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Unit 18 Assignment on HRM in guest Model
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 18 HRM in guest Model
Over the past few decades, human resource management became very popular term in the top managerial approaches that is aimed to reorder the employment relationship in any organization for ensuring that the efforts of the employees are strategically focused in order to achieve superior quality organizational and individual performances. In the recent times, all of the organization is now paying attention to the bonding between the employees and HR practices so an effective organizational performance can be achieved. This Unit 18 Assignment on HRM in guest Model is intended to describe HRM as the approaches to manage the human resource in Unilever.
Task 1: LO 1
1.1 Guests model of HRM
Guest’s model generally focuses on the differentiation between the compliances and commitments. According to this model, planning in Unilever must involve a pursuit for enhancing the venture through integration and utilization of the human resource for implementing their unique capabilities in the work.As opined by Cascio (2012), Guests model has 6 dimension of the analysis that are HRM strategy, HRM outcomes, HRM practices, performance outcomes, financial outcomes and behavior outcomes. This model is based on the assumption that HRM is different from the traditional personnel management. This model is implicitly embodying on the belief that fundamental elements of HRM approach like commitment have as direct relationship with different consequences of business. Guest argued that the HRM in the Unilever must be involved the designing practices and policies of the business for achieving some outcomes like high commitment from the employee, strategic integration in the organization, high level of flexibilityand adaptability for the workforce and a quality workforce for organization. Strategic integration assured that the business plan of the organization isimplemented through the properly designed policies and practices of the HR (Stone, 2013).
Implementation and formulation of policy for change describe establishments of the HR policy for identifying the nature of the change that is necessary for any business environment to manage the change. Training and development and employee appraisal involves both formal and informal evaluation of the performances of employee and the necessity for training and development. After the evaluation of all these, it is important to place the policy in order to maintain effective development and training of the employee. In this process, effective communication is very much important because effective communication can helps any organization to maintain two-way flow of the message between the employees and management.
According to Hustled (2011), Guest proposed that the four outcome of the HRM helps any organization to achieve some outcome like stronger problem solving capabilities, high level of job performances, improvement in the cost effectiveness and consistent with the strategic goals. Guests demonstrated that those outcomes could be achieved if coherent strategy of nay organization is integrated into the business strategy of any organization. For the identification of thehuman resources and organizational outcomes, it is important for the Unilever to implement some policies regarding
- Recruitment, socialization and selection
- Training, development and appraisal
- Flows of the labor
- Communication system in the organization
- Job and organizational design
- Formulation, Management and implementation of the change
If Unilever implement those strategies thenhuman resourceoutcome can be effective commitment, quality, flexibility or adaptability and strategic planning. On the other hand, organizational outcome can be low turnover, low absence, high level of problem solving, high level of job performance by employees, low grievance level among employees and high cost effectiveness.
1.2 Comparison between the Storey’s definition of the HRM, IR practices and personnel:
As stated by Delery and Doty (2013), there are several differences between HRM, IR practices and personal management. Main aim of the PM and IR is togain the commitment from the employees and satisfying the requirements of the stakeholders. On the other hand, HRM is one of the theoretical strategic approaches that can help any organization to achieve competitive advantage. Storey has established a model that can help any organization to make a shift from the IR and PM to the HRM. There are four main version of the HRM according to the theory of the Storey are HRM is the central of the involvement of the line managers, it is gathering of the belief as well as assumptions. Along with that, it also stated that HRM is a strategic thrust that informs decision regardingmanagement of people and it is dependence upon the set of levels for shaving the employment related relationships (Becker and Gerhart, 2011).Under this theoretical approach differences between the HRM against the IR and PM is:
- Strategic aspects:IR and PM takes time to take any decision where HRM takes several customer oriented approaches in a faster approach.
- Assumptions and belief:HRM required encouraging employees where IR and PM needed to make a careful delineation of the contract.
- Key levers: Marketing communication in the IR and PM is very much restricted which is increased in case of HRM.
- Line management:Management role in case of HRM is transformational that is transactional in case of IR and PM.
1.3 Implication for line manager and employees to develop a strategic approach:
For achieving the competitive advantage, any organization must change their old ways to conduct their business where most of the obstruction and the responsibility for the change are fall into the first line manager of the HR. They share responsibilities as well as burden with other different line manager as well as employees. As stated by Armstrong and Taylor (2014), first line manager plays a crucial role for making different strategies related to the HRM because they are responsible for the execution of different HR practices (Huselid, 2011). Making those strategies is very much important because without this there are huge possibilities that organization will not make any progress to meet their business goals. Line manager of any organization may face different types of problems regarding rapidly changing environments, decreasing level of work force, and increasing level of gap between required and available skills.
Therefore, in order to develop a strategic approach in Unilever and to decrease the entire problem, line manger needs those employees that are multi-skilled and committed, towards mission and vision of the organization. In order to cope with the changes, HR manager and employees require a range of skills so a productive environment can be generated. However, along with that, HR department of the Unilever must full support to their HR manager for the identification of the skills, core knowledge’s and abilities of their employee so they can help their organization to get competitive advantage (Wright and McMahan, 2012). In order to make line managers and employees more efficient to achieve the competitive advantage, Unilever must provide training regarding change management as well as decision-making, creation of the positive environment and maintenance of a collaborative environment in the organization.
Task 2: LO 2
2.1 Explanation of the model of flexibility:
Flexibility of any organization can be referred as the ability of any organization to move employees to any other duties or responsibilities in any given organization. Flexibility is good for both the employers and employees so it can make things right for the employees and employers. Unilever is one of the business ventures that runs their business operations in different continents and exhibits varying level of labor condition and time zones (Wright and McMahan, 2012). In order to achieve flexibility in the organization, Unilever applies the Shamrock organization model. Shamrock organization hasthat organizational structure that has three distinct parts. Among them, the first part presents the main or core staff of the organization. This core staff is the highly trained employee of the organization that are working in the senior level management. The next leaf in this organizational structure is the individual who are working in contract law; they are those individuals who once worked in the organization but now supplying services to the organization. Among different leafs the third leaf consists those worker who are closed to the organization for feeling a degree of the commitment and are liable to maintain the high level of standard in the organization (Delaney and Huselid, 2013). Handy describe the Shamrock organization as the core workers as well as executives that are surrounded by the different part time employees and the outside contractors. This structure can help Unilever by permitting them buying in services whenever required by reducing the overhead costs whenever possible.
2.2 Discuss different types of flexibility in any organization:
There are mainly three kinds of flexibility that are adapted by the Unilever that are:
- Functional flexibility:Functional flexibility is sought so that employees can reorganize smoothly as well as quickly between the tasks and activities of any organization. Through this flexibility, Unilever move their worker between direct and indirect production job or through this flexibility, they provide the facilities to the employees to change their overall careers. Along with the change in the production and products, same labor forces also changes in both the short and long-term basis.
- Financial flexibility:The Unilever for mainly two reasons seeks this flexibility, among them, the first one is employment costs and pay must reflect the demand and supply in the external market for the labor. As stated by Dass and Parker (2010), the significance of this implemented between the differentials and relatives between the worker’s groups for reducing the wages. The second reason describe that pay flexibility means shifting to the new type of remuneration and pay structure for facilitating either functional or numerical flexibility like the shifting to the assessment based payment system in spite of the rate for the job paying system.
- Numerical flexibility:The Unilever seeks this kind of flexibility so the headcount can be smoothly decreased or increased in the line even during the changes in the demand for labor in short term basis. This flexibility helps to implement the hire and fire policy more easily and this hiring gives way to make looser prescribed relationship between both the worker and manager.
2.3 Utilization of the flexible working practices from both the employer and employee perspectives:
There are several flexible working practices that are implementedby Unilever form both the employer and employee perspectives. Different flexible working methods are:
- Employment of part time or temporary staff:Unilever hired temporary and part time staff for managing the increasing level of work demand or seasonal fluctuation in the industry (Delery and Doty, 2013). They hired some part time employees for the cost cutting purposes because those employees do not get any extra facilities from the organization but organization gets benefit from them as ifafull time employee that helps organization saves their investments.
- Teleworking:Unilever provides these facilities for the maternity purposes and helps their employee by providing them the facilities to work from their home with the same pay structure.
- Zero hours contract:Unilever provides their employeesthis facility to achieve a huge productivity from their labor (Arthur, 2014). According to this contract, employers are not obliged for providing any minimum working hours and employees are not obliged to accept any offered work.
- Annual hours:For some employees, Unilever maintainan annual hour and make a contract with them that states the number of working hours in which employees are liable to provide their effort. This flexibility is applicable for the top-level employees.
- Job sharing:Unilever provides this flexibility to their employees, according to which any employee can share their job with another employees and the employee who will share their job is liable to provide compensation to that employee with whom he/she will share their job.
- Compressed hours:Unilever sometimes maintain this working hours that allow their employee to work for 35-40 hours in a week that is less than the traditional number of working hours.
2.4 Impact of the changes in the labor market that have flexible working practices:
There are several changes across the labor market that affect the flexible working hours and models in different and varying level of aspects. In this context, the major changes involve the implementation of the models. As stated by Armstrong and Taylor (2014), labor market across the worlds is rapidly changing. Itis currently showing a trend to support different typesof talent that is completely different from the previous specialization trends, which affect the practices positively. For example, implementation of the flexibility determines where and when the personal work of nay organization will be easy and inexpensive. For this reasons, Unilever have the increasing level of workforce who are willing to take different part time jobs after the completion of their shifts. It can be said that, due to the flexible working practices, practices related to work on other organization is increasing in an alarming rate that increases the expenditure related to traditional businesses.
Task 3: LO 3 Understanding the equal opportunity impact in the work place:
3.1 Explaining the different forms of discrimination that takes place in the work sector
Equal opportunity in an organization refers to the fair treatment that should be provided by the management to its employees irrespective of the age, gender, sex and religious belief. Equal opportunity in the organization facilitates the employees to work in a potential manner without facing any difficulty in the working environment. On the other hand, discrimination refers to the ill treatment that is performed by the management in the organization that discriminate the employees in terms of their religious beliefs, sex, age, and race. It is with the discrimination that is showed by the organization to its employee’s makes the employees feel not fit for the work in the work place and feel like an outsider working in the respective company (Delery, 2013, p.802). There are different types of discrimination that takes place in the work place are as follows:
Discrimination in terms of age where the individual is treated in an ill manner which includes not hiring any young worker as it would make them move away in search of another job. It also implies not to hire any mature employee as the employee would retire in short time. The other discrimination includes in terms of gender (Stone, 2013, p.56). The women’s are especially considered as the incapable of working for longer period and therefore the women’s are not paid equally like the men’s for the same work. Religious discrimination is another form of discrimination that takes place in the organization that forbids the employee to follow their religion fundamentally and therefore they are treated as outsiders. Racial discrimination is another form of discrimination that is seen in many work sectors in which the employees belonging from the lower caste are looked down upon them. On the other hand, the employees belonging from a higher class are treated superior and are provided with several services and opportunities in the work place.
3.2 Discussing the practical implications of equal opportunities legislation
Equal opportunity refers to the equal treatment that should be possessed by the organizations to all the employees working in the work place. That refers to the fair treatment of the employees and all are to be treated equal before law. The law of the country makes it very clear that the fundamental rights of the people should not be taken away from them as the people have the right to perform their rights with full liberty. It is stated that if the organization is sacking an employee from the office then the organization is required to provide a valid reason for sacking the employee. It is because the organization cannot sack an employee for their religious belief, their gender or their appearance (Stone, 2013, p.56). Moreover, the organization is required to follow the law of equality 2010 that says that every individual is equal before the law therefore; no organization or people could treat the people differently. Another thing that the organization should adopt is that religion should not matter in the work place and therefore people are not suppose to judge an individual in relation to the religion they follow or they belong.
Hence, the organizations in the recent times are adopting several measures so that the discrimination that takes place in the organization could be reduced, that would help the organization to provide a better environment for the employees to work. This would further help the organization to obtain quality work from the employees and earn possible profit from the produce that would be done by the employees working in the organization. Thus, the equality law is strictly followed by the organizations and that assures equal pay for equal work for both men and women in the organization. Moreover, the equal opportunity law further helps to take steps against the unlawful activity that happens in the organization in relation to discrimination.
3.2 Comparing the approaches for management of equal opportunities and managing diversity
Managing equal opportunity refers to the equal opportunity that the organization provides to its employees without discriminating the employees in regards to sex, gender or religion. The organization focuses on providing equal opportunities top the employees in relation to the work activities that are practiced in the organization. Moreover, shared responsibilities are initiated by the organization to its employees such that proper work could be obtained from the employees working in the organization. It is with equal opportunities being provided to the employees in the organization it would help the organization to build a reputed place that would enhance the business activity of the organization. Moreover, this would further ensure the organization to retain the valuable employees in the organization and obtain quality work from the employees (Stone, 2013, p.56).
On the other hand, management of the diversity approach refers to the several diverse qualities that are persisted by the people are taken into consideration by the organization. This resembles different skills, qualities, and ideas are realized by the organization such that it increases the value of the organization and helps to gain potential quality in the working. Therefore, management of diversity in the work place helps to ensure the reduction of discriminations being practiced in the organization. Moreover, it helps in the creation of better work environment for the people such that it builds the confidence among the people to work with full determination and potential in the work place. It also helps to facilitates cooperative working among the diverse people [present in the work sector such that productive work could be ensured from the people working in the organization.
Task 4: LO 4 Understanding the approaches to human resources practices in the organizations
4.1 comparing the different methods of performance management
Performance of the management could be initiated by the organization in a number of ways such that the employees in the organization could perform in a better way such that productive outcome could be initiated by the organization. The several processes by which the respective organization could manage its performance are by the following:
The organization could initiate proper training programs for the employees working in the organization so that proper work could be done by the employees. Moreover, the organization could ensure equal opportunity being provided to the employees in the organization so that the employees feel motivated to do their work and help the organization to gain the competitive advantage. The other way through which the performance of the organization could be managed is through proper interaction being maintained between the management and the employees so that the employees feel determinate to do their work in an orderly manner. This would further enhance the organization to understand the capability of the employees and provide them with proper appraisal for their growth in the organization.
4.2 Assessing the approaches for practicing of managing the welfare of the employees in an organization
Managing the welfare of the employees in the organization refers to the things that are performed by the organization for the employees such that the dignity and the safety of the employees are maintained in the organization. The management of the welfare of the employees in the organization could be initiated through the practicing of the equality act 2010 that denotes that no discrimination are to be made between the employees working in the organization. The employees are to be treated equally and equal rights are to be provided to the employees working in the organization (Stone, 2013, p.56). Moreover, the employees are to be provided with all the services that the organization should provide to their employees so that a proper work environment could be maintained in the organization. Apart from that the employees in the organization are not to be discriminated in terms of their religious beliefs and gender and age. All the employees are to be treated equally and their capabilities are to be considered by the organization.
4.3 Discussing the implications of health and safety legislation on the practice of human resource
The health and safety of the employees are required to be maintained by the organization such that the employees feel secure to work in the organization. Therefore, the organization has the duty to look after the health and the safety of the employees such that proper first aid being provided to the employees in need. On the other hand, it is with the proper behavior being shoen by the organization to its employees the employees would get the motivation to work properly in the organization (Cascio, 2012, p.78). On the other hand, this would further help the organization to gain the competitive advantage such that it helps the organization to soar its name and fame high in the market. Thus, the organization is required to have the safety measures ready for the employees in the organization so that the employees are provided with proper safety equipments during their need. This also signifies that the employee’s dignity is maintained ion the organization such that the employees are not discriminated on the basis of their sex, color, race and religion.
4.4 Evaluating the impact of one topical issue on human resources practices.
The topical issue that is seen in the respected organization in regard to the human resource practice is that the respected organization lacks proper communication skills being performed by the management of the organization. This creates a problem in the understanding between the employees and the management. Therefore, poor interaction between the employees and the management causes the quality of the work in the organization to fall. Thus, the organization is requiring maintaining a friendly relation between the employees so that proper work could be initiated in the organization that would help the organization to gain the competitive advantages.
It could be concluded from the above discussion that the respective organization would be able to understand several perspective of the human resource management through the different human resource management models that are discussed in the assignment. it is further observed that the organization is able to understand the several ways by which it would be able to develop flexibility in the work place such that it would promote a good working environment for the people working in the organization. This would further help the employees to get satisfaction from the work that is performed by them in the organization due to the several opportunities that are available to them in the organization. On the other hand, it is also observed when the organization provides equal opportunities to the employees it enhance the productive work to be obtained from the employees working in the organization. Moreover, the assignment also facilitates several approaches to the human resource practices in the organization which enhance the performance of the employees in the organization. It is with proper training provided to the employees in the organization it helps to increase the productive work activity in the organization that enhance the business to take place in a more organized manner. This would further help the organization to gain possible competitive advantage in the market and obtain more growth opportunities for its future prospect.