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Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment copy
The report is prepared to analyze the use of locale LAN technologies and their role in increase the performance of the organization. The project provides a detail glimpse about LAN and related evaluation techniques and models to overcome security related issues by using troubleshooting and LAN hardware such as switches, routers, voice gateways, firewalls, and other devices. These computers are getting connected with a cable through Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gig Ethernet or other media for local LAN
Purpose of this course is to provide an understanding on design and implementation of Local Area network, configuring network devices and to implement security in network.
Security is one of the main aspects of any network, as data security is very important from an organization point of view. This course will help to learn router configuration, packet filter, troubleshooting network, test network performance etc. This course will also help to get the understanding of an IP address/pool management, VLAN, STP, VTP or monitoring tool for a network.
1.1 Evaluate various LAN technologies available in the market. Describe the technologies in relation with scenario above.
LAN: A network is an enterprise network involving of many LANs in buildings, all are connected and all commonly in the same geographic area or network that is call LAN in other word. A company or organization typically owns the entire campus network, as well as the physical wiring. Campus networks commonly consist of Ethernet, 802.11 wireless LANs, higher-speed Fast Ethernet, Fast Ether Channel, and Gigabit Ethernet LANs
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Ethernet (802.3):-
Ethernet is a LAN technology based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 standard and offers a bandwidth of 10 Mbps between end users or PC, in other work in LAN Technology is provide connectivity to other PC through Ethernet technology and committed speed is 10 Mbps between every end user
Switched Ethernet can kill the likelihood of crashes stations don't need to hear each out other to take a turn transmitting on the wire. Rather, stations can work in full-duplex mode transmitting and getting at the same time. Full-duplex mode further builds system execution with a net throughput of 10 Mbps in every heading or 20 Mbps complete throughput on every port...
Half duplex is components of LAN technologies where many gadgets are working with half duplex for instance HUB or repeater these center points are essentially multiport repeaters, they develop the transport topology idea of 10Base2 and 10Base5 by recovering the same electrical sign sent by the first sender of an edge out every other port. Subsequently, impacts can in any case happen, so CSMA/CD access principles keep on being utilized. The operation of Ethernet cards and the appended center point is critical to have a complete comprehension of the clogging issues and the requirement for full-duplex Ethernet. According to Figure plots the operation of half-duplex 10BaseT with center points.
Find the below step for hub duplex:
- Sending frame from network interface card (NIC)
- Looping of sent frame by NIC onto its receiving pair
- Frame receiving at Hub.
- Relaying of the frame by HUB on internal bus so that all Other NICs can receive the electrical signal
- Signal received from each receiving pair are repeated to all other devices available in network by HUB
Full-duplex execution is permitted when the likelihood of crashes is uprooted. Consider the utilization of Ethernet between couples of NICs, as opposed to cabling the NIC to a center point. Full duplex is likewise an alternative when utilizing switches. At the point when a solitary gadget is joined with the switch port, the switch can guarantee that there is no impact, which permits full duplex to work.
Since no impacts are conceivable in full duplex in the NICs handicap their loopback hardware. Both closures can send and get at the same time. This decreases Ethernet clogging and gives the favorable circumstances, when contrasted with half-duplex 10BaseT operation Collisions don't happen time is not wasted in transmitting packets and it provides 10 Mbps in each direction, doubling the available capacity.
Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u:
Fast Ethernet is another innovation to increase expanded transfer speed in Ethernet environment or other word the systems administration industry added to a higher-speed Ethernet taking into account existing Ethernet measures that is called Fast Ethernet. Quick Ethernet works at 100 Mbps and is characterized in the IEEE 802.3u standard. The Ethernet cabling plans, CSMA/CD operation, and all upper-layer convention operations are kept up with Fast Ethernet. The net result is the same information join Media Access Control (MAC) layer converged with another physical layer.
Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3z or IEEE 802.3ab:
Gigabit Ethernet is based on the IEEE 802.3ab and IEEE 802.3z standard and Gigabit Ethernet is supports 1000 Mbps or 1 Gbps per port of network switch and the physical layer has been modified to increase data-transmission speeds and Gigabit Ethernet can connect access-layer switches to distribution-layer switches for example Gigabit Ethernet in the switch block, core layer, and server block
10-Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3ae:
Gigabit Ethernet utilizes 1000BASE-X to show the media sort, 10-Gigabit Ethernet utilizes 10GBASE-X. The diverse PMDs characterized in the standard, alongside the sort of fiber and separation limits. All the fiber-optic PMDs can be utilized as either a LAN or a WAN PHY, aside from the 10GBASE-LX4, which is just a PHY. Be mindful that the long-wavelength PMDs convey a fundamentally more noteworthy cost than the others.
This segment covers the hardware of network devices or LAN device and categorized based on OSI model in the segment find the below LAN hardware
- Layer 3 switches
Repeaters are the basic unit in the systems that unite single divisions. Repeaters take approaching edges, datagram or parcel and send the casing out every other interface aside from accepting port .Repeaters working at the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters are unconscious of datagram/parcels or casing configurations, they don't control shows and multicast or crash spaces. Repeaters are thought to be convention straightforward in light of the fact that repeater is ignorant of upper-layer conventions, for example, IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and so on.
Hub is basic unit in LAN technology and they are working in Layer 1: physical of OSI module layer 1 and they can understand in bit and main difference is between hubs have more ports than basic repeaters.
Bridges are store-and-forward devices. They store the entire frame or datagram and verify the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) before forwarding. If the bridges detect a CRC error in frame or datagram they discard the frame or datagram. Bridges are protocol-transparent; they are unaware of the upper-layer protocols such as IP, IPX, and AppleTalk etc. Bridges are designed to flood all unknown and broadcast or multicast traffic.
Bridges implement Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to manufacture a circle free system topology. Bridges correspond with one another and trading data, for example, need and scaffold interface MAC addresses. Extensions select a root scaffold and afterward execute STP.
Switch is essentially a multiport straightforward scaffold and switch port is its own Ethernet LAN fragment and disconnected from the others switch port and Frame sending is construct totally with respect to the MAC locations contained in every casing, such that the switch won't forward an edge unless it knows the destination's area.
Switches are more specific incorporated circuits or more insightful LAN gadget to diminish the inactivity normal to standard extensions or lessen to show area in LAN section or environment. Switches are the movement of scaffolds. Switches can keep running in cut-through mode in this mode , switches does not sit tight for the whole edge or datagram to enter its support in its place of it starts to forward the casing when the destination MAC address. Cut-through operation expands the likelihood that casings with mistakes are engendered on the system, in light of the fact that it advances the casing before the whole edge is cradled and checked for lapses. In view of these issues, most switches today perform store-and-forward operation as scaffolds do, switches are precisely the same as extensions regarding impact space and telecast area qualities. Every port on a switch is a different crash area. Naturally, all ports in a switch are in the same telecast area. Task to distinctive VLANs changes that conduct.
Broadcasts are specific edges or datagram, parcels that are bound for all gadgets on an Ethernet system. Telecasts system a MAC location of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. This is a telecast l MAC address, it is the most astounding number permitted in the 48-bit blueprint of MAC locations. In the parallel, each of the 48 bits is situated to 1.
Multicasts are specific broadcast. Multicasts are utilized by higher layer conventions to direct activity to more than one select destination, as opposed to a show, which is sent to all destinations. Application layer multicasts begin with 01-00-5E prefix. Whatever remains of the digits are allotted by the application layer convention taking care of the multicast. Be that as it may, other Layer 2-just multicast locations don't have the prefix of 01-00-5E; for instance, STP with MAC location of 01-00-0c-cc-cc-compact disc. Generally, Ethernet systems treat multicasts like shows of course. A few higher layer conventions, for example, IGMP (Internet Group Messaging Protocol), can be utilized by changes to separate the activity and forward just multicast out particular ports.
Switches perform multilayer exchanging at Layer 3 and Layer 4. At Layer 3, the Catalyst group of switches stores activity streams taking into account IP addresses. At Layer 4, activity streams are reserved taking into account source and destination addresses, notwithstanding source and destination ports. All exchanging is performed in equipment, giving equivalent execution at both Layer 3 and Layer 4 exchanging.
We can configure logical topologies with equipment’s such as router or switch. There are basically 6 types of topologies:
- Bushere each node is connected to single cable and signal from each node travels to both the direction. Since this consist of only single wire thus inexpensive to setup. These are of two types linear and distributed both are same just that in the later one the common transmission medium has more than 2 end points.
- Star in this topology one single node is connected to all other nodes which act as server and others as client. These are of two type extended star and distributed in the later nodes are connected in daisy chain with no central or top level connection point.
- Ringin this topology nods are connected in circular fashion in which data travels from one node to other until it reaches particular node in one direction in this all the nodes work as server and repeat the signals the only dis-advantage of this is each node is critical if one node stops the whole network goes down.
- Meshin this topology each node is directly connected to the other node. There is two types in this fully connected network and partially connected network in fully connected all the nodes are inter connected directly to each other, fully connected network is practically impossible for large network as cost associated will be very high and to complex mesh will be very difficult to maintain and in the later-one its some of the nodes are connected to more than what other nodes are connected this is comparatively in expensive and still able to take advantage to redundancy provided by the fully connected mesh.
- Treethis topology has just tree like structure with root node then intermediate nodes and finally the branch nodes the outermost nodes known as leaves though there must be 3 level at least in the hierarchy to form a tree otherwise it would form star topology physically with one root node and other nodes connected to it as leaves. In this fault identification is easy as it is easy to manage nodes in hierarchy structure and it allows point to point connection of the nodes.
- Hybridthis is basically combination of any two or more of the above topology to form hybrid model but these both connected network must be of different topology. Common combinations are star-ring topology and star bus topology.
1.2 What do you understand by quality of service (QoS) and bandwidth management? Evaluate and analyze with examples why do you think it is important to perform QoS and Bandwidth Management?
Quality of service QoS:-
Quality of service (QoS), at a primary level and QoS is defined as providing better usage for priority traffic. It does this on the expense of low-priority traffic and the motivation behind QoS is to allow network and user-critical data to have consistent and reliable access to the network. QoS deployment is central to converged networks where IP telephony has merged with traditional data network. QoShelps with management of latency and bandwidth on the network. Some general terms will be outlined
QoS objectives are to provide reliable and available resources for applications and services on the network. In other word QoS should offer some obviousness of traffic flow seen on the network. Most networks today are implementing QoS for these very same reasons. Customers are looking for cheaper alternate means than simply increasing bandwidth on the network to support the various services they are supporting. However, bandwidth scarcity is not the only reason for QoS. Some applications are delay sensitive and require special handling on the network device itself.
The discussion of this chapter will be based on DiffServ model.
QoS operational model consists of five steps:
- Input scheduling
- Marking and policing
- Output scheduling
Classification is differentiate one incoming frame from another so that it can appropriately forward the packet through the switch's port is programmed to be untrusted which means that any frame received on the port will have its CoS value reset to 0.
Data planning or input scheduling is taking care of the casing after the edge has touched base at the entrance port and accepting the port has been designed for trust. Info booking fundamentally doles out approaching casings to lines. In the event that trust-cos is not designed and the approaching edges will sidestep the Receive limit line and are sent specifically to the exchanging motor.
1.3 Discuss LAN concerns in terms of network security, availability and performance? Explain how a Hierarchical Network Design can improve on availability, security, scalability and performance
Hierarchical Network Design:-
A various leveled way to deal with system plan that empowers system originators to legitimately make a system by characterizing and utilizing layers of gadgets. The subsequent system is security, accessibility, execution, productive, smart, adaptable, and effectively oversaw. Progressive outline encourages changes. In a system plan, seclusion gives you a chance to make outline components that you can duplicate as the system develops. As every component in the system configuration obliges change, the expense and intricacy of making the redesign are contained to a little subset of the general system. In expansive, level system architectures, changes have a tendency to effect countless. Restricted cross section topologies inside of a layer or segment, for example, the grounds center or spine uniting focal locales, hold esteem even in the progressive outline models.
Organizing the system into little, straightforward components enhances issue detachment. Systems supervisors can without much of a stretch comprehend the move focuses in the system, which aides distinguish disappointment focuses.
Today's quick merging conventions were intended for progressive topologies. To control the effect of directing convention preparing and data transfer capacity utilization, you must utilize particular various leveled topologies in light of conventions planned with these controls, for example, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).Hierarchical network design facilitates route summarization. EIGRP and all other routing protocols benefit greatly from route summarization. Route summarization reduces routing-protocol overhead on links in the network and reduces routing-protocol processing within the routers.
- Access Layer:-
The entrance layer or access layer is giving or offer client access to neighborhood fragments on the system and other word the entrance layer is giving Low cost per switch port, High port thickness, Scalable uplinks to higher layers Resiliency through various uplinks and they utilized User access capacities, for example, VLAN participation, movement and convention sifting, and QoS and over Ethernet (PoE) and assistant VLANs for VoIP. The entrance layer is portrayed by exchanged and shared-data transmission LAN portions in a grounds domain.
- Distribution Layer
The appropriation/distribution layer gives interconnection in the middle of access and center layers. Gadgets in this layer, _ High Layer 3 throughput for parcel taking care of, Security and strategy based network works through access records or bundle channels, QoS elements and Scalable and strong rapid connections to the center and access layers
- Core Layer
A center/core layer conveys integration of all appropriation layer gadgets. The center layer at times alluded to as the spine, Very high throughput at Layer 2 or Layer 3 and No immoderate or pointless bundle controls and Redundancy and strength for high accessibility
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