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Development of employees or managers is very important in today’s world. Competition has been at a very rapid rate and to cope up with the changing environment personal and professional development of the managers is very important. It helps in providing better career opportunities in the market. There are various skills which are required to be efficient and effective manager in the organization manager works. Team work and leadership skills are some of the most important skills required. There are various leadership styles used by the managers depending upon the situation. In this report various leadership styles will be discussed by taking examples of organizations working in travel and tourism sector. Mangers encourage their team members to grow in their career and to develop new skills and competencies which will increase their demand in the market. Employee should be encouraged to be competitive in the market. Communication skills, discipline, encouraging etc. are some of the other qualities which should be present in a leader. Organizational culture and structure is also very important in motivating employees and in aligning the goals and objectives of employees with the goals and objectives of the organization (Marcoulides, 1993). Employees should also get growth opportunities with the growth of the organization. Employee satisfaction is very important and it leads to customer satisfaction. Employees should develop the plans to improve their skills and competencies. Self-managed learning should be encouraged in the organization. SWOT analysis is the starting point in developing a plan to improve your skills. A plan will be developed considering myself as a general Manager of a Hotel. SWOT analysis will help in finding out strengths and weaknesses and then solutions to get rid of those weaknesses will be developed in this report. Continuous monitoring of the development plan is required. There are various ways to motivate and encourage employees. This report will discuss various models to keep the employees motivated. Development plan will be monitored and necessary changes will be done on the basis of amount of improvement in the performance.
Two organizations in Hospitality and Travel and Tourism sectors which are selected to be studied in this task are British Airways and Hilton Hotels.
Organization chosen in the above task is British Airways and Hilton PLC Group and leadership styles in these organizations are Coercive and Active styles respectively. Characteristics of these leadership styles will be discussed in this task. In Airline and hotel industry general manager has huge leadership responsibilities. If we talk of coercive leadership i.e. in British Airways, leader leads from the front (Richmond, 1983). He orders his employees by showing them how to do the job. He motivates employees to work hard to get rid of critical situation. He supervises his employees properly. He finds out the weaknesses of the team members and should be able to show them the way to get rid of their weaknesses. In case of active leadership style leader is very cordial and amicable to his employees. Work environment becomes very healthy and smooth. Active leader believes in motivating and encouraging employees by providing rewards and awards. Communications skills are very important traits to be present in a leader. Leader should be very calm and polite with the employees and also with the customers. Discipline and control is the most important quality of a leader. Employees who have disciplined and focus leader also stay focused towards their work.
Leadership style used in Hilton PLC is Active leadership style. In Hilton PLC managers ask juniors about the roles and responsibilities they want to take. And then they are fit into their suitable teams. In British Airways leaders are very strict. They have the power to throw any employee out of the office if they find anyone at fault. Employees have to be punctual and they have to work for more than 9 hours in a day which is much higher.
Both the organizations mentioned above are Multi-National Companies having operations in lots of countries. Number of employees and customers is large. Hence communication plays a very important role in running the operations smoothly. Information sharing can be done only by having appropriate communication channels. There are three types of communication in British Airways and in Hilton group Plc. Both the organizations have different ways of sharing information. Three types are as follows:
The above mention communication processes are applicable in both the industries as both the industries are from service sector and have lots of things in common.
Employee motivation and organization behavior also depends on the type of organization culture and structure followed by the organization. Organization culture is defined as the visions, values, rules, regulations, language, beliefs and habits followed by the employees of the organization. In this task organization culture of British Airways and Hilton PLC will be discussed: Organizational structure followed by British Airways is flat where all the employees are at the same level (Carzo, 1969). This organization structure leads to clan organization culture in the organization. Flat organization structure leads to friendly and healthy organizational culture. There should not be any hesitation while speaking to any of your colleague in an organization. Empowerment is given to employees to take their decisions without any fear. Flight attendants should have the power to take any decision related to service provided to the customers. They need to flexible depending upon the situation. Customer satisfaction should be given more importance as compared to the rules and policies set by the organization. There needs to be sympathy and friendly relationship between the employees instead of just being competitive to each other.
Organization culture followed by Hilton Hotels is a mix of Adhocracy and Market Oriented culture. It believes in innovation and entrepreneurial capabilities in its employees. Employees are encouraged to take responsibilities and have risk taking potential. It also focuses on results. CEO of the organization believes a lot in having best suitable culture for the employees. Nassetta believes that organization culture will help in attracting new talent from across the globe and according to his estimates organization will create 200000 more jobs in next 3 to 5 years.
Both are service sector companies and there are lots of changes happening in the business as customer satisfaction is getting more importance. Quality of the product or the service provided should be good. Competition is getting severe. Employees are getting lots of opportunities outside hence employee satisfaction is also very important. Considering all these changes happening in the business both the organization need to make changes in their respective cultures which are more suitable for employee and customer satisfaction. Nassetta brought an organizational change in Hilton PLC. He changed the projects and asked for better results from each team. He wanted to improve profits and revenue for the organization. This organizational change led to market oriented culture in the organization. British Airways was facing higher attrition rate and hen organization brought a change for employee satisfaction which led to flat organizational structure and clan organizational culture.
In this task I consider myself as general Manager of Hilton PLC. And I believe I am suitable for this as I have following qualities:
Below are some of the responsibilities.
Below are some of the personal specifications:
Communication skills- Customers interact directly with the service attendants for any problem and for any query. These assistants should have excellent communication skills.
SWOT analyses are the first step in developing a skill development plan for a employee. SWOT analysis for me as a General Manager of a hotel is as follows:
On the basis of SWOT analysis I will be able to find out my shortcomings and weaknesses which can impact my career in near future. I will list down all the objectives and then on the basis of priority I will start working on these weaknesses. Setting of goals and objectives in life are very important to achieve growth and respect in the industry (Kurrtilla, 2000). All the opportunities should be mapped and then aligned with the strengths which were mentioned in the SWOT analysis . Strengths will be used to grab these opportunities and to deal with the external threats. To develop myself a s a leader I will develop a plan for around next 5-6 years to develop myself as personally and professionally and to overcome my weaknesses.
Above objectives are listed in the order of priority.
I will be answering these questions after each phase which will help me in understanding how far I am from achieving my goals.
Let us suppose that the organization is facing with a situation of higher attrition rate. Employees are not staying in the organization for longer period of time and they are leaving the organization whenever they get better opportunity outside. Employees are not satisfied with the organization and there is no employer loyalty. It leads to higher cost. Employee satisfaction and motivation is very important which can be achieved with the help of following Motivational theories:
Employee satisfaction is very important for organization’s growth. Employee satisfaction leads to healthier environment in the organization. Employees see their own growth with the growth of the organization and hence they will try to keep the customers satisfied and customer satisfaction is the ultimate thing to achieve in an organization and especially in a service industry. Satisfaction of the staff members is very important to utilize their skills to 100% potential. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs should be used by me as a General Manager of an Hospitality sector organization (McGuire, 2011).
The different five stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are as follows:
First is the basic psychological need which includes proper salaries, food to eat, lunch breaks, place to stay etc. Next is the safety of the employees. Social needs come after the safety needs of an employee in an organization. Social needs means to have good status in the society and which can come by having luxury car, home, laptop, phone etc. Employee will be able to satisfy his social needs with the help of his salary. Hence salary hikes should be given after regular intervals of time on the basis of performance and job level. Recognition and appreciation also helps in satisfying social needs of the employees as it will make them feel proud in front of other employees. It will also motivate non-performers. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is very effective tool to be used by General Manager to generate better results for the organization and for all the stakeholders.
General Manager cannot just take the decisions without any justification. There needs to be proper planning and research required behind any decision. Impact of the decision on all the stakeholders should be analyzed. Positives and negatives of the decision should be noted down. I recommended Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to General Manager for employee motivation and satisfaction. Growth is very important for any individual and if employee knows that his hard work will lead to better salary hikes and incentives it will definitely lead employee to perform better. Promotions should be given quarterly to the eligible employees. It reduces the attrition rate in the organization. Instead of just implementing Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs there are some other ways to increase the satisfaction level of the employees. Training to be better team player is very important. It helps in smooth and conflict free functioning of a team.
Mentoring and coaching of the employees is another important way for employee satisfaction. Employees should be given an opportunity to develop their skills and competencies which will increase their demand in the market. Employees should be encouraged to improve their communication and interpersonal skills. Policies and regulations should be set up to take care of employees’ concerns and issues. Strict actions should be taken against any kind of discrimination (Neumark, 1988). Rewards and awards should be given to the employees for their performances. Even the low performers should be given an opportunity to improve and prove themselves.
For example some employees might be satisfied with the location transfer and some might want promotion or salary hike. Attrition rate will reduce and it will save lots of money and time for the organization. Employees’ professional need should be found out and they should be trained on the required skills and competencies. Employees can also be encouraged by providing proper mentoring and coaching to them. Organization also needs to focus on communication and interpersonal skills of employees as Hilton hotel is a service industry and employees will interact directly with the customers.
Continuous development is very important to survive in this competitive market. Entire report helped us in studying different management and leadership styles in an organization. Importance of communication channel is also discussed. Organization structure and culture has huge impact on the employee and customer satisfaction. Work environment depends a lot on the type of structure or culture followed by the organization. Development plan is very important for being successful and development plan starts with the SWOT analysis which helps in knowing the strengths and weaknesses of an employee. Future growth strategies can be developed. Continuous review and evaluation of the development plan is also required to develop future strategies.
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