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Unit 18 Human Resources Management in Hotels Assignment
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 18 Human Resources Management in Hotels
Unit 18 Human Resources Management in Hotels Assignment refers to the management of people to maximize their performances in service to achieve the organisation objectives of providing quality services to customer and to build and maintain the brand image of the hotel. The Human Resources Management Hotels Assignment will focus on the human resource management concept, their purpose and role in hotel Hilton as the hotel is planning for new hotel at Stratford city. It will also explain in context of HRM the current state of employee’s relation by keeping in mind that the hotel Hilton follows the employment laws in new hotel. Further in the next task, report will highlight the proper recruitment and selection process for the requirement of human staff in the hotel with respect to job description and job specification. At the end, it will depict the need of training and development sessions, their types and benefits that would help employees for improving efficiency and job performances.
1.1 Role and purpose of human resource management in selected service industry with reference to Hilton Hotel Stratford.
Human resource management is an art of mobilizing and managing people in the organization. It is done by applying different policies and practices which values human resource as a major benefit of an organization. Hilton Hotel Stratford is mainly concerned with the human administration, which includes recruitment, appraisal, grievance handling, reward, retirement registration, etc. Planning and forecasting leads to project labour needs and their effects on the business. HR department forecasts both long term and short term staffing needs which is based on office growth, projected sales, etc which affects company’s need of labour (Alfes et.al. 2013). The selection and recruitment process involves selection of best individuals from a pool of applicants. The manager considers selection process as one of the most critical decision function in organization.
A contract of employment is made which is a legal agreement between Hilton hotel and the employee, the contract is in a written format. It has full details about the job profile of the employee, salary assigned, rules and regulations of the hotel, facilities provided, etc. After the successful completion of training the employee deployed to a position as per his/her capabilities. An employee can be deployed from one position to another within Hilton hotel Stratford. Deployments are made in a fair, transparent and reasonable manner, taking Hilton hotel in account. Employees are regularly monitored to gather information about their locations and activities, superiors watch the behaviour of the employee at the workplace. If anyone’s behaviour would found problematic, proper actions are taken to correct it, like well organized training sessions and counselling (Lindström and Vanhala, 2013).
Hilton hotel Stratford considers training and development as an activity which has the aim of improving the job performance of individuals and groups. Training and development is important for the success and development of the organization. Training improves the skills, knowledge and capabilities of the employees for a particular job assigned. Training moulds the thinking of employees in a proper manner which leads to quality performance of employees.
Budget monitoring is a very important aspect of Hilton hotel as it just not verify the expenditure against the target but also identifies the changing patterns that needs to be corrected. Monitoring the budget discovers the variances between budgeted amount and actual financial performance, it helps in determining whether the organization goals are achieved or not. Hilton hotel’s works frequently on soft and hard HRM, soft HRM service emphasizes on individuals and their self direction, trust and self regulated behaviour towards organization goals. While hard HRM has main focus on rationalism of strategic fit and places emphasis on performance management, it is an instrumental approach to the management for individuals (Jamali et.al. 2013).
Human resource management helps to develop the skills of the employees. At Hilton hotel employees are been shifted around to different business functions based on employees preferences and business priorities. HRM suggests strategies for building employee’s commitment towards the organization and also matches employees with right positions according to their qualification.
1.2 Human resource plan based on the analysis of supply and demand
The human resource planning is the process by which Hilton hotel determines the staffing support they need to meet up the needs and demands of customers. Lots of considerations are made for planning like the availability of employees with certain skills, including impending retirements and transitions, etc. Steps followed in human resource planning are as follows:
- Analysing organizational objectives: The main objective of Hilton hotel is to analyse the objectives of the organization which includes marketing , production, expansion, finance and sales which provides overall idea about the work to be done (Stevenson, 2013).
- Inventory of present human resource: The current number of employees, capacity, their performances and potential has been analysed by human resource storage system. It is helpful in filling the various job requirements, might be from internal or external source be easily estimated.
- Forecasting demand and supply of human resource: According to job profiles and positions requirements of human resources are to be estimated. Internal and external sources available to fulfil those requirements are also measured. There should be a proper match of job specification and job description on one particular work, and profile of that person should be appropriate.
- Estimating Manpower Gaps: Human resource department compares human resource demand and supply, which provides information about deficit or surplus of human resource. Surplus tells that terminations are required and deficit tells requirement of new employees. To upgrade the skills of employees, proper development programs and trainings are done (Chen and Chen, 2015).
- Formulating human resource action plan: Human resource department plans are depended on whether there is surplus or deficit in human resource in the organization. According to it a plan is finalized which includes new recruitment, interdepartmental transfer and training if there is deficit of termination or voluntary retirement schemes.
- Monitoring control and feedback: Human resources are planned according the inventories and requirements that are updated over a period. The plan is strictly monitored and the deficiencies are identified and sacked. There is a comparison between human resource plan and the actual implementation, which ensures that appropriate action and availability of the required number of employees for various jobs.
Factors influencing human resource planning:
- Employment: Human resource planning is mostly affected by the employment situation in the country, if there is more unemployment there will be more pressure on the Hilton hotel from government to employ more and more people. If there is lack of skilled labour, then hotel will hire people from other countries also (Chan et.al. 2016).
- Organizational changes: There are regular changes in the Hotel Hilton, the organization keeps on upgrading the culture and system of the hotel and also shuts down some old systems. Due to all this there is always a need of removing and appointing new employees as per the requirements.
- Technical changes in the society: As the technology is changing very fast, new people are required with new upgraded knowledge to cope up with new challenges. Sometime Hilton hotel retains their old employees and teach them new technology.
2.1 Employment relations in Hotel Hilton
Employment relation and employee relation are the term often used interchangeably. The relationship exist when employee work or provide services in exchange of remuneration to the employer. The proper communication between the management of hotel Hilton and employees concerning unionisation like collective bargaining, structure, culture, employee participation, involvement and conflict management, decisions and grievances etc is necessary. The following points to be considered for employees relations:
- Collective bargaining: In service industry, the employees always bargain with the employers in terms and conditions of the employment. Collective bargaining is generally recognised by trade unions. The trade union leader represents him on the behalf of the all staff in front of the organisation and puts employee demands with respect to labour hours, wages, working environment, health coverage and other grievances etc. The collective bargaining is so effective that it can shut down the business of the organisation for costly period of time if demands are not considered by the hotel (Zirar et.al. 2015). The organisation usually finds a suitable course of action in setting up the agreement of trade union.
- Employee participation:It is also plays a major role in employment relation because in service industry especially in hotel sectors the need for the staff arises as hotel Hilton is planning to provide multiple services like gift shop, foreign currency exchange, baggage storage, safety deposit box services etc for that the hotel required huge man power staff. Employee participation would be achieved through training and development sessions, providing job satisfaction, promotions and incentives.
- Culture of the hotel: Every organisation has its own culture and values. The culture depicts that how the organisation treats its employees. Strict guidelines and procedures, punishment over reward de-motivate the staff to work for the organisation which reduces their morale and creates fear in employees. On the other hand workplace flexibility, attractive reward system boost the morale of the staff and builds the productivity in them and thus generate the quality services.
- Structure: Prior, organisation are using the hierarchy structure i.e. formal structure where the employee were given the instructions to follow the same they do not have right to participate the decision making and communication flow was too restrictive but with the coming era, the organisation is switching over informal structure where the employees has flexibility in working and participation in decision making (Kersley et.al. 2013).
- Grievances and disciplinary procedures: In hotel Hilton, proper method has been framed to solve the conflicts and employees issues related to the business of the employer. The employees are free to put their complaints through complaint box and issue are given due consideration by having a meeting with the employees personally. The disciplinary procedures are inbuilt to deal with employee’s misconduct.
2.2 The affects of Employment laws in human resource management in hotel Hilton
Employment Laws protect the interest of employees and labours. It shows the relationship between management with workers, trade unions and the government. There is variety of act that provides the legislation for protection measures of employees which can be solved through court rulings, collective bargain conditions or customary rulings. The following acts that are required to be followed by the hotel Hilton:
- Employment Relations Act (ERA): The act provides a formation for employers and union to bargain and enter into collective agreements and employers and employees to bargain and enter into individual agreements. For protection of interest, act establishes the employment relation authority to deal and examine the facts of the case and then give their decisions. Hotel Hilton by following this act would be benefited in achieving the trust of the employees toward management and employees in return will get job security and satisfaction (Meijerink et.al. 2016).
- Employees Rights Act: The act provides the similar guidelines as ERA and re-introduces its bill in the US Senate. The act has given power to employees to have their minimum rights like rest and meals breaks, minimum wages, eleven public holidays per year, fixed terms employees, flexible workplace and many more. The affect on HRM in hotel Hilton would be on wages and hour, leave provisions. The HR manager should train and supervise the employees for taking the leave for eligible reason and employees are given job protection during the leave.
- Equal opportunities Act: This act prohibits the discrimination in employment or provides the provision for training on the grounds of age, disability, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion, sex etc. The hotel Hilton should consider this act in the workplace and avoid discrimination on any ground. The personal opinion of the HR manager should not be come in between for the selection and recruitment procedure for the employees (Li, H. Et.al. 2013). Equal and fair chance should be given to eligible candidate irrespective of gender, religion or sex. At workplace equal importance to every employees and understanding the need of individual employees should be the HRM practices.
- Contracts of employments and their termination: The terms and condition in the contract is resignation procedures, redundancy procedures, ill health retirements, maternity and parental leave, advisory, conciliation and arbitration services (ACAS) etc. The termination is also done through the proper procedure. Termination can be through employee i.e. resigning and through employer on ground of misconduct, inefficiency or any other valid reason. The employer generally gives the notice period according to the statutory requirement or contract of employments (Boella and Goss-Turner, 2013). The HR manager of hotel Hilton would have to carefully analyse this terms and condition framed by them and clearly specifies the respective candidate before offering them the job letter. The positive impact would be on HRM that they are fulfilling their jobs on their part and also employee will get assurance about the job security and satisfaction.
3.1 Job description and job specification in service industry
Job description refers to the specifics of the job on the basis of job analysis. It encompasses the job roles, purpose, responsibilities, duties, scope and working condition. It is just like the portfolio for the job which is prepared by the hotel Hilton. HR department frame the job description under which employees will work:
Job title: -Cleaning Staff
Salary: - $6000 - $10000
Job purpose: - Cleaning staff job would be to clean the rooms, bathrooms, all types of halls, washing walls and glass, garden area, lobby area, maintain the cleaning equipments and keeping safe in working conditions and performing routine maintenance activity.
Duties and Responsibilities:-
- Good in listening skill and team work.
- Must have the proper knowledge about the operating cleaning equipments of hotel.
- Candidate must be able to complete the given activity on time (Bowen, 2016)
- Candidate must be able to handle the practical situations and easily provide solutions to the clients.
- Candidate should be physically strong and mobile to kneel and bend according to the work.
Person specification refers to the description of qualification, knowledge, skills required, experience and other attributes which the eligible candidate should have to perform his/her duty. Person specification is framed on the basis of job description. Hotel Hilton provides the requirement of the candidate in job specification (Hoque, 2013). Different Job specification are prepared for different job vacancies depending upon the requirement for example if chef employee is required in hotel then he should have the knowledge of hotel marketing management.
- High school diploma or equivalent preferred
- Knowledge of cleaning the operating equipment, sensitive materials and sanitation products
- 1 year experience is preferred.
- Must have listening and communication skills
- Possess coordination with the teams
- Must have the knowledge of proper disposal of wastage or recycle uses.
- Updated with organisation safety and security procedures.
- Must be loyal and honest towards his task
- Flexible in all working timings (Wood and Horwitz, 2015).
3.2 Comparison of the selection process of different service industry
The selection process of the organisation is conducted by the HR department. The HR department selects the eligible candidate to fulfil the needs of human resource management . The process identifies the right job to the right person at the right time. The benefits of the selection is that the management would have the experienced candidate and takes less time to adapt the new changes and explore the skills of the candidate which would save the cost of the hotel in training the new employees after appointment and they can provide guidance on the job. Selection process includes, identifying the suitable candidate and this is done by analysing their resumes that they receive and after that they shortlist the best candidates and they give a call or mail to the candidate for further process i.e. interview. This is the most preferred method for selection of the candidates (N. Torres and Kline, 2013) While selection, the management too faces the barriers in selecting like ineffective recruitment means not able to attract the candidate toward their organisation, perception of the manager also act as a barrier in selecting the suitable candidate because everyone perceive the world differently. The other barriers like gender, age, race, fairness, quota system, reliability, favourism and cost and time etc.
It is has been seen that the hotel Hilton hires the candidate from external sources like online advertisement on job websites, newspaper advertisement. Different organisation follows different selection process. The selection depends upon the working conditions of different organisation and culture, values and practices. Service industry like Thomas Cook follows different selection process from hotel Hilton selection process. Thomas Cook prefers the experienced candidate whereas the Hilton hotel prefers for fresher candidate as well experienced candidate with good communication skills. This is because in hotel industry changes takes frequently new fresh employees will able to resist the change as compare to experienced staff (Mok et.al. 2013). Hotel Hilton hire candidate on written test and personal interview where as Thomas cook hire on the experience of the candidate and verbal test.
For hiring the cleaning staff in hotel Hilton, the manager will evaluate the capability of the candidate and whether he has experience and matches with the person specification, it matched the management will hire the candidate. On the other hand, Thomas cook focuses on experience staff with good communication skills. With the clear study about the selection process of different service industry the organisation hires the suitable candidates. Experienced is the foremost requirement in Thomas cook on the contrary hotel Hilton focus on capability and potential of the candidates. While selecting the managers should also possess the necessary skills like qualification, confident and presentable and responsible for interview conduct (Tang and Tang, 2012).
From the current study, the report had explained that human resource management is too important in service industry. It had described the concept of HRM with the need of HRM planning, role and purpose, their relationship with management. In the next task, it had very well depicted the employment relations by following the different employment act in hotel Hilton. The organisation laid importance implication on recruitment and selection process in different service industries by taking example of hotel Hilton and Thomas cook. At the last, report concluded about the training session, their needs and analysis and comparison with the development debates in hotel Hilton.
Books and Journals
Alfes, K., Truss, C., Soane, E.C., Rees, C. and Gatenby, M., 2013. The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: Examining the mediating role of engagement. Human resource management, 52(6), pp.839-859.
Boella, M. and Goss-Turner, S., 2013. Human resource management in the hospitality industry: A guide to best practice. Routledge.
Bowen, D.E., 2016. The changing role of employees in service theory and practice: An interdisciplinary view. Human Resource Management Review, 26(1), pp.4-13.
Chan, A.T., Ngai, E.W. and Moon, K.K., 2016. The Effects of Strategic and Manufacturing Flexibilities and Supply Chain Agility on Firm Performance in the Fashion Industry. European Journal of Operational Research.
Chen, Y. and Chen, W., 2015. Research on the Internal Marketing of Human Resources Department Based on Perspective of Both Supply and Demand.
Hoque, K., 2013. Human resource management in the hotel industry: Business strategy, innovation and performance. Routledge
Jamali, D.R., El Dirani, A.M. and Harwood, I.A., 2015. Exploring human resource management roles in corporate social responsibility: the CSR?HRM co?creation model. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(2), pp.125-143.
Kersley, B., Alpin, C., Forth, J., Bryson, A., Bewley, H., Dix, G. and Oxenbridge, S., 2013. Inside the workplace: findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Routledge.
Li, H., Ye, Q. and Law, R., 2013. Determinants of customer satisfaction in the hotel industry: an application of online review analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 18(7), pp.784-802.
Lindström, S. and Vanhala, S., 2013. Performance in local government HRM: the role of external customers. Baltic Journal of Management, 8(3), pp.252-268.
Meijerink, J.G., Bondarouk, T. and Lepak, D.P., 2016. Employees as Active Consumers of HRM: Linking Employees’ HRM Competences with Their Perceptions of HRM Service Value. Human resource management, 55(2), pp.219-240.
Mok, C., Sparks, B. and Kadampully, J., 2013. Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge.
N. Torres, E. and Kline, S., 2013. From customer satisfaction to customer delight: Creating a new standard of service for the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), pp.642-659.