Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35

Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35

Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35

Program

Diploma in Health and Social Care

Unit Number and Title

Unit 6 Research Project on Pregnancy Risks After 35

QFC Level

Level 5

Introduction

The main aim of the Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35 is to critically explore all sides and faces of having a child after 35 and main objectives are to analyse the rate of miscarriage after 35. Identify the health problems of a mother and child because of over delayed child bearing.

Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35 - Assignment Help UK

Task 1

Chapter 1 Introduction

Task 1A

1.1 Research Project Description/ Overview of Project

Background of Research: In this research project I will try to analyse and relate what are all the risks of having a child at mature age, evaluating the risks of having miscarriage and chromosomal mutation, Down syndrome, fertility decline and all  health and social care  problems that might arise for the mother and the child. The biological clock is ticking for women over 35 who combine motherhood with careers. (Park, et. al., 2013)For women in their thirties, fertility decline sharply says the HFEA fertility regulator. For women who reach 35 the complications are more communes during the pregnancy. The miscarriage risk is 12%- 15% for women in their twenties and is going up to 25% for women at age 35, the increasing incidence of chromosomal abnormalities contribute to the miscarriage. Diabetes and high blood pressure, chronicle health problems can arise for women at age 35, during the pregnancy. It is more likely for women over 35 to have low weight new-born, stillbirth, and caesarean birth. (James, 2011)

1.2 Research Aims and Objectives

The main aim of this research is to critically explore all sides and faces of having a child after 35. The main objectives of the research are as follows:

  1. To analyse the rate of miscarriage after 35;
  2. To evaluate the chances of having a chromosomal mutation;
  3. To assess the fertility decline;
  4. To identify health problems for the mother and the child: premature birth, low weight child, high blood pressure, diabetes, multiple pregnancy, etc.
  5. To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to

Describe the implications for women and health care providers.

Research Question: The following are the research questions for the research:

  • What are the pregnancy risks after the age of 35?
  • What measures can be taken to reduce the possible risks?

Factors that contribute to the process of research project selection

The topic “An evaluation of pregnancy risks after 35” has been selected because of the growing concern of the child birth after the age of 35 and the increasing rate of miscarriages. This topic will help the users to know the actual dangerous side of giving birth to a child after the age of 35 and the after effects. This will provide knowledge on the topic to the users.. (Kumar, 2011)

Task 1B

1.3 Literature Review

The newspaper Daily Mail state that women must have baby before age 35 other ways they risk to miss out the motherhood, infertility is rising and it is demonstrate that difficulty is increasing for women to become pregnant after 35 and they are highly expose to miscarriage. Doctors are saying that the optimum age for women to have babies is between 20 and 35; The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist are showing evidence. Birth complications are more often meet for women over 35. (Queenan, et. al., 2012)The fertility treatments are successful in 31% of cases for women up to 35 years old but drop to 5% for women at 42 and over. Diabetes and preeclampsia are the price of a late pregnancy although most of the pregnancy in Great Britain results in healthy children. The NHS is affected by the increase number of older mothers because of increasing the number of complications. If in middle of 1980 the number of mothers over 35 was about 8% in our days the number is more than double, 19% affirm Mandish Dhanjal consultant obstetrician who collect data evidence for (Kelhä, 2009)The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. He was worried the late motherhood becomes a trend being influenced by older celebrity mothers, affecting women perception about life. We have extreme cases like the oldest mother of the world, the Romanian Adriana Iliescu, 67 in 2005 January who give birth prematurely to baby Eliza Maria Iliescu. Against all this the women are encouraged to decide upon the pregnancy. The deputy general secretary of the Royal College of Midwives, Louise Silverton says that pregnancy complications are meetingmore often in older women, more caesarean births and induction of labour which are a big risk for the baby and the mother. She says that the late child bearing is having a big impact on the health care sector; the maternity units must be prepared adequately to cover the multiple demands of mature mothers. (Hope J., 2009)

Task 1C

1.4 Research methodology

  • Research Theory: I will use secondary research, critically analyse of the available literature using data from valid sources. The Saunders (2009) onion research model it is going to be my guide in my research. It describes each stage in the project in the sequence like the layers in onion and that is why it is known as Research Onion Theory.

Research onion - Assignment Help UK

  • Research Philosophy:  The research philosophy is positivism as the research is dependent on reality and social factors.
  • Research Question: The following are the research questions for the research:
  1. What are the pregnancy risks after the age of 35?
  2. What measures can be taken to reduce the possible risks? (Saunders, et. al.,2012)
  • Research Plan: Both the qualitative and quantitative approaches are used where the secondary data is been collected from various sources in qualitative and quantitative form. Therefore mixed approach is used. (Saunders, et. al., 2012)
  • Research strategies: The research strategy followed is literature review research strategy research because the secondary data is been collected. (Chakrabarti, 2010)
  • Research Choice: The research will be a mixed research because both qualitative and quantitative data is been used. . (Kumar, 2011)
  • Data collection: Data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, Journals, websites, etc. Research method or approach is the main basis for deciding the data collection sources for the research. Mixed method is used for holding the research which includes the extraction and utilization of both the qualitative and quantitative data so that the main purpose of the research can be fulfilled. . (Kumar, 2011)
  • Limitation: The limitation of this research report is the shortage of time which limits the sources of information extracted for the purpose of research. (Kuada, 2012)
  • Ethical consideration: Ethics are the principles which guides and shows to the business to follow the right direction and to choose between the right and wrong. All the information has been collated from the valid resources and for giving proof for this, the data is referenced properly. (Kuada, 2012)

1.5 Structure of the Project- Action Plan

An action plan is the plan for completing the activities of the project at a fixed duration of time.

S. No.

Activities

Beginning Date

Duration

(Weeks)

Ending Date

Discussion

A)

Planning for research

07-05-16

1

13-05-16

Planning is required for conducting a research

B)

Action on Plans

14-05-16

1

20-05-16

Action will be taken on the plans which were made

C)

Data Gathering

21-05-16

2

03-06-16

Data will be gathered to complete the research.

D)

Analysis of data  collected

04-06-16

2

17-06-16

Analysis of the data collected

E)

Conclusion of the research and recommendations

18-06-16

1

24-06-16

Conclusion and recommendations will be presented after the analysis of the data collected.

Gantt chart

Gantt chart 1 - Assignment Help UK

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The literature review section in the project contains various theories and concepts which are regarding the topic and it this information is used to complete the research successfully on the given topic “ An evaluation of Pregnancy risks after 35”.

2.2 Critical review of key references

In order to explore the effects of having a child for women over 35, I will use relevant data available, to be able to reach my objectives. The newspaper Daily Mail state that women must have baby before age 35 other ways they risk to miss out the motherhood, infertility is rising and it is demonstrate that difficulty is increasing for women to become pregnant after 35 and they are highly expose to miscarriage. Doctors are saying that the optimum age for women to have babies is between 20 and 35; The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist are showing evidence. Birth complications are more often meet for women over 35. The fertility treatments are successful in 31% of cases for women up to 35 years old but drop to 5% for women at 42 and over. Diabetes and preeclampsia are the price of a late pregnancy although most of the pregnancy in Great Britain results in healthy children. The NHS is affected by the increase number of older mothers because of increasing the number of complications. If in middle of 1980 the number of mothers over 35 was about 8% in our days the number is more than double, 19% affirm Mandish Dhanjal consultant obstetrician who collect data evidence for The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.(Hope, 2009) He was worried the late motherhood becomes a trend being influenced by older celebrity mothers, affecting women perception about life. We have extreme cases like the oldest mother of the world, the Romanian Adriana Iliescu, 67 in 2005 January who give birth prematurely to baby Eliza Maria Iliescu. Against all this the women are encouraged to decide upon the pregnancy. The deputy general secretary of the Royal College of Midwives, Louise Silverton says that pregnancy complications are meetingmore often in older women, more caesarean births and induction of labour which are a big risk for the baby and the mother. She says that the late child bearing is having a big impact on the health care sector; the maternity units must be prepared adequately to cover the multiple demands of mature mothers. (Hope J., 2009)

The news story was based on a publication by RCOG. In this report, RCOG outlined its position on the issues associated with the reproductive changes that come with later motherhood. It makes several recommendations and discusses the implications that later motherhood has in relation to current practice.(NHS choices, 2009). The College’s recommendations include greater education on the fact that the best age for childbearing is between 20 and 35, and further research into IVF methods and other assisted reproductive technologies. The age at which women first become mothers in the UK is continuing to rise, but as women get older the number and quality of egg cells that are produced by the ovaries declines. About 10% of women are affected by early ovarian ageing but there is currently little that can be done to identify this condition. Infertility and difficulty in conceiving can cause great emotional distress to couples.(O’Keeffe, et. al., 2015).

Women should ideally be free to choose when to start a family based on  personal and professional  circumstances, but very little can currently be done to reverse the underlying biological factors that determine reproductive ageing. While in vitro fertilisation (IVF) can potentially help many women conceive, much like unassisted conception it is far less successful as women get older. The live birth rate for women under 35 undergoing IVF is 31%, but the success rate is less than 5% for women over 42.This is because the quality of the eggs harvested in assisted techniques such as IVF deteriorates with age. These techniques stimulate the release of more egg cells but cannot compensate for the effects of reproductive ageing on egg quality. While newer preservation techniques are designed to freeze eggs from younger women and allow postponed pregnancy at a later age, there is currently little evidence to support their use. (O’Keeffe, et. al., 2015)

As women get older, both mothers and babies face an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications and health problems. These are due to changes in the reproductive system and the increased likelihood of general health problems that comes with age. Problems include:

  • Greater difficulty in initially conceiving a child, with the personal and psychological difficulties that this can cause.
  • Increased risk of complications for both mother and infant during pregnancy and delivery (although the actual size of the risk may be small).
  • Greater risk of general maternal health problems, such as high blood pressure, which can contribute to complications.
  • Higher risk of miscarriage in women above the age of 35.
  • Higher risk of having twins or triplets, which is it associated with higher risk of complications.
  • Increased chance of having a baby with a congenital abnormality, such as Down’s syndrome. (Kharaghani, et. al., 2014)
  • Increased risk of pre-eclampsia.
  • Increased risk of complications during delivery, such as prolonged labour, need for assisted delivery or Caesarean section, or stillbirth. (         Kharaghani, et. al., 2014)

The problems of childbearing in later life that were addressed in this report have long been recognised. Many women planning on becoming pregnant in later life will be well aware of some of the possible difficulties in conceiving or the risks of complications. However, the age at which a woman becomes a mother is governed by a number of complex personal, social, professional and life circumstances, which means that it cannot always be easily planned. Women should not be overly concerned by this report, but should be aware of the recommendations. These include an awareness of the risks of genetic disorders and the screening tests available, ensuring any medical conditions are managed and stable (for example, high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity) and ensuring that folic acid and vitamin supplements are taken around the time of conception. A woman's health should be as optimal as possible prior to pregnancy, which means maintaining a healthy weight and eating a balanced diet, taking regular exercise, limiting alcohol and not smoking. (Dozier, et. al., 2014)

Many women who become pregnant in their late 30s and early 40s have perfectly healthy pregnancies and babies. All pregnant women and those planning pregnancy, regardless of age, should be fully informed, receive optimal care and support and the appropriate medical attention required to meet any needs that arise from becoming a mother. (NHS CHOICES, 2009). The birth of child after the age of 35 is normal and is safe because the fertility of women does not finish or decline butthere is slight decline in fertility. According to Historical records, it is seen that women used to get pregnant at the age of their forties. Women who want to conceive a baby without any complexities should consult a doctor at first so that root issues can be known and their discussion can be done in detail to understand the matter from the roots. Women should concentrate in maintaining their health so that the fertility of their eggs can become strong. Healthy diet, medically prescribed supplements can improve the quality of the egg fertility of women which makes easier for the women to get pregnant even at a higher age. (Dozier, et. al., 2014)

A balanced diet should be taken which should include healthy fats, omega 3, fruits, vegetables, etc. Also, the activities to reduce stress should be adopted like Yoga, regular exercise or meditation. Regular check-ups are essential to ensure that everything is going right with the health of the mother and the baby and also to ensure that what treatments should be given to the mother according to the health of her and her baby. A balanced weight of body should be maintained for avoidingrisks in the pregnancy. It has already been stated that regular exercises are very important during pregnancy. Choose a good hospital, doctor or health care centre to ensure the safety of both the mother and safety. Classes are held for mothers to know about the general care which is to be kept by the mothers during the period of pregnancy; it should be attended by the mothers. Natural birth of babies after the age of 35 of mothers is possible and can be better because the mothers are mature enough to handle everything and are more educated and stable. (D'Angelo, 2016)

mother and child - Assignment Help UK

Task 3

Chapter 3: Methodology

Research methodology is the major part of the research where the discussion is carried on about all the relevant methods, techniques or data collection sources which are been sued for conducting the research and finding out the conclusions successfully. Every research is held by following certain methods; those methods will be discussed over here in this section.

3.1 Methodology, Methods and Techniques

  • Research Theory: I will use secondary research, critically analyse of the available literature using data from valid sources. The Saunders (2009) onion research model it is going to be my guide in my research. It describes each stage in the project in the sequence like the layers in onion and that is why it is known as Research Onion Theory. Each step of the research is described as each layer of the onion. There are various stages, the first stage is Research philosophy from which the research gets started, second stage is research approaches, and thethird stage is research choice and so on. Like this, all the stages are discussed. (Saunders, et. al., 2012)

Research onion 2 - Assignment Help UK

  • Research Philosophy: The research philosophy is positivism as the research is dependent on reality and social factors. The research has been investigated on the reality factors which are present in real and are valid. (Saunders, et. al., 2012)
  • Research Question: The following are the research questions for the research:
  1. What are the pregnancy risks after the age of 35?
  2. What measures can be taken to reduce the possible risks?
  • Research Plan and approaches: Both the qualitative and quantitative approaches are used where the secondary data is been collected from various sources in qualitative and quantitative form. Therefore mixed approach is used which means that the combination of qualitative and quantitative data has been extracted from the secondary sources. Secondary sources are those which containthe data which has been already used by someone else and now it is referred by the researcher to find out the conclusion of his research. Both qualitative and quantitative data is taken. Quantitative data refers to the data which is expressed in terms of calculations, numeric numbers, etc. and statistical methods are used to collect and analyse this type of data. This type of data is easy to analyse and interpret theresults which take the research into the right direction and lead to the final conclusions. (Saunders, et. al., 2012). Qualitative data is the type of data where the data is collected in form of opinions and views or any other theory related to the topic. Detailed data is tough to evaluate because everyone takes the explanations in different sense.
  • Research strategies: The research strategy followed is literature review  research project  because the secondary data is been collected. There are many strategies which are followed by researcher to carry out the research like case study research method, experimental research strategy, etc. The present research project is conducting by following the literature review research strategy so that the main objectives of the research can be fulfilled by evaluating the data collected through secondary sources which has been mentioned in Literature Review section. (Saunders, et. al., 2012)
  • Research Choice: The research will be a mixed research because both qualitative and quantitative data is been used to carry out research. Quantitative data is been used by extracting the figures or nos. related to the topic and qualitative data is been extracted by referring the views, opinions or recommendations of the experts in the field.
  • Data presentation: Data is been collected, analysed and then shown and presented in the form of Structured tables and graphs which simplifies the analyses and makes the interpretation attractive and easy to understand.
  • Limitations: Every research hassome limitations. Limitations are those factors which contribute in the failure of project success. The limitation of this research report is the shortage of time which limits the sources of information extracted for the purpose of research. It was not possible to refer huge amount of data in the short span of time so limited data is collected on the basis of which the research is conducted. (Saunders, et. al., 2012)
  • Action Plan and Gantt chart: An action plan is the plan for completing the activities of the project at a fixed duration of time.

S. No.

Activities

Beginning Date

Duration

(Weeks)

Ending Date

Discussion

A)

Planning for research

07-05-16

1

13-05-16

Planning is required for conducting a research

B)

Action on Plans

14-05-16

1

20-05-16

Action will be taken on the plans which were made

C)

Data Gathering

21-05-16

2

03-06-16

Data will be gathered to complete the research from the secondary sources of information.

D)

Analysis of data collected

04-06-16

2

17-06-16

Analysis of the data collected

E)

Conclusion of the research and recommendations

18-06-16

1

24-06-16

Conclusion and recommendations will be presented after the analysis of the data collected.

Gantt chart

Gantt chart 2 - Assignment Help UK

3.2 Sampling

Sampling has been done on the random basis. Huge data is been extracted and only the relevant data is included and analysed in the research which is been selected randomly. So, random sampling method is used for sampling the data. (Kumar, 2011)

3.3 Data collection

Data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, Journals, websites, etc. Research method or approach is the main basis for deciding the data collection sources for the research. Mixed method is used for holding the research which includes the extraction and utilization of both the qualitative and quantitative data so that the main purpose of the research can be fulfilled. Secondary sources of data are those which are already used by someone else and now it has been referred for supporting the current research and to meet the aims and objectives of the research. These resources can be websites, books, interviews already conducted by someone else, newspapers, magazines, research papers, articles, journals, etc. (Kuada, 2012)

3.4 Ethical considerations

Ethics are the principles which guides and shows to the business to follow the right direction and to choose between the right and wrong. All the information has been collated from the valid resources and for giving proof for this, the data is referenced properly. Permissions and approvals are taken from the required authorities to collect the data;the ethical review form is also attached with the report. The data gathered is been kept safe which is protected by putting passwords so that no person who is not allowed to get access to the data can getaccess to the data and change or alter it.  No data is included in theresearch which affects or impacts the sentiments of the users in the negative way. (Goergen, 2015)

Task 4

Chapter 4 Data collection and Analysis

4.1 Data collection

Data has been collected from secondary sources which can be a website material, articles, journal, book or any newspaper article. The data is collected in the qualitative and quantitative form which will be evaluated in the research. The quantitative data will be analysed with the help of statistical tools and with the use of tables and charts.(Chakrabarti, 2010)

4.2 Data Analysis and Discussion

It is been observed from the data collected that Pregnancy risks are high at and after the age of 35 and many complications are faced like premature birth of a bay, defects in birth of a child and more. The trends in the pregnancy after the age of 35 shows that the pregnant women who are in twenties have 12-15 per cent of chances for miscarriage while this risk increases to 25% when the women is above the age of 35. Miscarriage refers to the loss of pregnancy within 3 months of getting pregnant. Most of the miscarriages happen during the first 13 weeks of pregnancy i.e. during the first three months. In this the embryo or the foetus dies naturally before it is formed into a baby in the womb of the mother. (van Wyk, et. al., 2011)

Table 1: Risk of Miscarriage

Age of females

Risk percentage of Miscarriage

22 years

8.70%

30 years

18%

35 years

20%

40 years

40%

48 years

84%

risk percentage of miscarriage - Assignment Help UK

Analysis: It is analysed that the women of older age faces serious biological issues which effect their fertility and they face more miscarriages when compared to the younger age groups.ve graph shows that the risk percentage of miscarriages at the age of 22 is 8.70% while it increases to 18% in 30 years and to 20% in 35 years and further it almost doubles in the age of 40 (40%) and again a very high risk percentage is faced at the age of 48 years or more which can be as high as  84%. This is because the infertility increases at higher age. Most of the women who want to get pregnant and then deliver babies get unsuccessful and suffer miscarriage. The more a womanwants to get pregnant, the chances of successful pregnancy reduce and this is clearly shown in statistics. (Chew, 2016)

Table 2: Stillbirths rates for women of different age groups giving birth for first time

Stillbirths rates for women of different age groups giving birth for first time - Assignment Help UK

Analysis: Stillbirth means the infant who dies in a womb of a mother. The table shows that the stiilbirth cases are much lesserwhen the women belongs to the age of 35 and it incrases  to almost double when the age of women is between 35-39 and incrases arund 2.5 times when the women belongs to the age of 40 years or more. Thses are the numbers when the women is giving birth for the first time at tis age and when this is the second time for a women or the women who has given the birth before, the no of cases of stillbirth are much lesser when compared to the first time mothers. This shows that the risk is higher for the first time mothers.(Kelhä, 2009) According to a study in United States, the women is grouped acording to their age and it is seen that the women who is of 35 yaers or older face higher risk of stillbirths of tehir babies than the women fall in lower age group.  It is aslo noticed that a healthy women have lower risks of stillbirths. Healthy women means the women with no signs of diabetes, no blodd pressure issues (high/low), kidney or lung disease. But still the risks were higher with the incraese in age of women. The doctors and researchers are in the view that the risk of stillbirths incraeses with the incae in age may be because the blodd vessels in the uterus of the women ages but the reason is not proved.(Kelhä, 2009). The maternal mortality also increases with the age. According to a study, the mortality of mothers was found in the following numbers:

Age group

Maternal death rate (per 100000)

20-29

1.4

40-44

22

45 and older

166

The death of women increases during their pregnancy or while giving birth to a child and the no of deaths increases with the age of women which is shown clearly in the table. The risk and complications increases with the increase in age, not only to baby but also to the mother. In general the maternal mortality has decreased in recent years but this risk increases in the women who are 35 years or older than that.

Maternal Mortality Rates - Assignment Help UK

Maternal Mortality Rates (grouped in age) in the year 2007

Source: Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, National centre for Health Statistics, national Vital Statistics System

The graph clearlyshows that mortality rate is much higher in women at the rate of 35 and older while it is much less under 20 years. This shows that the risks and themortality increases with the increase in age of women. These statistics shows that making a family is as important as making a career on time so that no harm can be faced in further life.

Also it is observed that the no of caesareans increased when women gave birth after years of age. The following numbers prove the same:

Age group

caesarean rates

25-29

29.5%

30-34

33.0%

35-39

38.5%

40-44

45%

45 and more

57.1%

The numbers clarifies that the no of increased with increase in the age of mothers. Also most of the mothers who fall in this category are the first time mothers. The reason behind the increased no of C-sections/ is clear because with the increase in age, more complexities are faced by the women during their pregnancy which make them ready to go for C-sections. The no of caesareans are increasing and also the risks which are related to this are increasing. Natural birth is beneficial for mothers as well as babies.The reasons to opt C-sections can be: Having more than one babies due to the infertility treatments after the age of 35 by most of the people, Babies not in the correct position so that they have to be operated and taken out, Common risks of diseases in the women after the age of 35, Due to the inflexibility of Uterus and cervix at an age of 35 or more in women or many other reasons depending on person to person because every case is different. (Hope, 2009)

Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations

This section contains the conclusion of the whole research after going throughthewhole research report and then recommendations are given on the basis of conclusion of report.

5.1 conclusions

It can be concluded from the research that there are many  health and safety  problems which is faced by a women as she reaches higher age. Some problems can be ignored while some cannot be ignored. The research covers the possible problems which women of 35 or more than 35 years may have to face during the pregnancy or to get pregnant. The more young a women will be, saferthe delivery of the delivery of the child will be. Having first pregnancy at 18 years of age is safest and it also reduces the possible risks which are discussed in the report. The mother and a baby will be healthy and safe from risks. The birth of a child from a mother of less than 18 years is very dangerous because these babies suffer a lot and they are more likely to die because the young adolescents lacks a developed pelvis and they can suffer dangerous consequences, even death. Just like the young mother below the age of 18 and their babies are at risk, the pregnancy of women at or after the age of 35 is at risk.

It can be concluded that there are any factors which affect the pregnancy of a women at the age of 35 or more like current health status or health history, contraception to control fertility for not having children at younger age, Delay in family planning, more focus towards growth, etc. These factors lead to the pregnancy in later years when the infertility of women starts to begin and it affect the pregnancy of women. The child poses certain risks in theseaccess like stillbirths are more, miscarriages or the risk of defective child. The potential risks are decline in fertility of women, declining fertility in men, increased other diseases in high/ low bloodpressure, diabetes, etc. The later age pregnancy can lead to multiple child births, still births or child with some deficiency. Pregnancy after the age of 35 is not only a challenge in physical terms nut it is also an emotional challenge. So, women should be emotionally strong to take even tough decisions because they may have to make strong and tough decisions at certain point of time during their emergency. So they should be prepared for it. It is one of the most important decisions for the couple to become parents and planning for pregnancy is must to ensure that the women and the child will remain free from the risks. First of all planning should be done and then proper acre should be given to the baby during thepregnancy too.

5.2 Recommendations

Some recommendations are given for maintaining the safe pregnancy and for better health of mother as well as baby, which are as follows:

  • Planning in advance: Pregnancy should be planned in advance, a help of counsellors or doctors can be taken for this purpose. This is important to conceive a healthy child. Couple can visitthe health care provider and talk to them about the possible risks which can occur during pregnancy so that help can be received from them
  • Take care of health: The women should take care of their health. They should take supplements to reduce their deficiencies, proper diet may help in conceiving healthy child. Smoking or drinking activities should be reduced or women should quit these and regular exercises should be involved in routine. Fertility decreases when the age increases and the couple should take some fertility tests to know about the probable risks they may face in conceiving and delivering a child or the chances of conceiving a baby.
  • Emotionally strong: A women should keep herself strong emotionally during her pregnancy. It will keep herself happy and the baby too. Share all the concerns about pregnancy from the health care provider and the personal problems or concerns with the partner or friends.
  • Prepare to become a parent: The couple or the single parent should be prepared for becoming a parent. For this classes can be attended to learn parenting.

5.3 Areas for further study

The research scope for the topic “An evaluation of Pregnancy risks after 35” is very wide and there are other lot of other topics where further research can be conducted like:

  • Disability in children and their wellbeing
  • Impact of delay in pregnancy on children
  • Planning for an ageing population
  • Pregnancy planning
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Unit 6 Research Project Assignment on Pregnancy Risks After 35 is to critically explore all sides and faces of having a child after 35 and main objectives are to analyse the rate of miscarriage after 35, Locus  Assignment Help UK  offers online assignment help for all courses