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ASDA is UK’s second largest chain of supermarket, focussed on selling of food, clothing, electronics, toys, etc. In the report, human resource management (HRM) and personnel management have been discussed of ASDA. The need of the recruitment and selection procedure, role of the line manager, effectiveness of the selection procedure and job evaluation has been discussed successfully. Focus is made on the reward system in the organization, to keep the employees motivated.
Human resource management is the new version of personnel management. There is not much difference between HRM and personnel management (Armstrong.et.al, 2012). Few differences are discussed below:
Table 1 Difference between personnel management and human resource management
Human resource management
1. PM is a traditional approach of managing the people in the organization
1. HRM is a modern approach of managing the people and their strengths in the organization
2. Main focus is on employees welfare and labour relation
2. Main focus is on development, motivation and maintenance of human resources
3. It assumes workforce as a input for achieving desired goals
3. It assumes workforce as valuable and important resource for achieving the desired goals
4. Under PM, job design is done on the basis of division of labour
4. Under HRM, job design is done on the basis of group work and team work
5. Under PM, personnel function is undertaken for employee’s satisfaction
5. Under HRM, administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement
6. PM provides less training and development opportunities
6. Here there is more emphasis on training and development programs
7. Its main focus is to increase the production and satisfy the employees
7. HRM’s main focus is on culture, effectiveness and employee’s participation
8. The rules and the regulations to be followed in the organisation is decided by the top management and there is no consideration of employees view in it.
8. The decision making is collective and employees also contribute their views which can be the basis of decision making
9. Personnel management is a traditional function.
9. HRM is a strategic function.
From the above given differences it is clear that HRM has focus on modernizing the organization, it concentrates on monitoring, control and planning aspects of resources whereas personnel management has large focus on mediating between employees and management. (Storey, 2014)
Human resource planning has an important role in building an organization. It helps ASDA to muster the recruited resources and help in achieving the goals of the organization. The main reasons for human resource planning are:
Future manpower needs:For the smooth operation of the organization, HRM ensures that skilled manpower is available all the time. Its main focus is on the future availability of the manpower to carry organizational activities.
Figure 1 Manpower need
(Source: Human resource planning in organizations, 2016)
Recruitment of Talented personnel:ASDA always need talented personnel for their work, so HR plan and recruits new talents to the organization. It determines the Human resource needs and accesses the available HR inventory level. (Bratton.et.al, 2012)
Development of Human Resources:HR organizes various training programs related to the development of human resources; it is an important part of human resource planning. HR planner identifies the skills required for the jobs at various levels.
Proper utilization of human resources:HR planning assures that organization is using the human resource is a proper and effective manner. It helps in recruiting and assessing skilled human resource.
Uncertainty reduction:Due to proper HR planning the uncertainties occurring in the organization reduces. As everything has been planned in advance, there are very less chances of uncertainties. (Purce, 2014)
Supply forecasting:Due to proper planning, forecast is made in advance about the requirements of the organization. It estimates future requirement of manpower and work accordingly.
ASDA need to consider the legal and regulatory framework on the HRM practices for the smooth functioning between the employers and employees. Though the organisation had received numerous awards on the part of job commitment to employees, yet it essential to follow the equality act, consider the rights and responsibility of employees, terms and conditions of the job and personal data protection of the employees. The organisation would have positive impact by equality act at workplace which eliminate every type of discrimination based on age, gender, sex, religion etc, promotes equal opportunity and provide equal wages to men and women based on their performance in the organisation (Goergan.et.al, 2016). The organisation should clearly specifies the terms and conditions of the contract that provides a legal requirement for protection of employees and once the written document is signed it has legal enforcement and bind the employer as well to employee.
Figure 2 Legal framework
(Source: Rules and regulations in HRM, 2016)
With that the employees are also get benefited by receiving job safety and job satisfaction and they get motivated that organisation has a culture to work according to legal framework. On a part of regulatory framework, the organisation should define compensation reward for working overtimes; promote labour relation through framing union. ASDA should also be aware on the employees safety provide them healthy working environment and the data of the employees are protected and should not used unless suspicion. The organisation should frame a policy so that there is awareness among the employees about the prevailing legal restrictions. This is important for the employees to avoid any kind of violation. For e.g. in the finance department of ASDA, the employees are prohibited to carry pen drives as financial data of the organisation is at risk. Thus all the employees are informed and messages are displayed stating that carrying pen drive is prohibited, By deploying strong legal and regulatory framework, the growth of the employees would be assured and the business will prosper new heights. (Koukiadak.et.al, 2016)
ASDA line manager has a responsibility to manage the individual employees or teams. In organisation the role of manager is to provide supervision to the employees in their operations. They engage the employees in the decision making by promoting the culture to work in team. The manager evaluates the strengths and encourages for open communication to build the employees efficiency. There role is not only limited to engaging the employee but they are also measure the performance by the different method (Alfes.et.at, 2013). The line manager should use the feedback method for monitoring which will ensure correct appraisal and their duty is reward the employees for better performances.
Figure 3 Role of line manager
(Source: line managers in the organization, 2015)
It is the responsibility of the line manager to maintain the discipline at the workplace. This can be fulfilled by framing policies and procedures by the HR department. And it’s the duty of the manager to himself follow these policies and then only he can guide to his team. In ASDA the employees are promoted incentives and bonus based on performance pay structure and it’s the responsibility of the line manager to prepare the report on performance to the upper management. The report should be bias free the right employees should receive the right incentive and it would also display the quality of the line manager that equal opportunity is given to every employee by giving performance incentives. The HR department of ASDA gives training to the line manager for correctly rating the performance of the employees so that random selection of employees is done for appraisal (Beringer.et.al, 2013).
ASDA objective is to achieve the trust of the employees and customer toward the organisation product and services along with meeting the objective of providing excellent customer services. The objectives are only possible when the HRM function of the organisation is working efficiently. The functions are:
Employee relation: -This function is important for achieving the trust between the employer and employee. For strengthening the employer and employee relation, through monitoring job satisfaction, workplace conflict etc. Strong employee relation in ASDA would enjoy the safe working environment for the employee which would achieve the ASDA objectives of building the trust (Stone, 2013).
Training and development: -Employees are required with competencies to ensure proper availability of methods of training and latest tools. Training must be provided to the areas which are imperfect; work should be done in filling those gaps by applying available training tools. Training is an important feature of an organization, which cannot be discarded as training, is beneficial for the employees. Training is the best investment done by the company as it will help in understanding the given project in a much easier way. The HR should analyse the post training benefits by monitoring the performances of the employees at every level.
Recruitment: -This function is performed by the HR manager and it’s the duty of the manager to fill the vacant job by appointing the right candidate at the right place. ASDA appoint the candidate on the basis of online recruitment and after receiving the resumes the manager shortlist the eligible candidate. While recruiting the HR manager takes into account the two vital documents i.e. job description and personal specification of the candidate (Greenwood, 2013). This function helps in achieving the qualified candidate which will provide satisfactory services to the customers at instant.
Figure 4 Recruitment process
(Source: Selection and recruitment process, 2016)
Goal harmony: -HRM acts as a bridge between the individual and the organizational objectives. Employees would not perform well if their goals are different from the organization goals. To utilize the organizational resources properly and effectively there should be a proper match between the individual goals and organization goal.
Employee satisfaction: - HRM provides lots of facilities and opportunities to develop the career of the employee, this increase the job commitment and satisfaction. A satisfied employee will give his best performance always; this will lead to high performance of the employees.
ASDA’s recruitment and selection process is different from that of Google or Apple. Applicants need to register on ASDA’s online recruitment system. The HR team is responsible for finalising and selection of candidates for interview.. The team mainly focus on job description and personal specification. The job description illustrates job specifications and personal specification outlines the desirable and essential personal qualities and skills required for the role. This would help managers to select candidate which are best suited for the job. ASDA’s assessment centre known as ‘ASDA Magic’ provides candidates to show their strengths which are aligned to the beliefs, culture and ways of working of the organization. When there is an internal recruitment, an appraisal would help in the selection process.
On the other hand organization like apple has different recruitment procedure. Every applicant whose resume got shortlisted need to go through 3 or 4 rounds of interview. The result of the 1st interview is been given after 2 to 4 weeks. The first interview is a group interview where applicant has to sit with other 15 candidates (Townley, 2014). During this interview Apple would ask social questions and also of a people person that would Apple really wants. After 1st interview, candidate would be present for a role play scenario, in which they have to act as Apple customer and employee both. Managers keep focus on dressing sense, smile and question asking way of the candidate. After clearing the interview, there will be background check of the candidate. The 2nd interview will be notified after 2 to 6 days through a telephonic conversation asking the candidates about their opinion about Apple. After this the candidate is required to come for a last and final interview where he would be asked about the past job experiences and way of handling situations.
The recruitment and selection procedure plays an important role in development of the organization. To get the best returns of investment, the organization need to select the best candidate. It is a quantifiable measurement that can be evaluated against the benchmarks and encourage behaviours mainly focused on the client experience and candidate quality. When the organization selects an employee, train them well and treat properly as they want employee to stay longer in the organization. Organization may have latest technology and gadgets but if it does not have good employees then it is of no use.
ASDA is aware of the importance of getting right people in the organization. It will be expensive if a bad employee is chosen. Organization need to know the technical competency of the employee. If the employee is not professional at his work, he may create mistake which is harmful for the organization. So the recruitment process plays important role here and proper training is must for every employee. (Stone.et.al, 2013)
An employee performance is the mirror for the organization’s performance. ASDA monitor their employee, how they are completing the job, what character they hold and evaluate their performances. Some of the methods which are used to monitor their performances are:
Punctuality:Employees who are not punctual at the work place are always unproductive. Frequently absent from the workplace would lead to performance lack for the organization. A punctual employee would come on time, complete the assigned task and be productive for the organization. Issues with punctuality means an employee is performing with his full potential.
Quality of work:The quality of work an employee producing is most important for the organization. Timely finishing a given project to a desired standard is the main factor in measuring employee performance. The organization analyse that the employee is putting maximum effort for the project or not. If there is an attitudinal problem with employee then it may affect the performance of organization and employee both (Wang.et.al, 2014).
Observe personal habits: Continuous bad habits from employee can detract their performance. Taking unauthorized breaks, office gossips, disruptive behavior, misusing organization properties for personal use, etc are count as bad habits. ASDA clears what behavior accepted in the organization and also issued appropriate behaviour code.
Check their attitude:A bad attitude will always be harmful for the organization. An employee should have a positive attitude always towards the organization. Bad attitude shows employee is not interested in doing work and his sincerity level is very low.
Review personal presentation:Personal presentation is very important for an employee in the organization. ASDA has a professional dress code and follows a company culture. Employees who present a dishevelled or careless appearance reflect bad image.
Human resource planning (HRP) is important for an organisation as it allows the organisation to meet its HRM requirement as well as helps in selecting the apt candidate for the job. The forecast regarding the demand of human resources in future is important for planning of human resources. The HRP are:
Analyzing organizational objectives:The objectives of the organization such as marketing, production, expansion and sales give an idea about the job to be performed in the organization.
Inventory of present human resources:Data like like current number of employees, their performance, capacity and potential are always kept in the human resource storage system. For filling the various job requirements, internal and external sources can be estimated (Flamholtz, 2012).
Estimating manpower gaps:Comparing the human resource available and the human resource required would help in estimating the requirement of the manpower. If there is deficiency of manpower then there is a need of new employees to be recruited. On the other hand if there is over crowding of the employees, then termination of employees is required.
Forecasting demand and supply of human resource:Estimation of human resource requirement for different positions according to their job profile is needed to be done. The available external and internal resources are to be measured. There should be a proper match between the job description and job specification of a particular job.
Formulating human resource action plan:HR action plan depends on whether there is surplus or deficit in the organization. According to that new recruitment, training and transfers been made.
Monitoring, control and feedback:It involves implementation of the HR plan. According to the requirements human resources are allocated. Continuous monitoring on HR is made and actions are taken as per the requirement.
Cessation of employment is as important as recruitment process as it contributes to balancing the organization. When cessation arrangement is made in the organization, attention is made that it should consider all the requirements of legal issues. The reason for cessation may be various; some of them are discussed below:
The cessation of employment can take place on the will of the employee, organization or may be due to the necessity of the organization. Mostly cessation is done by the organization; it may be a dismissal, termination, redeployment or redundancy. Dismissal results in cessation of employment, it can be done by the organization without the will of the employee. The dismissal can be done on several reasons; these reasons should be legally justified for the fair dismissal. The reason may employee’s misconduct or unfair practice which resulted in breaking of rules, incapacity of the employee to perform well his duties because of illness or disability (Mowday.et.al, 2013). Dismissal can also be done if some restriction or statutory duty prohibits employees for continuing employment. Termination can also occur at the will of the employee, when he or she decides to resign from the organization, reason may be employee not feeling comfortable at the workplace or with other employees.
Another reason of cessation may be retirement when the employee reaches the legal age of retirement, the employment with the organization ends. In addition to the above factors for cessation, employment with the organization ends in terms of contract with ASDA.
Employment exit procedure is the process used within the organization to terminate the employee’s contract in a professional manner. ASDA and Google both the companies are paying attention of staff turnover percentages. Organizations are very much dedicated in finding new talented employee for their projects, that why they follow an exit procedure also. Organizations are taking exit interviews also who are leaving the job; this gives opportunity to sack the shortcomings in the organization as criticism helps organizations to change their policies. These organizations listens to the staff directly who are going to leave the job, and not to the managers. The common reasons found for leaving the job are salary issue, challenging work environment, promotion issue and discrimination (Ami.et.al, 2013). Organizations want to keep the employees who are beneficial for the organization. The exit procedure has a checklist:
Termination of an employment relationship is one of the most important because it affects both the parts badly. There are many reasons that owner look at the legal structure of their organization. Going into business requires planning and strategy, the most important in success of the business it to understand the laws to run the firm. All strategy and planning must consider the mass of state, local and federal laws and business practices that govern the operation of the business. One must choose the legal structure for the business that best suits needs of the organization, there before entering into the business all things must be clear. Legal laws before terminating an employee must be clear to employer; otherwise one has to face offence.
HRM has found there is need of motivation development programs which are also job specific. Motivation, self control and creativeness are the characters which every organization should focus on. The success of the organization is totally dependent on the managing techniques followed there. In today’s changing world the organizations need to adapt changes proactively. There should be a balance between the organization and the employees.
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