the performances of the organisation the human resource management of Tesco has been placing greater amount of focus on the HR policies. The HR policies are used to incorporate the individual roles and responsibilities in the performances and to motivate the employees towards the achievement of organisational values and perspectives. The human resource management caters different culture and styles of learning.
There are certain key functions which are integrated with the Human resource management system of Tesco:
- Human resource planning: this is the most important part within the human resource management system. Through the stages of planning the organisation like Tesco is able to gather proper knowledge over the current human resources of the organisation considering all the stores and the needed human resources and capabilities for achieving desired future goals or perspectives. This function is necessary for Tesco for communicating the common goals of business strstegy throughout the wide human resources of organisation.
- Recruitment and selection: after acknowledging the needed skills the organisation Tesco recruit and select the human resources through proper analysis of needed skills and verifying hem with the applicants’ skills. Through this function of HRM the organisation can be able to attract qualified human resources within the workforce.
- Employee motivation: through different motivational activities the organisation Tesco has been motivating the staffs to achieve the organisational goals. Regarding this Tesco also use different motivational theories like reward system or recognition on evaluation the performances. Job security is also placed by management in order to have proper motivation.
- Training and development: the training and development is the main focus of Tesco HRM department. Through systematic approaches Tesco has been incorporating the training literature in order to have ongoing development of employee skills. Monitoring the training effectiveness is done by Tesco line managers.
- Employee relations: in order to have proper employee relations Tesco communicates through efficient manner with the employees.
1.3 Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in your organisation or familiar organisation and how it supports human resource management functions.
Line managers have the necessary roles and responsibilities in the Human resource management system. The employees or staffs which are working at the core level or linked with the services or productions are monitored by the line managers of Tesco. The line managers of Tesco have direct communication with the employees and staffs. The basic needs, welfare of the employees, payment structure. Job roles, performance criteria as well as the roles and responsibilities of the individual are monitored and supervised by line manger. In order to have proper evaluation of the individual performances the management of Tesco relied on the report of line managers. Kline manager have the responsibilities to evaluate the current human resource capabilities and the required ones to achieve the desired result. (Hayre, 2015) The managerial roles and responsibilities which are conducted on the lower level are done by line managers. These are:
- Management of the staffs and employees who are working on ground level, production etc
- Dealing with the customers and the clients
- Management of the operational costs,
- Providing the expertise over technical measures
- Assessing the training needs by monitoring the performances
- Supervising regular activities
- Allocating the tasks and responsibilities to the staffs according to their job description
- Checking the implementation of the standards in the workforce
- Reporting to the higher authority in management
- Focusing on the employee engagement
- Conducting eth performance appraisal
- Evaluating the basic pay
- Maintaining the discipline within the workforce (Hayre, 2015)
The line managers of Tesco have the roles and responsibilities in different HRM practices. Different HR related tasks have been taken care of line mangers. Interviewing the employees, engaging the staffs of the stores in providing proper services to the clients, filling the assessment from of the employee performances, dealing with feedbacks of the clients of handling client related issues, enforcing regulation and policies within the working environment and maintaining the employee relations through the HR policies of Tesco. (Hayre, 2015)
1.4 Analyse how legal and regulatory framework impact on human resource management.
Legal and regulatory framework has been considered within the HRM system for implementing the work with proper legal practices. There are different sets of laws and legislations which are attached with the practices and policies of HRM. These are:
Equal opportunities: the act is based on the fair treatment to the employees within the working environment. The act enforces fair practices in different functions of HRM such as recruitment, selection, job role allotment etc. Fair treatment should be practiced within every actions of HRM regarding race, gender, nationality etc. in the payment scheme this act should be followed. (Carbery, 2013)
Discrimination act: through this act discrimination over individuals are prohibited within the organisation. There are several pieces of legislations within this to cover the discrimination. These are:
- Sex discrimination act 1975: focuses on the discrimination regarding the gender.
- Race discrimination act 1976: prohibiting the practices of discrimination on considering race
- Disability discrimination act 1995: discrimination practices are monitored which are done regarding the disability of the employees. (Carbery, 2013)
European Working Time Directive: it gives the right of having minimum number of holidays for each year. As the complaints of excessive working hours are becoming a major issue in causing stress, illness and depression within the employees, this act is enforced with the purpose to protect the health and safety of employees.
National minimum wage act: it creates a minimum wage across UK, which has been calculated as £7.20 per hour of workers who are aged 21+ and £5.30 for the workers of 18-20 aged workers. (Carbery, 2013)
Data protection act: through this act the employee have the rights to access to their data or information. This act also enforces the organisation in keeping the data of individuals safe.
Work and Families Act 2006: through this act the employee can have leaves for the cause of family. This act also enforces the management to keep the work life balance throughout the workforce. (Carbery, 2013)
2.1 Analyse the reasons for human resource planning
HR planning has been an essential part within the HRM system of any organisation. The proper availability of human resources and skills are being calculated within the system of HR planning. Through this planning the organisation tends to recognise the needed employability skills and availability of it within the organisation. Through the HR planning any organisation like Tesco tends to focus over the demand and supply of human resources within the global scale. Through the HR planning they fulfil the vacant positions or improve the current workforce. (Arthur, 2014)
The reasons which are concerned over the development of the HR planning:
- Through the planning the current trends and the future availability of the human resources in order to adapt those trends within the market are recognised.
- The HR planning has been conducted over the existing workforce and analysis over the needed workforce, this led to the analysis of gap within the system of human resource.
- T5hrough the planning the current skills are evaluated and the prediction is done on the requirements on the future skills. (Arthur, 2014)
- Through the HR planning necessary changes in the human resource management processes are analysed. These are needed for improving the performances of the organisation towards the future goals.
- In recent context with the changes of the technological world and the introduction over the new technologies is impacting over the working performances. The HR planning is necessary regarding these issues as through the HR planning.
- Through the HR planning different motivational practices and reward system along with training strategies are analysed. (Arthur, 2014)
2.2 Outline the stages involved in planning human resource requirements
There are different HR stages which are involved within the HR planning. Through the stages the organisations have the purpose of the identifying the gap within the current HR capabilities and needed strategies for enhancing the performances. (Arthur, 2014) These are:
- Establishment of the objectives: in the first stage the determination of goals, objectives, vision and mission statements are indentified. The priorities of the HR policies, the trends and needed changes within the HR system, governmental framework of legislations over the Hr planning are clarified within this stage. Through this stage the objectives of the organisation behind the performances of the current human resources are analysed. (Arthur, 2014)
- Analysis of workforce: workforce must be analysed on identifying the shortages of the surplus and the internal workforce capabilities. By taking in account the vacant human resource position, turnovers, retirement, etc the current workforce and their abilities to adapt future trends can be analysed. Along with these the competencies, skills, features employment groups, are also analysed. The organisational objectives are also taken in account over the current economic situation and the ability of the Human resources in meeting these goals are also analysed.
- Gap analysis: the gap between the needed human resource, their abilities in meeting future needs and organisational desired outcomes are considered for indentified the gap. The current and future requirements over the human resources are placed within this stage. (Arthur, 2014)
- HR policies: HR policies are set over the current priorities of the human resources. The engagement and the involvement of the employees are the main focus of these policies for achieving the organisational goals. Along with the policies different HR strategies are also formed in this stage such are:
- Analysing the talent pool
- Engaging current employees
- Retention (Arthur, 2014)
- Evaluation: through monitoring the performances and comparing with the desired profile the effectiveness of the HR planning can be done.
2.3 Compare the current recruitment and selection process in the organisation with another organisation you recommending.
The recruitment and selection processes are essential parts with the HR planning. Through the recruitments and selection processes current skills and talents are attracted into the workforce and the necessary steps are taken in employ them within the organisation. (Torrington., 2014)
The selection and recruitment process of Tesco:
- Vacancy identification: Tesco tends to identify the vacant position in the first place. In this regard they tend to analyse the internal workforce. In order to have external recruitment Tesco provides advertisement over the current job specification.
- Applications: Online applications or CVs are sent by the applicants to Tesco regarding the advertisements. In order to apply stores staffs or front line staffs vacancy advertisements are posted on the vacancy boards of the stores.
- Screening: screening is done on the applications or the CVs for the comparing the applicant’s academic qualifications and the desired qualifications of the organisation. (Torrington., 2014)
- Interview: interview is conducted over the successful selected candidates. Through the interview the capabilities of the candidates as well as their compatibility in working on tight schedules or work pressure are evaluated by the panel board of Tesco.
- Assessment: assessments of the applicants are done by providing them with different conflicts which they might have face in their duties.
- Final interview: through the final interview the candidates who are selected are recruited. In this stage the managers provide code of conduct of the organisation and the terms and conditions in working within Tesco. (Torrington., 2014)
The selection and recruitment process of Sainsbury:
- Applications: online applicants are must for all vacant positions within Sainsbury. An online test is also arranged for the applicants. Applicants have to pass this test in order to be selected.
- Interview: the successful candidates are called for the interview within the organisation. In this stage the verification has been done over the candidate and their data. Identity proof and eligibility of work is also verified. (Torrington., 2014)
- Skill test: a skill test is arranged for the candidates who are passed through this interview. In this stage a video clip will be shown to the candidates. Through the clips different conflicting situations are shown and the necessary measures are answered by the applicants. A skill test over the mathematical ability is also conducted.
- Final interview: through the final interview the successful candidates of skill test are recruited by the managers. (Torrington., 2014)
2.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of the organisation recruitment and selection techniques with another organisation you recommending.
The recruitment and the selection process of Sainsbury are more effective than the Tesco. In the first place the online application and the online test during the application is efficient method for identifying a participant’s skills. Regarding this Tesco does not have any online application methods for the managerial post. The application stage of Tesco also does not contain any skill test. In order to evaluate and select the candidates’ the Tesco HR department has to evaluate all the applications, whereas the online test of Sainsbury is efficient and systemic approach. The candidates who passed the online test are selected for the interview or later stages of recruitment. This makes the recruitment procedures more easy and concise. (Torrington, 2014)
In the selection process the video clips and the mathematical skill tests of Sainsbury are more appropriate than that of Tesco. Through the video clips the capabilities of the candidates in evaluating the real time situation can be analysed. The mathematical skill test is necessary for evaluating the capabilities of a front line staffs. The use of the video clips is efficient in order to specify the abilities in conflict handling situation on real measures. Through using or implementing certain techniques Tesco can be able to improve their recruitment and selection process. (Torrington, 2014)
3.1 Assess the link between motivational theory and reward at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation. Your answer must show if you think there is a link, what connects the two.
Motivation is the process which is used by the employer or management in order to motivate or encourage the human resource towards the desired performance. Through the motivation the productivity of the human resources can be improved. The motivational processes are related to the encouragement of the employees and leading them towards the achievements of the organisational goals. There are different theories of motivation. Through analysing the Maslow Hierarchical needs theory the management of Tesco can evaluate the individual needs and implement the reward system as per requirements. (Price, 2011)
Maslow has referred that there are certain needs of every individual these needs can be analysed through the hierarchical structure of needs. Through considering these levels of the needs the management of Tesco can be able to increase the productivity of the human resources and implement proper reward system over individual needs. Maslow argued that the management has to fulfil the needs from t he basic level of the pyramid, without satisfying basic need the next cannot be achieved. These are:
- Physiological Needs: these are the basic needs within the pyramid. These needs are related to the food, shelter etc. Tesco has been placing payment system by analysing the current trends within the market and the current payment structure. (Price, 2011)
- Security Needs: security within the job is needed for the employees. Through providing job security, medi-claim, insurances, pension over retirement Tesco has been effectively achieving these needs. (Price, 2011)
- Psychological Needs: these needs are complex in nature and also vary from person to person. Through proper culture and trust building, employee relations, Tesco has been opting to achieve individual needs.
- Self-esteem Needs:self-esteem has been related to the self recognition. Promotional schemes, development plans along with proper training methods are arranged by Tesco for the achieving the self-esteem needs.
- Self-Actualisation Needs: through challenging working environment the self actualisation needs are acquired.
Reward has been a part of motivational processes. Within the stages of self-esteem and self-actualisation Maslow has referred the needs of reward system within the motivational aspects. Tesco has been providing the financial resources rewards like bonus, incentives, and share schemes in achievement of the targets. Through the rewards the organisation has been motivating the employees, specially the front line employee in achieving the targets and increasing customer satisfaction. (Price, 2011)
3.2 Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation
Job evaluation is the systematic process which has been used for determining the pay structure as well as the value of the job in order to specify the pay structure. The job evaluation has been used by organisations in:
- Determination of pay and grade structure
- Ensuring the fair and equal system in the payment
- Deciding the benefits like bonuses
- Comparison of rates against the external markets
- Undertaking career management and succession planning (Nayab, 2015)
There are specific stages which are related to the job evaluation:
- Job description: through the job description the roles and responsibilities which are related to the job are analysed for constructing the payment system. Through the job description the individuals will be provided the details of the job related activities. Different job descriptions are related to the Tesco employment. Job description of a front line staffs is different than a manager. Punctuality, discipline, communicational skills, patience, etc are the general needed competency of Tesco. The staffs are required have proper knowledge over the necessary policies and rules. (Nayab, 2015)
- Job specification: experiences over the work have been defined through the job specification of Tesco. Minimum experience of 1 year is needed for the job.
- Payment structure: basic structure of the payment which has been recognised within the industry market is considered for assessing or deciding the payment over the specific job roles. After assessing the roles and the position the payment has been evaluated. (Nayab, 2015)
Apart from the job specification the wages are also determined through experiences in the previous professions, salary history eligibility etc.
3.3 Assess in different contexts (for e.g. attracting talent, retention, motivation) how effective is the reward systems at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation
Reward system has been an efficient tool in attracting and retaining the employees and involving them in achievement of organisational goals. Through the reward system the organisations like Tesco has been attracting the current skills within the organisation and employment the current available human resource on yearly measures. Reward system is also needed for motivating the employees in retaining within the organisation. Payment reward system in necessary for satisfying the basic needs and non payment rewards like recognition, promotions, bonus schemes are needed for the motivation. (Sharma, 2015).
- Attracting talent: in order to attracting the talent Tesco has been using different schemes such as share our success, share in business, save as you earn, buy as you earn etc. these are mentioned within the job specification of Tesco. Through these reward system the interest among the current talents has been created. The flexibility within the working hours are also used for attracting the talents. (Sharma, 2015).
- Retention: pension schemes on retirement, development programmes, training etc are provided for the retention of the employees. Through these schemes and practices the organisation has been motivating the staffs.
- Motivation: through providing different benefits the employees of the Tesco has been motivating towards the organisational goals. This inertest has been used by Tesco management by providing fuel cards, car giving schemes, holidays, flexibility in the leaves and working shifts etc. The manager also maintains the work life balance theory to motivate the employees in increasing their productivity. (Sharma, 2015).
3.4 Examine the methods Virgin Media or your chosen organisation use to monitor employee performance.
The performances of the employees are the main concerning factor in the organisations like Tesco as these performances are linked with the organisational performances. Measuring the performances is necessary in order to implement enhanced performance criteria or improve the current performances. (Sironi, Bartolini, Campanoni, Cancare, Hoffmann, Sciuto, and Santambrogio, 2012) Through the performance supervision Tesco management has been providing performance measures to the employees which are helpful in evaluating the performances. The performance measurement and monitoring is needed for checking the progress. In which way the current skills and the capabilities of individuals will be enhanced can be indentified through the monitoring the performances.
- Observation: the front line managers have the responsibilities on monitoring the performances the staffs and the employees. The monitoring is conducted by comparing the performance over the targets. The direct observation has been effective as this can result in clear evaluation of the performances. The targets are used as the performance indicators or the parameters against the success. In the targets the SMART objectives are also used over the goals. (Sironi, Bartolini, Campanoni, Cancare, Hoffmann, Sciuto, and Santambrogio, 2012)
- Feedbacks: through taking feedbacks from the customers as well as from employees will be helpful in revealing the performances of employees. By analysing the feedbacks the necessary changes can also implemented in the performances. (Soilen, and Tontini, 2013).
- Performance appraisal: through the performance appraisal system Tesco managers are assessing the performances of the employees. Front line managers provide rating over the performances as well as they provide proper feedbacks over the individual performances. This is helpful in developing performance appraisal.
- Benchmarking tool: benchmarking is also an effective tool in monitoring and providing proper feedbacks over performance. This tool has been used by Tesco through analysing the organisational perspectives over the performance metrics of the employees. Comparisons over the standards are reviewed. (Sironi, Bartolini, Campanoni, Cancare, Hoffmann, Sciuto, and Santambrogio, 2012)
4.1 Identify the reasons for termination of Faisal’s employment contract with The Chicken Master and generally explain other reasons for cessation of employment.
Cessation of employment is the procedure which has been considered with the end of the employment or the end of the contract of employment. On violating any rules or policies of the organisation the employees is subjected to be terminated. (Garfield, 2011) Breaking any deal or terms which are presented in the employment contract the employee can be terminated by the employer.
In the case of Faisal the reasons behind the termination by Chicken Master are:
- Violating the rules which are specified within the guidelines of the organisation
- He is not capable to improving the working performances though training and development instruction has been given to him.
- Regularity in the presence or leaving the work while informing no one in the organisation
- Doing personal work in the working times of the organisation
- Immoral activities within the working time and using the organisational equipments for the purpose
- Lack of doing the allotted tasks or job role as cleaning work is not done on regular basis, lack of supervision was dropping the performances of the employees.
As Faisal was unable of doing his job and fulfilling the responsibilities which were expected from him the organisation Chicken Master was having issues in the services. The immoral attitude and behaviours towards the existing rules and culture of the organisation is also a reason behind Faisal’s termination. The code of conduct which was written within the guidelines of the organisation was not followed by Faisal. (Garfield, 2011)
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedures used by The Chicken Master and another organisation of your choice
The exit procedures are the set of actions which are followed by the organisation in terms of terminating any employee. These actions are followed by the organisational policies as well as the legal framework in order to avoid legal consequences. While terminating any employee the terms and conditions specified in the contract of the employment has been done. In the exit procedure the employees as well as the employers both have to follow the rules. (Garfield, 2011)
In case of Faisal, Chicken Master has followed certain exit procedure while terminating Faisal. Considering violation of rules and code of conducting breaking the organisational policies which are written over the guidelines, not maintaining standards within the performances, lack of understanding over the hygiene perspectives over the working place environment, regularity in presence and leaving without informing any authority, using the organisational equipments for own personal purpose. These issues within the performances of Faisal have been considered while terminating him.
The exit procedure of TESCO: there are certain stages within the exit procedure of organisation TESCO. Tesco follows all the legal and regulatory frameworks in the exit procedure. (Garfield, 2011)
- Retaining method: better compensation has been offered to the employee or giving other options
- Exit interview: If employee is determined over the decision of leave over the retention offered by management. Then the employee has to attain the exit interview with the personnel manager as well as store manager. Through this interview the management tries to figure out the reason behind the leave. In case of Tesco employee leaves for work stress and working time issues.
- Referencing: the management provide the documents and the references over the next job.
- Payment in lieu of notice: the dues are covered
- Return of property: the employee is asked to return any property of the organisation like uniform and other equipments which were provided by the organisation. (Garfield, 2011)
- Pension agreement on leave: if employee has been entitled for pension then this will be given to him.
4.3 Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements with an organisation such as The Chicken Master if Faisal’s claim was proven to be true.
There are different regulatory acts and frameworks which are related to the termination of the employee within an organisation. These acts are the equality act, discrimination act etc.
Through implementing the equality and antidiscrimination act the government tends to prohibit discrimination within the exit procedures. (Joshep, 2016)
In case of Faisal, after the termination he has filed case in the Employment Tribunal. He has mentioned that discrimination as well as inequality has been done with him in the exit procedures. He complained that the Chicken Master has appointed a woman who is under age of 40. This claim has been suggesting the inequality and discrimination of race, age and gender over the termination action taken by Chicken Master. Based on the case the Employment Tribunal can impose penalty over Chicken Master if the exit procedure will be proven to be illegal. If the Faisal’s claim will be proven to be true then the Chicken Master might has to face different circumstances in the legal procedure which can impact over the business. Penalties, implement can be charged against Bob or Chicken Master. (Joshep, 2016) This will also impact over the reputation of the business. On future perspectives the Employment Tribunal can impose further review over the exit procedures of Chicken Master. The organisation can also face issues in further employment procedures. (Joshep, 2016)
This assignment has been reflecting different concepts over the human resource management. These concepts are needed to be understood in order to have proper human resource management system within the organisation. The human resource management system has been evaluated from the personnel management. It has been considered as the modified version of the former. The human resource management has been considering the employees as the valuable resources. Motivation, training are added within the human resource management which are making the system more appropriate than personnel management. Job evaluation, job description, recruitment, selections, Hr planning etc are the integral part of the human resource management system. Through the HRM system the organisations like Tesco has been successful managing the vast human resource of the organisation.
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