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Unit 44 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment solution
The report is prepared to analyze the use of different LAN technology and their role in increase the performance of the organization or company & institution .the purpose of this course is to provide an understanding on design and implantation of Local Area Networking (LAN), configuring network device and implement VLAN and network security in network. Security is one of the main aspects of all network .this course will help to learn all network test and network performance etc.
1.1 Evaluate various LAN technologies available in the market. Describe the technologies in relation with scenario above.
When we do the cabling in our network, these types of topologies we can use as per our standard .We have to make sure the redundancy has to be in place. Topology means physical layout of the network. Below is the example of the topology.
Local Area Network is computer network limited to a small area such as an office building, University, a residential home and group of interconnected PC or system to facilitate communication and data will exchange with each other. These day Ethernet based LAN is used where all systems are connected to one switch or hub and share the data based on their need. These days Wi-Fi and wireless LAN are also used in LAN segment which reduce cost of cabling and cable mess.
Different type of LAN technologies are described below:
Ethernet: - Ethernet is most commonly used in network these days .We can find Ethernet in every network and data is flowed with speed. It uses CSMA/CD technology to flow data. Which avoid data from collision. The physical media and connectors used to connect devices into the media are defined by standards, as are the way devices communicate at the data-link layer The Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards define a bus-topology LAN that operates at a baseband signaling rate of 10 Mbps.
Ethernet can be to type based on data transfer speed and distance.
- Fast Ethernet (802.3u):- This type of technology which operates over UTP or fiber. This type of Ethernet provides 1 mbps to 100 Mbps transmission speed and support up to 100 meter .this type of Ethernet user Cat-5 and Cat-6 cable.
- Gigabit Ethernet (802.ae) this type of technology which operates at 1000 Mbps over UTP or fiber .this type of Ethernet provides 1 Mbps to 1000 Mbps transmission speed.
VLAN (Virtual LAN):- VLAN is group of system to share a common broadcast domain and a VLAN is a single broadcast domain. After Creating VLANs we can improve performance and network security in the switched environment in network by controlling broadcast propagation.
A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can separate multiple physical LAN segments. It can be designed to establish stations segmented logically byfunctions, applications without regard to the physical location of users. Each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN. Ports in a VLAN share broadcasts; ports in different VLANs do not share broadcasts.
This improves the overall performance of the network .Within the switched internet work, VLANs provide segmentation. Using VLAN technology, you can group switch portsand their connected users into logically defined communities, such asco-workers in the same department, a cross-functional product groups sharing the same network application
VTP: -VTP is organized into management domains. Only one VTP domain can be assigned to a switch and can share VLAN information with other switches connected in the network. Switches in different VTP domains do not share VTP information. Switches in VTP domain share attributes, such as VTP management domain, revision number, known VLAN and other VLAN specific parameters, with neighbor domains. VTP sends information for new VLAN addition to switches in network. All switches in a domain can prepare to receive traffic on their trunk ports using the new VLAN.
STP: -Known as Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and used to provide redundancy in network link by using Layer 2 switch. Using this network failure can be avoided or it can be recovered in timely manner. The STP is defined in the IEEE 802.1D standard.
STP allows communication between switches and data exchange happens in form of Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU). A switch uses MAC address of port to send a BPDU frame out. It uses MAC address as source address.
Wireless LAN: - Wireless local area network allows users to connect with network any wire. To enable this service, network devices needs to be installed on user location WLAN uses IEEE 802.11 standard
1.2 What do you understand by quality of service (QoS) and bandwidth management? Evaluate and analyze with examples why do you think it is important to perform them
Quality of Service (QoS) is defined in several ways which can be used to manage network bandwidth, packet loss, and delay in data transmission and jitter in network. The purpose of QoS is to manage either one or all these four characteristics.
defines throughput of a given network. QoS does not affect the actual capacity of any given link but it enables the administrator to manage existing bandwidth in more efficient manner.
- Delay: - Delay is something when a network packet is taking more than expected time to reach to its destination. It can be because of delay in data processing or delay in establishing communication with destination or due to delay in processing at source end itself. Delay denotes the time difference that a data packet took to reach to the destination as compared to actual travel time expected.
- Jitter: - Jitter is the difference between arrival and departure of inter packet. It can be varied from one packet to another.
- Packet Loss: -Packet loss means losing of data during transmission. There may be various reason of packet loss e.g. buffer congestion, line errors and poorly defined QoS mechanisms that causes packet drops.
Examples for QOS:-
1.3 Discusses LAN concerns and make recommendations to sustain network security, reliability and performance
Hierarchical Network Design:-You can structure the campus network so that each of the three types of traffic flows or services outlined in is best supported. The resulting network is efficient, intelligent, and accessible and easily to managed.
The access layer is used in network where users are getting connected with the network. Devices which are used at this layer are known as building access switches and these devices should have the following capabilities:
- · Cost is low per switch port
- · Port density if high
- · Scalable uplinks to higher layers
- · Allows VLAN management, traffic/protocol filtering and manages QoS
- · Support redundancy with the help of multiple uplinks
This layer is used to interconnect the access and core layers of campus network. Devices used in this layer are known as building distribution switches and should have the following capabilities:
- · Should have aggregation of multiple access-layer devices
- · Provide High throughput for packet handling
- · Provide Security
- · Provide policy-based filtration for access lists or packets
- · Support QoS
- · Scalable
- · Redundant links to core and access layers
In a Hierarchical Network, core layer is responsible for connectivity of all distribution-layer devices. The core layer also known as the backbone of network and core switch must be capable of switching traffic as and when required. Core devices, also known as network backbone switches, should have the following attributes:
- · Redundancy for high availability
- · Very high throughput in network at Layer 2 or Layer 3
- · No costly or unnecessary packet manipulations or access lists, packet filtering
- · Advanced QoS
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