Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Local Area Networking technologies

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

TASK 1

Evaluate various LAN technologies available in the market. Describe the technologies in relation with scenario above.

Local area networks (LANs) is part of computer networking  which connects  two or more system or network device  that is called local area network (LANs)  such as floor of building or one building or one office in same floor or other floor of building and campus environment. LANs behave much like people when you have a meeting with three or more people: If you want to say something to someone in particular, you first say that person’s name or at least look at him. Or, if you want to tell everyone in the meeting something, you just say it because they can all hear you. Likewise, LAN or locale Area network is broadcast media in other word that all devices or switches on the media receive the same data. When you are connect your computers or networking devices such as (hub, switch, and router) and we can use various types of topologies.

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

 

Figure 1: LAN technologies

 

    Different type of LAN technologies

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample  Assignment

Figure 2: Different Types of LAN technologies

Ethernet IEEE 802.3
Ethernet: -
Ethernet is a physical medium or part of physical technology that is directly connected to PC NIC or Ethernet port of switch or networking device only one PC on a shared Ethernet segment can send a frame at one time, but all stations receive and look at the frame to determine if it is for them. The physical Ethernet specifications up to 100 Mbps. provisioning IEEE 802.3 networks. Of these specifications, 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 are no longer used but are included for completeness. 512 bits is the shortest transmission unit (packet) allowed on an Ethernet network. This is a necessity for collision detection to work correctly. Ethernet is the underlying basis for the technologies most widely used in LANs. In the 1980s and early 1990s, most networks used 10-Mbps Ethernet, defined initially by Digital, Intel, and Xerox (DIX Ethernet Version II) and later by the IEEE 802.3.
The following are specifications for Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • 10BASE5
  • 10BASE2
  • 10BASE-T
  • 100BASE-T

Half-Duplex:-
Half duplex is elements of LAN Technology. Many devices are working with Half duplex for instance HUB or repeater These center points is filling in as  multiport repeaters in LAN and  they secured  the transport topology idea of 10Base2 and 10Base5 and so on by restoring the same electrical sign sent by the first sender of a casing out some other port. Impacts can at present happen, so CSMA/CD access principles keep on being utilized. The operation of NIC cards and the joined center is imperative to have a complete comprehension of the blockage issues and the requirement for full-duplex Ethernet.
As per below outlines the operation of half-duplex 10BaseT with hubs technology.

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment
Figure 3: Half Duplex Operation
Find the below step for hub duplex

  • Step 1: Frame sent by the network interface card (NIC).
  • Step 2: Looping of sent frame onto it’s receive pair by NIC.
  • Step 3: Frame received at the hub end.
  • Step 4: Hub sends the frame on all internal bus or other NICs so that it can be accessed by all Other NICs and they will receive the signal.
  • Step 5: The hub is the center point which repeats the signal from each receiving pair and forwards them to devices available in network.

Full Duplex:-
Full-duplex performance is allowed when the possibility of collisions is removed. Full- duplex is used to depict correspondence where both sides have the capacity to send and get information in the meantime. In these cases, there is no peril of an impact and accordingly the exchange of information is finished much speedier.
As no collisions possible in full duplex mode, NIC disables the loopback circuitry. In this mode, both devices at the same time can send and receive data. It helps in decreasing congestion in Ethernet and provides the advantages as compared to half-duplex.
Fast Ethernet (100-Mbps)
IEEE introduced the IEEE 802.3u-1995 standard to offer Ethernet speeds of 100 Mbps over the other media of cabling (UTP and fiber etc.). The 100BASE-T standard is similar to 10-Mbps Ethernet in that it uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) runs on the UTP or fiber cable and preserves the frame formats. Connectivity still uses hubs, repeaters, and bridges .100-Mbps Ethernet, or Fast Ethernet, topologies present some distinct constraints on the network design because of their speed.
 The following are specifications for Fast Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • 100BASE-TX
  • 100BASE-T4
  • 100BASE-FX

100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet
The 100BASE-TX description uses CAT 5 UTP wiring.  Fast Ethernet uses only two pairs of the four-pair UTP wiring. If CAT 5 cabling is already in place, upgrading to Fast Ethernet requires only a hub or switch and network interface card upgrades.
100BASE-T4 Fast Ethernet
The 100BASE-T4 specification was developed to support UTP cable at the CAT 3, 4, or 5. This description takes advantage of higher-speed Ethernet without re-cabling to CAT 5 UTP. Fast Ethernet uses three pairs of four-pair UTP wiring|
Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3ab
Gigabit Ethernet was first identified by two standards: IEEE 802.3z (Gigabit Ethernet) invented in year 1998 and second edition of IEEE 802.3ab in year 1999. The IEEE 802.3z for the operation of Gigabit Ethernet over fiber and IEEE 802.3ab coaxial cable and bring together the Gigabit Media-Independent Interface (GMII). These standards are superseded by the latest revision of all the 802.3 standards included in IEEE 802.3-2002.
Below is an overview of Gigabit Ethernet scalability constraints.

Gigabit Ethernet Scalability Constraints

Type

Speed

Allowed Segment Length (Max)

Encoding

Media Used

1000BASE-T

1000 Mbps

100 m

Five-level

CAT 5 UTP

1000BASE-LX (long wavelength)

1000 Mbps

550 m

8B10B

Single-mode/multimode fiber

1000BASE-SX (short wavelength)

1000 Mbps

62.5 micrometers: 220 m 50 micrometers: 500 m

8B10B

Multimode fiber

1000BASE-CX

1000 Mbps

25 m

8B10B

Shielded balanced copper

The following are the physical specifications for Gigabit Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • 1000BASE-LX
  • 1000BASE-SX
  • 1000BASE-CX
  • 1000BASE-T

Wireless LAN
Wireless LAN (WLAN) consists of inside-building access, LAN addition, outside building-to-building infrastructures, public access, and small office/home office (SOHO) communications. The initially standard for wireless LANs is IEEE 802.11, approved by the IEEE in 1997. The current specification is IEEE 802.11-1999, with many amendments thereafter.
IEEE (802.11) implemented wireless LANs at speeds with 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum which works on physical layer of the Open System Interconnection model.

1.2 What do you understand by quality of service (QoS) and bandwidth management? Evaluate and analyse with examples why do you think it is important to perform them Quality of Service (QoS)

Quality of service (QoS) configurations or outlines gives special treatment to positive traffic at the expense of others device. This helps make your network presentation more deterministic and probable for this traffic.
QoS in the network addresses the following problems
The main reasons that can affect QoS are:

  • Latency
  • Jitter
  • Loss

Latency
In an IP network, latency is defined as the time taken for a packet to enter and leave the network. As shown in Figure  packet A enters the network at time = t0 and leaves the network at time = t1. The latency of the network, t2, for packet A, in this case, is t1 t0.

Figure 4: Network Latency Diagram

Note that latency is an end-to-end measurement of network delay. The time, t2, is the total delay introduced from various components of the network. These include transmission technology used, the speed at which packets can be forwarded at each intermediate node, and the various transmission speeds along the way.
Jitter
Jitter is affected by the traffic condition in the network. As a video packet traverses the network, it has to contend with packets from other applications along the way (for example, FTP and web applications). The latter two applications have a very different characteristic from that of the video: They are bursty by nature and may transmit variable-sized packets. The network needs to ensure that the jitter for the voice and video is not affected by these applications. This is when QoS is required.
Loss
Besides solving latency and jitter issues, preventing packet loss in applications such as voice and video is critical. Although losing one packet once every great while might not adversely affect these applications, losing too many might produce undesirable results. A long silence might interrupt a conversation, or a video screen might appear blank. In the case of the bank doing surveillance using an IP camera, losing images might have serious consequences.
Packet loss also results from the traffic condition in the network. A converged network carries different application types of data, video, and voice. These different applications must contend for the resources in the network. If the network is congested, packets are dropped because no resources are available. The network must be able to prevent the loss of packets that belong to voice and video applications. This is an area QoS can help in mitigating the risk of packet loss.

1.3 Discusses LAN concerns and make recommendations to sustain network security, reliability and performance

Hierarchical Network Design:
Hierarchical models are using layers to abridge the tasks for internetworking or network environment. Every layer can focus on explicit functions and allowing you to choose the right systems \ device and structures for every layer. 
The profits of using hierarchical models for our network design mention below:

  • Cost savings in this models we can save the money or cost 
  • Ease of understanding or we can understand very softly
  • Modular network progress
  • Improved error inaccessibility ,

Hierarchical design models are used to save operational cost because hierarchical design models do not perform every operation in one routing or switching platform.
A traditional hierarchical LAN design has three layers:

  • The core layer: This is responsible for fast transport between distribution switches in enterprise campus.
  • The distribution layer: This is responsible for providing policy-based connectivity.
  • The access layer: this layer is responsible for providing access of network to workgroup and user.
    Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment
    Figure 5: Hierarchical Network Design

Core Layer
The core layer is backbone of switching in hierarchical design models in other word core layer is bran of network environment that is work on high-speed switching backbone that is vital to corporate communications. The core layer should have below mention characteristics:

  • Fast transport (speed is critical )
  • High reliability (  core layer is work as backbone of network  )
  • Redundancy (they should be fully redundant   )
  • Low latency and good manageability ( there is no latency in core layer ) 

Distribution Layer
The distribution layer is the segregation or isolation point between the network's access layer and core layers. The distribution layer is used to implement below functions:

  • Policy for network traffic
  • QoS
  • Security filtering

Access Layer
The access layer is responsible for providing access of local system or PC on the network to end users. The access layer is categorized by access switched and shared-bandwidth LAN sectors or segments in a hierarchical design models. Segmentation with the help of LAN access switches provides high bandwidth to workgroups and reduces collision domains on Ethernet\Fast or gigabyte segments. Functions of the access layer include the following:

  • Ethernet switching
  • more specific security 

2.1 Design network infrastructure to fulfill the requirement of above scenario, including the diagram of the network infrastructure, and all devices (i.e. Switches, routers, cables, etc.)

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment
Network Design Diagram
In this above network design we have used following network resources

  • Customer Service VLAN - As per scenario 5 device or PC are required for this VLAN
  • Accounts/Finance VLAN: - This department has 34 PC and one network printer and will have accessible in finance department
  • Library VLAN :-  With 200 system , the library will be divided in two rooms with 3  48 port switch  each of which will contain 100 system  including a network printer, They should also be able print to a network printer from these machines

2.2 Critically evaluate the suitability of network components in your design in terms of Security, Scalability and Availability

2.2.1 Security
Dot.edu College has a security policy in place; it can begin to apply the document and its rules to their particular environment. Dot.edu College with truly comprehensive security policies find that what they have created is a roadmap that helps them implement the correct security appliances, mechanisms, and controls that satisfy their particular security needs. Dot.edu College will also quickly begin to find the weaknesses in their security posture through the process of identifying important resources and associated policies and tying that information to current inadequate security controls. This documentation is sure to change over time as the computing and physical environments change, which should be expected and accepted as normal security policy maintenance. The underlying network provides a perfect place to implement core and advanced security solutions.
2.2.2 Scalability  
Scalability point of view network is setup in this manner so that we do IOS up gradation of switch without any outage and downtime or other word it can refer to the ability of a system to increase its total output under an improved load when resources are added. For instance we are using UTP cat 3 cables and now we need to upgrade it to UTP cat 6 cable.
2.2.3 Availability
It is signified as a percentage of periods. How many days, hours, and minutes is the server electrical infrastructure operational and supplying power over a given time period? Server availability suffers whenever the electrical infrastructure fails to provide power to the room. 
Most companies want extremely high availability for their server, because downtime affects their ability to be productive and perform business functions. How high, though, can vary significantly and is represented by the concept of nines. The more nines of availability, the closer to 100% uptime a system or device has reached. For example, that your company brings the DC electrical system offline for one hour of maintenance every month. Assuming there are no additional outages of any kind, which means that the DC is running for all but 12 of the 8760 hours in the year. That's 99.863% of the time, or two nines of availability.

TASK 3

3.1 Draw a complete LAN design including servers, connecting devices, workstations, peripherals, etc. for the above scenario. Please include the configuration scripts in the appendix.
Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment
      LAN Design Diagram
We have design LAN diagram with the help of cisco packet tracer and find the below mention
Step by step process of implementation on network for LAN
First we will configure core switch and implementing all technology

  1. Configure host name of  switch , router
  2. We can create new four VLAN as per our senior , Customer Service VLAN , Accounts/Finance VLAN  , Library VLAN and server VLAN in  switch
  3. After that we can configure VTP domain ( virtual trunking protocol ) in  switch
  4. We can configure STP in core switch so we can protract  for network loop or loop free network
  5. All access switch port (PC  connected )   should be in access mode


Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

3.2 Prepare a list of IP addresses, subnet IDs, Broadcast IDs for each department, Justify your choice for chosen techniques (VLSM or others)

The college will be using 192.168.0.0/16 within LAN and we will user same ip pool for accessing outside network or WAN network.

Subnet allocation

Site

Bit

192.168.0.0   

Start Host 192.168.0.1

End Hot 192.168.1.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Edinburgh

192.168.0.0/23

192.168.2.0   

Start Host 192.168.2.1

End Hot 192.168.3.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Birmingham

192.168.2.0/23

192.168.4.0   

Start Host 192.168.4.1

End Hot 192.168.5.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Liverpool

192.168.4.0/23

192.168.6.0   

Start Host 192.168.6.1

End Hot 192.168.7.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Manchester

192.168.6.0/23

192.168.8.0   

Start Host 192.168.8.1

End Hot 192.168.9.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Glasgow

192.168.8.0/23

192.168.10.0   

Start Host 192.168.10.1

End Hot 192.168.11.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

NEW HO in CP

192.168.10.0/23

For Example

Now we are configure new head office in Central London with subnet mask 192.168.10.0/23

192.168.10.0 /23   

Start Host 192.168.10.1

End Hot 192.168.11.255

Subnet Mask 255.255.254.0

Library department

Address:   192.168.10.0         

Subnet mask:   255.255.255.0 = 24   

Wildcard:  0.0.0.255           

=>

Network:   192.168.10.0/24       

Broadcast: 192.168.10.255        

Starting Host:   192.168.10.1          

End Host:   192.168.10.254         

Hosts: 254

Finance department

Address:   192.168.11.0         

Subnet mask:   255.255.255.192 = 26 

Wildcard:  0.0.0.63             

=>

Network:   192.168.11.0/26      

Broadcast: 192.168.11.63        

Starting Host:   192.168.11.1         

End Host:   192.168.11.62       

Hosts: 62

Customer Service:

Address:   192.168.11.64        

Subnet mask:   255.255.255.192 = 26 

Wildcard:  0.0.0.63             

=>

Network:   192.168.11.64/26     

Broadcast: 192.168.11.127       

Starting Host:   192.168.11.65        

End Host:   192.168.11.126       

Hosts/Net: 62

Server ip address:

Address:   192.168.11.128       

Subnet mask:   255.255.255.192 = 26 

Wildcard:  0.0.0.63             

=>

Network:   192.168.11.128/26    

Broadcast: 192.168.11.191       

Starting Host:   192.168.11.129       

End Host:   192.168.11.190       

Hosts: 62

Work Station

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Broadcast ID

PC1

192.168.11.10         

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.63        

PC2

192.168.11.11         

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.63        

PC3

192.168.11.12         

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.63        

PC34

192.168.11.44

         

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.63        

Printer

192.168.11.50

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.63        

Customer Service has only five work station. 192.168.11.64/26     

Work Station

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Broadcast ID

PC1

192.168.11.70

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.127       

PC2

192.168.11.71

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.127       

PC3

192.168.11.72

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.127       

PC4

192.168.11.73

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.127       

PC5

192.168.11.74

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.127       

Library department -: 200 workstation are installed in Library so we require /24 subnet IP address. 192.168.10.0/24       

Work Station

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Broadcast ID

PC1

192.168.10.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC2

192.168.10.11

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC3

192.168.10.12

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC4

192.168.10.13

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC5

192.168.10.14

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC10

192.168.10.19

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

PC200

192.168.10.209

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

Printer 1

192.168.10.220

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

Printer 2

192.168.10.221

255.255.255.0

192.168.10.255

 Server ip address:  192.168.11.128/26     File Server, Web Server, Domain Controller

Server ip

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Broadcast ID

Web Services

192.168.11.140       

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.191       

File Server

192.168.10.141

255.255.255.192

192.168.11.191       

TASK 4

4.1 Create a performance baseline for the above company network and evaluate the designed LAN

Creating the baseline of LAN network in Dot.edu College we have to pull the presentation data of college traffic, BW (bandwidth) use and errors.  We know there was no change done after setup. We need to pull daily or weekly performance reports from monitoring tools  PRGT and EMC Smart so that we can check how much BW has been used during the working day  and also we will check on different monitoring tool whether we get any errors on the interfaces or not.
All useable port  where user systems are connected; those were put in monitoring tool which helps us to identify or find how much system data have been used.
Network devices (switch, router etc.)  which we configured during the time of setup, are these using all features of new technology.  We applied on network LAN segment like port security policy or mac binding are those working or not. We ping router IP from switch continuously to check latency and drops. We also keep checking ports and make sure that ports are proper VLAN according to department.
Below is the baseline parameter which was configured.

  • Studying the applied policy
  • Bandwidth thresholds on monitoring tool, in case of crossing, it generates the alerts.
  • CPU and Memory utilization baseline.4.2 Evaluation of Network Monitoring tools available in Market: to monitor performance of a network.  Selecting of one tool and producing a performance monitoring report for your network.

Dot.edu College we are using two monitoring tools PRTG, EMC smart. Monitoring tools are the key for network stability. EMC smart software helps us to identify any link failure and device down. PRTG checks the devices, link performance. If any irregularity occurs on the network, proactively send the alert. It helps us to the action in advance so that we can take quick action.
Below are the key advantages of the monitoring tools.

  • We can also monitor health of the servers
  • Device auto sends alerts of device failure and link failure.
  • Monitoring tools provides real time monitoring

4.3 One of the computers used in the library replaced, plan a step by step process to connect the new computer to the network and test connectivity effectively and efficiently?

We need to replace one computer with new computer in library so please find the below step
First, we have to check system device IP address it is defined static or DHCP. If here we configure IP address through DHCP server.
Second, we have to check the device is connected to switch port that has port security configured or not. If the port security is enabled we have to disable it once and again configure Mac address of new device on this switch ports.
Now we will check on the system whether cross sign has been disappeared. Now system will be able to connect on the network and will be able to access intranet and internet based application
 Now we have to take these following step of configure network in device.

  • Press window button+R and run ncpa.cpl command.
  • After this local area connection icon will be showing there.
  • Click Right button of mouse on local area connection button and go to property.
  • Select the check box Internet connection IPV4 if we have used 32 bit IP address in network and click it.
  • If In our network we have used 128 bit IP address then select Internet connection of IPV6 and click it.
  • Such we have used IPv4 click on mouse button.
  • There are two options showing First select automatic IP address option, second select for static IP address configuration. Now click on static IP configuration button.
  • If there is required a new IP configuration, we have to configure here according to demand. But remember that same library department range IP address, gateway will be configured there.
  • We have configured domain name also so right click on computer and to property, click on change setting & insert domain name of network server.

Now test network connectivity, first ping default gateway if it take reply time 1 and show packet drop 0, it means our network connection is good.

TASK 5

 5. Use a network simulator to simulate the designed LAN including the following

Building and configuration of devices and services within the LAN and Implementation of specialized configuration and security mechanisms within the LAN
Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment
I am configuring New HO location in Central London so first I will configure Router and connected with Core switch mention below.
We have configure host name of router with command

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

router#configure terminal
Router (config) #hostname CD-NEW-HO-RT

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment
We are configuring new HO location LAN segment so first we will configure switch and we can create 4 VLAN in core switch mention below.

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment
Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample  Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample  Assignment

Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Sample Assignment

REFERENCES

  • Carol, X, 2013. Computer?mediated communication and social networking tools at work. Information Technology and People. 26 (2). PP.172 – 190.
  • Morten H. A., 2011, Sense making in Networks: Using Network Pictures to Understand Network Dynamics, in Roger Baxter, Arch G. Woodside (ed.) Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior.17. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. PP.1 – 197.
  • Jason B. F. And Thomas L. M., 2012. Tools for interdisciplinary design of pervasive computing. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications. 8. PP.112 – 132.
  • Sheynblat, L., Krasner, N. F., 2004. U.S. Patent No. 6,677,894. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.