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Human resource management (HRM) is performing important function within organization like- recruitment, training, selection and monitor performance of the staff. The HR department of British Airways is finding approaches to encourage engagement of people to work with them. Managing human resource will explain guest model of HRM, compare the difference between Storey’s definition of HRM, personnel and IR practices for British Airways, implications of line manager and employees. In the next task, the study will explain about how the flexibility model is used by the company and discussion about impact of changes in labour market on flexible working. The research will also find various discriminations at work place and compare the approaches to managing equal opportunities and diversity legislation for organization. At the end of the study, it also assesses the approaches used to manage employee welfare, implication of health and safety legislation and evaluate the impact of other issues on human resources practices.
Guest’s Model of HRM
The aim of Guest’s Model of HRM is to make distinction between personnel management and human resource management. The model states that a personnel management is only based on compliance but human resource management (HRM) is based on commitment. It considers HRM not only for recruitment and training of employees but it also considered them as assets of organization. Therefore, the human resource of the company is managed strategically so that employees are able to achieve goals of company. By using this model, organization is able to find individual need rather than combined workforce. For example- British Airways Company has adopted Guests Model so that they are able to develop strategies for employees to improve their trust and engagement (Guest.et.al.2012). Therefore, the HRM of British Airways is responsible to investigate the best talent who is able to give suitable training to employees.
After training, the employees are able to perform their roles and give best output to the company. British Airways Company also changed their organizational structure to implement the new HRM policy. The management divides hierarchy into small layers and assign more responsibly to employees. The organization is sharing their vision to employees so that employees are also able to make decisions on their level. The company is sharing vision by improving communication by publishing internal employees’ magazines, quarterly forums and intranet (Van De Voorde.et.al.2012). It has been cleared the Guest’s Model is a coherent approach to manage most valued assets i.e. the employees who individually and coactively give their contribution to achieve goals.
Differences between Storey’s Definitions of HRM personnel and IR practices
Storey’s defines that HRM is logical and strategic approach to manage most valued assets of i.e. the people who are working in organization because they are individually and collectively work in order to achieve goals of company.
Storey also differentiated between Hard and Soft HRM. The motive of Hard HRM is to manage employees of company in such a way that add and obtain value from them. Therefore, the company will get competitive advantage. It also focuses on performance management and control management by measure each asset individually. Storey defines soft model of HRM by improve commitment of employees with company and adaptability also. It mainly increases interests of people to work in company environment (Prowse and Prowse, 2010). In spite of this, Storey defines personnel management as management of employees by enforces them to follow rules and regulations. It is mostly concern about recruitment and maintains employment laws. Storey finds some key points that are used to differentiate between HRM and personnel and IR practices:
Table 1: Difference between HRM and IR practices
Personnel and IR practices
The objective of HRM is to go beyond contract
It mainly focused on attempting only written contract.
HRM task is to enforce people and contribution in development of objective.
Recruitment of employees
Recruitment is based on integrated selection
It is based on separate selection (Armstrong, 2010).
Employees are paid according to their performance
It includes fixed payment system.
It directly communicates employees to find out their issues.
It indirectly communicates with employees.
It includes general managers and line managers.
It involves personnel/IR specialists.
Speed of taking decision for organization
HRM provides high speed to take a valuable decision for organization (Armstrong, 2010).
It is relatively slow to take a decision for underlying company.
Implications for line managers and employees in order to develop a strategic approach for British Airways
There are various implications for line managers and employees of British Airways in order to develop strategic approach. Line manager is required to include with production goals, manage business policies, involve in organizational culture and leadership style. British Airways Company wants to meet over increasing demand of customers. Therefore, it increases workload on line manager so the main responsibility of line manager in HRM is to handle rapidly changing business environment. The key aspect of HRM is change leadership style in senior management. It improve job rotations so that a department is able to use implications like- line manager can avoid devising approaches that not only affect the value of brand but also avoid complicated business operations (Freeman, 2010).
Employee relation are considered as important assets because they are important part of organization. They struggle had to fulfill demands of customers by using their skills, talent and hard work. The implications for employees are range from improvement of payment and bonus, ensure about job security. The employee implication is based on their performance and their contribution to achieve goals of company (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). HRM also helps to employees to take strategic decisions at occurrences of different situations.
British Airways is considered flexibility as a key point in 21st century. The flexibility is necessary to provide both employees and employer. It includes some changes in organization so that a person able to meet business and personnel needs. There are different models of flexibility that might be applied in work environment of British Airways. The company can provide flexibility like- choosing part/ full time jobs, choose flexible job hours like- day or night shifts, sharing of work, home based working, mobile working and more flexible to compress job hours (Chang.et.al.2013). A flexibility model allow employer to make some provisions like to work all r part of work by sitting at remote location. Such practices are involved by company asking them where they want to do merchandise activity. This would also beneficial for company. The organization will able to reach customers which are far away from work place.
British Airways may also use flexibility model to provide range of job opportunities. This would improve demand of human resource. By using flexibility model, the employees would maximum engage with company so that it will increase production. The mobile working model can be made available at Airport also so employees are flexible to use both internet and intranet. By using intranet, they can complete their jobs at airport also. Employees will able to complete contract in working hours. Such flexibility leads to improve life of employee engagement and they will give best to British Airways (Eric Soderquist.et.al.2010).
There are majorly two type of flexibility which may be developed by British Airways in order to maintain flow of operations and perform HRM practices. The company is implementing such flexibility that will adopt engagement of employees for higher efficiency and productivity. According to analysis of British Airways HRM approach, following types of flexibility has found to encourage people to work with them:
Functional: Functional flexibility is refers to match skills of staff member to objective tasks. It adjusts work ability by changing workload and assign most suitable task. This type of flexibility also includes development of new production methods and plan for training sessions. This type of flexibility also will improve efficiency also. For example- HR department of British Airways is working on communication skills of staff that help them to deal with consumers and suppliers (Akingbola, 2013). The FR management of the company is also offering training that encourages functional flexibility.
Numerical: Numerical flexibility is considered important type of flexibility that enables a firm to operate numbers of worker input by using short term contract and flexible working hours. By using numerical flexibility method, organisation cans easily mange demand and supply activities. Therefore, it may apply significant impact on over business of British Airways. The organisation is also working on development and improvement of skills to fulfil labour input demand to meet required output (Stavrou and Kilaniotis, 2010). For that company is developing new training sessions to teach new skills that would help to meet changes in more effective manners. For example, the company is improving sharing of job functions among team.
The different types of flexibility model encourage the work quality of employee as well improving HR practices so that it encourages commitment of employees also. Flexibility concept is considered most important to establish positive relation and improve understanding between employability skills employer. It will contribute to develop business of British Airways. For example- the general manger of British Airways is finding approaches of organisation and flexible working practices that support strategy of company (Eichhorst.et.al.2010). Moreover, management team of company is focused on clients’ satisfaction. To achieve this, management is allowing staff to offer their suggestions and define their ideas to improve production, packaging and delivery to customers. The organisation is also providing flexibility at job schedule hour so this would also reduce sickness of employees and also enhances productivity at working time of workers.
Apart from this, flexibility on job also develops new skills and improves understanding to find new approaches to get higher position at work place. The company is offering high flexibility to women. They choose flexible working hours due to distance working, family leaves and part time working for homely mothers. The company is also allowing to work from home especially for pregnant women. British Airways is promoting such flexibility to perform business activity in flexible manner. However, there are some policies to control over such task (Akingbola, 2013). The company is clearly communicated with staff to promote flexible working schedule with relevant terms and conditions that must be followed by employees. The company is also taking care about external issues like- traffic, strike, events and environment that can be affect employees ob scheduling.
A labour market is quickly adjusted to competitive equilibrium due to flexible working hours. The HRM strategy of recruitment increases selection of under graduate and post graduate person, and easily handle demographic or migration of people. It is beneficial for British Airways. The organisation is able to find when and where personnel work is easier for both the company and its employees. Apart from this, migration and demographic factors also impact on labour market. In the recent time UK market has experienced changes in labour market due to economic growth of countries, slow growth of GDP and self employment. Now, the company has employees which are belonging to different regions and cultures (Eichhorst and Marx, 2011). They are come to British Airways environment due to flexible working hours and they are willing to take time of employment. Labour market is also considered another factors like- hiring of staff, government intervention and policies to meet the objectives of flexible working.
There are some another factors that also affect labour market that are change in wages of industries, globalization and deindustrialization. Due to all these factors British Airways is giving preference to women as labour to work at flexible hours. The organisation is also able to adopt technological changes so that employees are able to communicate with customers through internet and maintain relation between customer and employees by resolving their queries as fast as possible (Eichhorst.et.al.2010). In spite of this, the cost of operation is decreased but the level of unemployment is increased due to availability of quality worker is low. The growth of employment is key point of change in labour market of UK.
Discrimination is unfair and injustice at workplace. It has been analysed that most of the people are suffers from discrimination on their workplace. However, government has proposed some rules and regulation against different types of discrimination. There are some past cases where people are suffered from unfair issues. The major discrimination in UK is as follows:
In the current scenario, government and leading authorities of different industries has proposed legislations for developing and managing equal opportunities. According to parliament of UK, organizations have to consider the regulations like Employment Equality Act 1998 that is being followed for overcome the discrimination among staff members. British airways management is also following this legislation to develop the equal opportunities for new and existing staff members to work with British airways. However there are certain factors that affect the HRM practices of organization that are age, gender, religion, statues and disability but implementation of equal opportunity legislation supporting the organizational process (Suárez-Orozco.et.al.2011). The major implications that have been identified are influence on brand image as the knowledge of top management regarding the issues as well respect of staff members.
For example, air hosts girls are being treated in unethical manners that create the negative image of organization. In order to maintain the effectiveness and encourage the involvement of staff members in planning of organization equal opportunity legislations are useful. Now, staff members of any organization has right to have equal opportunity for promotion, sharing of benefits and gaining the advantage of organizational policy regarding leaves, flexible timing, temporary working and contributing in decision making (Suárez-Orozco.et.al.2011).
For managing the practices and operations regarding the global HRM functions, organizations use the diversity approaches that could be visible or invisible. Apart from that equal opportunity refers to traditional that used for eliminating the discrimination and accept the workforce that belongs to different backgrounds. The major different between diversity and equal opportunity is consideration of factor like age, gender, religion and culture. British Airways Company is large scale organization that has business in different countries and recruiting people from different backgrounds who have good knowledge of local culture (Babcock.et.al. 2010). This kind of approach of organization is helping to maintain the equal opportunities for skilled persons. In addition to this, organization is following the policy and procedures that helps to overcome the impact of diversity factors. The major differences between equal opportunity and diversity approach are as follows:
Table 2: Difference between diversity and equal opportunity
This approach focus on the capitalizing the skills and knowledge of individual
This approach engage all staff into the working process
Diversity used for recognizing the potential of staff members as per the action and goals of organization
Equal opportunity approach used to develop the fair and competitive working environment
The aim of diversity approach is to encourage the performance
Equal opportunity helps to promote the benefits for every individual
Diversity do not give importance to race, sex and other cultural issues
In order to encourage the participation and sharing this kind of approach have been used
According to analysis, British airways management is using equal opportunity approach for managing the HRM activities and establishes a health and safety and positive working environment in which employees feels comfortable. For example, the HR department of organization considers the performance of every employee who was in same position and to promote them.
For measuring the performance, there are different types of methods have been used by the leading organizations that helps to analyze the effectiveness of staff members and develop training module according areas of lacking (Begum.et.al. 2014). I am working at British airways company as customers care executive and my role is to offer information to customers as well provide solution for their problems. According to my observation, I have identified that HR department of organization is using following methods for analyzing the performance of individual.
360 degree feedback: In order to analyze the performance and effectiveness of individual at workplace, British airways management is using this method. According to this method, HR department of organization is collecting feedback about the behaviour, team working, time management, interaction with customers and utilization of resources from the peers and customers about the individual. This kind of approach is helping organization to gain the in-depth knowledge about the staff’s and to develop the plan to improve the skills and capabilities. However this method is appropriate to analyze the performance but it consume lot of time and cost as HR collections feedback from different people.
Rating scale: For analyzing and measuring the performance of employees, British airways management is also using this method. In order to evaluate the performance of staff according to this method, HR manager is considering the factors like dependability, output, attitude, initiative and availability (Cumming and Worley, 2014). Additionally, for measuring the performance management is giving preference to customer’s feedback about the individual for in-flight and ground services. By the rating to individual, organization determine the pay and other services for staff members.
British Airways is international organization that is following rules and regulations that have been proposed by the government and authorities for employee welfare. According to observation of organizational process following welfare approaches have been identified:
Extramural welfare: Employee welfare is an important tasks for organization that operating business at international level. British airways management is offering extramural facilities to staff members that helping to boost the morale and engage them into organizational process. British airways management is offering facilities like transportation, paid leave, vocational training, insurance, medical benefits. These welfare activities have positive impact on the involvement and performance of staff members of organization as well helping to develop healthy working environment. Moreover, organization is concern about the health and safety of staff members as in-flight services involve risk (Danish and Usman, 2010). In order to mitigate the security and safety, organization is providing high quality equipments and training to staff members.
Intramural welfare: Employee welfare is an important task for HR as department has to analyze the needs of the staff and develop the facilities according to global standard. In order to follow and implement the welfare policies as per the intramural approach, British airways is providing the facilities of uniform, canteen, first-aid medical, drinking water, healthy environment for working that influence the performance of staff members. The HR department of organization is monitoring the facilities on regular basic and collecting the feedback from staff to craft improvement in the welfare activities. Apart from that, these kinds of welfare policies are helping British airways to retain the employee and attract the skilled people to join the organizations.
Health and safety is the major concern of airline organization for both customers and staff members. There are various legislations and regulations have been proposed by the government and higher authorities of aviation industry of UK that followed by British airways. Company is operating business at different nations, for that reason management of organization is following global standard for health and safety of staff that influencing the HRM practices of organization (Eckerson, 2010). The major aim of implementing health and safety legislations is to offer healthy and risk free working environment for staff members that helps to encourage the performance of individual. This kind of approach is helping organization to gain the consideration of staff as effective policy and establishment of safety equipments is supporting organization to maintain positive working environment. According to observation, I have identified the following implications of Health and Safety legislations on human resources practices of British airways.
However the HR department of organization is highly concern about the health and safety of staff as well customers but lack of communication, knowledge and awareness lead of critical situations. The management of British airways is using the implied and expresses both the terms for health and safety that helping to meet the international standard of safety. In addition to this, organization has given rights to staff members to provide the feedback about the safety measurement and overcome the gaps. HR of organization has rights of terminating the employees who are not following the rules and regulations.
In the current scenario of HRM practices there are many issues that affecting the process and procedure of organization. In order to ensure the success and effectiveness of operations, top management of British airways has established HR department but following are the key issues that affecting the practices.
The present research has provided detail information about Guest model of HRM and Story’s definition of HRM, personnel and IR practices. HRM and personnel is differentiated using some key points like- pay system, recruitment of employees, management task etc. The report also concluded about the use of flexibility model by British Airways Company as well as functional and numerical types of flexibility that engage employees to work with organization. At next, the report finds discrimination such as- disability, religious, sex based, racial and colour based unfair means happens with employees. At the end report provide explanation about performance management method and implication of health and safety legislation for British Airways.
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