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Unit 14 Working with and leading people Solution Assignment
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 14 Working with and leading people
The most important resource that the organization can have is human resource. Human resource is required so that the company can make effective use of other resources and create value for the customers. It is through this process of value creation that the company makes profit. The first step in having a great human resource is to recruit the right people. Unit 14 working with and leading people Solution Assignment focused to guide the recruited people and help them work in a team to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. It is also important to monitor the performance of people and train or motivate them at times. The following pages describe these different facets of human resource.
1.1 Answer to include: The preparation of job analysis, job description, person specifications
The job of flight attendant is a very important job profile of the airline. The attendants or the cabin crew are the face of the airlines in front of the passengers.
Job analysis- The job provides with plenty of opportunity of having contact with people as well as it offers them opportunities to travel. In a commercial airline the cabin crews are jointly responsible for comfort and safety of the passengers. The role of a cabin crew can be physically and emotionally demanding. The job of a cabin crew involves high degree of responsibility. It is required that the cabin crew should exhibit diplomacy while dealing with the passengers. The cabin crews are required to maintain smile on their face while they travel through different time zones and spend extended periods of time while being on their feet. It is a requirement for a number of airlines that the cabin crews should remain in close proximity of the airport. It is also required that cabin crew might have to go to work at a short notice. It is important to consider the fact that the job of a cabin crew might require working for long hours and working at unsocial hours. It might also be necessary for the cabin crew to be working on the eve of public holidays. However, on the positive side the opportunities of travel and tourism exploring destinations across the globe are unparalleled for a cabin crew. It is also important to note that the cabin crews get the opportunity to interact with a wide range of different people.
Job description- A cabin crew is required to greet passengers as they enter and exit the plane. They are required to guide passengers to their seat. It is also required that they show special attention to certain passengers who are elder or disabled. A cabin crew is required to serve the refreshments and meals to the passengers (Payne, 2015). As an additional duty they are required to check the conditions of emergency equipments and provide information regarding the same to the passengers. In time of emergencies they are required to deal with the situation and provide first aid. They should supply the passengers with magazines, news papers and other forms of entertainment while they are in flight. The cabin crews are also required to sell duty free commercial goods to the passengers and provide a written report of flights after completion of journey.
Person Specifications- The person specifications that are required to fetch a job at the airline vary from one airline to another. However, some of the requirements required are as follows:
- Minimum qualification requirements (varies from one airline to another)
- Minimum height requirements and proportionate body weight (vary from one airline to another)
- Minimum and maximum age requirements (vary from one airline to another)
- Needed to be single
- Fluency in English and another language (preferably the language in which airlines is based)
- Medical fitness (Payne, 2015)
- No visible tattoo or piercings
- Some airlines also required that the cabin crew should be able to swim, or should be able to survive in Amazonian jungles and are sometimes required to have a minimum length of the arm.
1.2 Assess the impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations that are needed to be considered for the recruitment and selection process for the airline
The recruitment and selection procedure for selecting airline crew are bound by certain legal and statutory rules and regulations. The human resource manager should be aware of these rules for the process of selection and recruitment is started. The impacts of different legal ethical and regulatory considerations on recruitment and selection of cabin crew are discussed below:
- It is required by the security agencies that the person being recruited as a cabin crew should undergo a thorough background checks. The recruitment of the candidate is subject to passing these background checks which can go back to 10 years.
- Although schedules and the hours at which the cabin crew is required to work varies greatly as most of the airlines operate for 24 hours, the maximum number of hours for which the cabin crew can work in a day is limited by discussion between airlines and the union. In most cases the maximum working hours does not exceed 12 hours a day. In addition to flight time the cabin crew is also required to report for duty time within flights.
- While recruiting for the job of cabin crew, the airline company cannot discriminate a person based on his sex.
- While recruiting discrimination cannot be made based on race
- While placing the advertisement discrimination cannot be made in terms of age, race, sex, nationalism, ethnicity etc (Van den Brink, 2010).
- The interview process should not ask questions that might heart the religious or ethnic sensitivity of the person being interviewed.
- In some countries it is required that the cabin crew should be provided with special training which is required for survival in case of emergency landing. For instance in Brazil it is required that the cabin crews are trained in survival skills with related to surviving in Amazon rain forest (Payne, 2015).
- It is required that the newly employed should have a statement of employment which includes all terms about salary, working hours, holidays etc.
1.3 What are the selection techniques you would suggest that are best suited to recruit the ideal candidate
The cabin crew as said before the face of airlines. Most of the passengers select airlines based on the services offered by the cabin crew of a particular airline. In this regards it is of utmost importance to select the right candidate in the position of cabin crew. The selection techniques that are best suited to select the right candidate are as follows:
- Application forms: After publication of the advertisement for the post of the cabin crew, it would be required that the candidates who feel that they are fit for the position and meet the minimum requirements should apply through the application form on the website. In the application form it would be required that the candidate should describe their height, weight, should upload a passport photo, and mention the educational background and languages known to them (Ofori and Aryeetey, 2011). Based on the information provided in the application form, the candidates who meet the desired profile requirements can be shortlisted and asked to send their CVs.
- CV: Besides physical requirements like height, weight, age of the candidate etc. the technique that can act as the first step in selecting the right candidate is CV. The CV is required to list down the degree of the candidates and provide other important bits of information about the candidates. Before calling the candidates to the interview process, it would be required that the candidates should send their respective CVs which can be shortlisted to can a selected few for the interview process (Absar, 2012). The CVs can thus be used as a second step in the process of short listing the right candidate.
- References In an airlines job it is required that candidate selected should be fit in all respect. References can come as a valuable tool to check the background of the candidate and determine his or her eligibility for the job (Snell and Bohlander, 2010). Background checks are mandatory for selection of a particular candidate as a cabin crew and the airlines can check a candidate’s record going back to 10 years.
- Simulation: A cabin crew might have to face a lot of different and difficult situation while being on board and still serve the passengers with a smile. It is required that they should not panic in times of emergency and should be able to keep their nerves calm. In order to select the right candidate who has these abilities, simulation can be used as a tool. A simulated environment of what can happen on board can be created so as to check the responses or behavior of the candidate at such moments. Thus simulation can be used as a valuable tool to select the right candidate.
- Interviews: The interview can act as an important step in selecting the right candidate. In this round through the process of questionnaire can judge the qualification of the candidate, his or her personality, proficiency in language and oral communication skills, his or her problem solving ability etc.
1.4 How have you contributed to the selection process to make it more effective?
The selection process was a joint activity in which each individual was required to play a part and ensure through their coordinated effort that the selection process was efficient enough to select the right candidate. It was required to be ensured that the different members performed their duties efficiently and also collaborated with each other so as to ensure that the end result was the desired one. In this scenario, I had a major role to play in the selection process. In order to select the right candidate I defined the specifications keeping in mind the legal, ethical and other statutory requirements. I have also helped in placing the advertisement at best news papers. I have additionally helped by defining the selection procedure and the steps that needed to be followed in selecting the right candidate. Besides performing my roles with élan, I also coordinated with other members of the team and ensured that there was proper synchronization amongst team members.
3.1 Assess the benefits of team working in the airline and the team should be the cabin crew consisting of at least six members
One of the most vital skills that are required of a cabin crew is his or her ability to work in a team. Without proper team work a cabin crew cannot work to the best of his skill nor ability. Not only is team work essential for the daily practices, but it becomes all the more vital in the emergency situation (Belbin, 2012). At times of emergency the thing that can differentiate between a life or death situation is team working ability. If there is no team work between the cabin crew members the quality of service would suffer and the passenger would easily notice the same. Irrespective of the team work and professionalism of the crew members, lack of team work during emergency can lead to inevitable outcomes. The way in which team work amongst the members of the cabin crew can lead to the success of the airline is described below:
- Efficiency: It is important to note that team work is an essential component that helps to develop efficiency in the organization. Team work helps to complete the task in an efficient manner. Individual an employee relationship cannot accomplish his task as fast as can be achieved through team work. Through team work, it helps in reduction of stress and work load of a particular employee as the task is shared amongst different employees (Bradley, Postlethwaite, Klotz, Hamdani and Brown, 2012). For instance while the cabin crew are working in a particular aero plane to check if everything inside are in working condition, it is very important to have the entire team work together as it is impossible for an individual member of the crew to look at all parts.
- Help in building relations amongst the employees- Team work helps in the process of building relation amongst the employees or the crew members of the airline. When the crew members work together, it provides a good opportunity for them to bond with each other. The team members can help each other so that they are able to achieve the task together in a more efficient manner (Clutterbuck, 2011). It is very important to build this relationship amongst team members as it helps to achieve a very efficient service delivery and helps in the emergency situations.
3.2 Demonstrate working in a cabin crew team as a leader and member towards specific goals, dealing with any conflict or difficult situations that you may have faced of recent
Working as a cabin crew means team work. Without proper coordination of team members the cabin crew would not be able to achieve the designated tasks in a coordinated and efficient manner and this might lead to unnecessary duplication of efforts. The lack of coordinated between cabin crew members easily has an effect on the quality of service being offered to the passengers (Clutterbuck, 2011). The fall in the service quality as a lack of team work and coordination is easily noticeable by the passengers who might chose a different airline for this reason. Lack of coordination in case of emergency situation while in air can lead to severe outcomes. To illustrate the importance of team work and the experience of working as a member of the cabin crew illustrated below are certain situations. The crew members are responsible for providing meal and other snacks to the passengers while on air. While providing suppose a particular snack, if one cabin crew runs short of the same then other member of the crew should immediately take notice and supply the airhostess with a spare one that she might be having (Shin, Kim, Lee and Bian, 2012). If the other member refuses to help, then the first cabin crew might have to herself go to the inventory and fetch the thing leading to delay and furious passengers in the process.
Similarly it is also very important that there is good relation between the pilot team and the cabin crew as well. This was not the case before and there were hierarchical differences between pilot and cabin crew. However, it is not the case in these days and it is very important to build relationship between these two groups. This is due to the fact that in case the cabin crew is able to observe some unusual happenings on the wings, they can report the same to pilots in the cockpit before passengers notice the same and panic. The position of a team leader of the cabin crew is required to support the senior manager in day to day operations of the cabin crew. It is required that as a manager one is able to lead, manage, inspire and recognize the cabin crew and is able to ensure that a working environment that is safe and secure is achieved on board and also there is excellent delivery of customer service to the passengers. For instance in one case when the performance of a particular crew member had fallen below the standards, I had to step in as the manager and through informal counseling tell the employee about the way to improve her performance.
3.3 As a leader of the cabin crew review the effectiveness your team has achieved in their recent goal of increasing customer satisfaction
In order to ensure that the members of the cabin crew are effectively able to carry out their duties and the customers are satisfied with the level of service being offered to them, 360 degree evaluation would be used. In this case the crew members and the quality of their service offerings will be evaluated using feedbacks from customers and colleagues. The manager would also evaluate the performance of employees (Stahl, Mäkelä, Zander and Maznevski, 2010). The performance of the employee would be evaluated by collating and synthesizing the reviews from different sources. If an employee is seen to perform below the expected level, then he or she would be informed about the same through informal meetings at first. Similarly good performance of the employees would be praised through informal meetings as well. The score received over a period of time about the performance of the crew members would be used to determine whether performance has improved or dropped over a time period.
4.1 What factors will you need to consider in planning and monitoring and assessment of work performance for the cabin crew
The workforce in today’s environment has become global. People or the employees come from diverse cultural, ethical and linguistic backgrounds. The learning attitudes and technique of different people varies a lot. The factors that need to be considered while putting planning, monitoring and assessment of work performance under consideration are described below:
- Learning needs diversity- The diversity in learning needs to be considered while developing, planning and monitoring the work performance of different members of the crew. Rather than being seen as a challenge and hindrance, people from diverse backgrounds should be seen as a powerful resource which can be used by everyone to learn. The learning opportunities are provided in different ways in newer environment and with people of different types (Cole, 2008). It is important to consider the fact that a range of different approaches are required so that it is possible to cope with the different learning styles. It is most important in this regards to cultivate interpersonal skills and have respect for the people belonging to other cultures. This global view is demanded by the new economy that is global in nature. Since the conditions of the economy and market are now global, it is required to incorporate skills of intercultural communications.
- Age groups- Another important factor that needs to be considered in planning, monitoring and accessing the performance of the cabin crew is the age group of the employees. It is a well documented fact that the performance of the people vary with age. In this regards, it is important to note that the job performance of a person does not suffer just because he has grown older. However, in respect of certain jobs it appears that there is a definite link between diminished job performance and age (BBC, 2006). If a job requires the use of sensory perception, working memory, selective attention, physical strength, quick reflexes and processing of information, then it is likely to be affected as a person begins to age.
- Cultural differences- As it has been said before, amongst the various factors that shape the learning ability of a person, one important factor is differences amongst cultures. It is understood that people belonging to different cultures, ethnicity and linguistic background have different learning ability and process (Stahl, Mäkelä, Zander and Maznevski, 2010). It is important that as a manager a range of techniques are used to impart training to people belonging to different backgrounds. In this respect it is important for the manager and the employee to have mutual admiration for each other and good interpersonal skills to communicate with each other.
4.2 How can you plan and deliver the assessment to ensure needs of the cabin crew is developed.
It is important to deliver the assessment of the cabin crew so as to ensure that the needs of the cabin crew are developed. In case the assessment is poorly designed and does not cater to the needs of the people then it would lead to lack of motivation amongst the cabin crew. This is illustrated below with details.
- Motivation: It is important to assess the performance of the cabin crew and consider the above factors discussed while reviewing the performance, as because if performance appraisal is not proper the crew might feel de-motivated. Thus planning and delivering of assessment that is a right judgment of the employee performance considering all the factors is an important step in motivating the employees. The company might use reward in order to motivate the employee for higher targets or encourage him or her for a work that is done well. However, rewards would not be proper, if the assessment is not proper (Gino, Argote, Miron-Spektor and Todorova, 2010). This would in turn lead to people with a feeling of lack of motivation which might be very discouraging for the cabin crew.
- Delegation: If assessment is not proper, then people will be delegated wrong responsibilities. The ability to delegate a cabin crew to a job that suits his or her skills is dependent on the assessment of his or her skills. If the assessment is not proper, then delegation would suffer. If delegation of a person is not proper; or in other words not true to his abilities, then it would result in performance lags from the individual and the employee. If a person is delegated a responsibility, he which he does not have the necessary skills, then it would lead to lack of motivation in the person. The lack of motivation would result in falling performance of the person, high turnover of the company and low quality services being provided to customers.
- Communication: Communication is a very important thing in the process of assessment. After deciding on the assessment plan the same needs to be communicated to the employee and their suggestion regarding the same needs to be considered. It is important to review the assessment process and its effectiveness in order to achieve the goal for which it is developed. In order to make the assessment effective, the employees or the cabin crew members should be encouraged to come out and share the areas where they feel that training is required.
4.3 What methods can you suggest that the airline should use to evaluate the success of the assessment process
The importance of the assessment process in ensuring that the performance of the employees is improved or they are provided proper training is paramount. If the assessment process is not correct, then it cannot be ensured that rest of the steps would be perfect. Lack of a well designed assessment process might be felt on promotion.
- Promotions- The effectiveness of the promotions would be dependent of the effectiveness of the assessment process. If the assessment process is not effective then it would not be an effective judge of the person’s ability and this might result in promotion of a person who is less able.
- Disciplinary- An assessment process that is not well defined might lead to false implications and thus disciplinary actions being taken that are wrong in nature. This might create a sense of de-motivation amongst the employees, lead to poor service levels and high turnover rates.
The steps that can be used for evaluating the performance of the assessment process are:
- Appraisals- Another method that can be used to judge the effectiveness of the assessment process is appraisals. In this process various stakeholders can be asked to evaluate the assessment process and judge its effectiveness.
- Feedback- The assessment process is being developed to evaluate the performance of the employees. Thus while trying to evaluate the effectiveness of the assessment process; it is necessary that feedback from the employees regarding the process should be taken into consideration. Feedback from the employees forms an effective part in judging the effectiveness of the assessment process as the process would be used to judge the performance of the employees.
The above pages describe the way in which people are recruited in the cabin crew profile. During the selection process the legal, statutorial and ethical issues that must be taken care of are also described. The different methods that can be used to select and recruit the right candidate are described next. The benefits of team work in the cabin crew are also discussed along with the experiences of working in partnership as a leader and member is shared. The next phase focuses on the way to monitor performance, factors to be kept while monitoring performance and way to reward top performers.
Absar, M.M.N., 2012. Recruitment & selection practices in manufacturing firms in Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, pp.436-449.
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Belbin, R.M., 2012. Team roles at work. Routledge.
Bradley, B.H., Postlethwaite, B.E., Klotz, A.C., Hamdani, M.R. and Brown, K.G., 2012. Reaping the benefits of task conflict in teams: the critical role of team psychological safety climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), p.151.
Clutterbuck, D., 2011. Coaching the team at work. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Cole, R.W. ed., 2008. Educating everybody's children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners. ASCD.
Gino, F., Argote, L., Miron-Spektor, E. and Todorova, G., 2010. First, get your feet wet: The effects of learning from direct and indirect experience on team creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,111(2), pp.102-115.
Ofori, D. and Aryeetey, M., 2011. Recruitment and selection practices in small and medium enterprises: Perspectives from Ghana. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), p.45.
Payne, E., 2015. Jungle survival skills, an arm reach of 84 inches... and a promise to stay single for five years: Strangest requirements for airline cabin crew revealed.[Online]. Available at < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-2931619/Jungle-survival-skills-arm-reach-84-inches-promise-stay-single-five-years-strangest-requirements-airline-cabin-crew-revealed.html > [Accessed 21 October 2016].