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Diploma in Health and Social Care
Unit Number and Title
Unit 31 Food Safety Management
Food safety management is considered to be an important issue especially in the hospitality sector as there is an enhancement in human diseases that make them aware about their health. In the current report, the importance for remaining hygienic and safety at food processing area has been laid. The report will focus on the food spoilage agents that make the food contaminated from its usage. The report will depict the importance on personal hygiene, cleaning, pest control for preservation from food defect along with method for preservation and ways for safe storage of food. It will talk about the points while designing new premises with hygiene environment. Moreover the report would give a guidance document for training the employees at Shilpa Indian Restaurant who had contracted to enter into wedding assignment consisting preparation for 500 guests.
There are common agents that lead to deterioration of food due to temperature, bacteria, light, moisture, oxygen etc. It is mainly considered injury to the food which makes it detrimental for the consumption of the human beings. Food can remain safe in storing in dark dry location with appropriate temperature to maintain its productivity especially for the perishable item like fruits, meats, cereals, vegetables, dairy products or milk which requires refrigeration. There are various reasons for the defect of food due to which bacteria, enzymes etc are created:
There are other reason also that affects the food like water content, environmental conditions and packaging and storing. The correct quantity of water is essential to avoid the microorganism. Even though the food is fresh it is exploit to environmental conditions like oxygen, light etc that occurs a series of microbial reactions and chemical. Packaging plays important role in storing the cooked food. Packaging can be done in cans, plastic containers to remain intact so that dust, dirt, chemicals doesn’t affect the food (Jay, 2012). In the current scenario, as the contract is of outside London, the manager of the Shilpa Indian Restaurant need to considered the above points for food safety for the success of contract.
Prior period, the food was preserved for the longer time so that it can be used in scarce. But with the modern methods of preservation, the management need to change the traditional method for food preservations. The most commonly used methods are as follows:
Fermentation: This is the method that minimise the risk of food safety spoilage and preserve it more effectively. Fermentation is the technique that allows the useful microorganism to attract on food to transfer the product in acidic form. Moreover, the method is used to have a control and monitor over the rotting of the food with use of specific bacteria that gives effective outcomes. The manager had to notice this process is carried by biochemical modification of starches, sugar and carbohydrates that converts into the organic acid with the help of bacteria. With the use of this method, the food can be preserved for specific duration.
Home canning: This method is considered to be safe and simple for preserving the food. It is mostly preferred to maintain the flavours of the fresh food. The person storing in canning should use the correct procedure and method for the food preservation for future use. The method is mainly use to store the pickles that is the acidic food (Doyle and Buchanan, 2012).
Figure1: Canning food
Refrigerating food: This is the most common technique for preserving the food for longer period of time for its usage. It protects the food from getting spoilt from its consumption. The food is mainly preserve to minimise the microbes and yeast that deteriorate the food. The freezing is the part of chillier atmosphere that is mostly used at every food places and home tools for the nourishment of the food.
Acidification: It is the method in which the use of vinegar that dip and soak the food and helps in preserving for the longer period of time. Vinegar kills the harmful or infectious germs and maintains the quality and taste of fruits, vegetables and herbs. By using this method, the Shilpa Indian restaurant can maintain the same taste for longer period of time and can use the product when required.
Drying food: It is the traditional technique that preserves the seasonal vegetables and can use them at the time of non availability. The management can use this method for dehydrating the water content from the fruits and vegetables to maintain and preserve their taste. Dehydration technique doesn’t attract the bacteria that adore the moisture and helps in penetrating quickly. With drying, vegetables and fruits consumes less storage space as they can be stored in air tact container so to protect from moisture and bacteria (Kirezieva et al. 2013). For example: raw mango, dried food, tomatoes, plum can be stored for longer period.
Figure2: Fruits dehydration
The main cause for deterioration of food is the improper use of time and temperature. The manager of Shilpa Indian Restaurant and its staff should have adequate knowledge for the accurate use of freezers, heat and chillers that prevent the food and perishable products from poisonous bacteria. It is necessary to analyse the process for meeting the correct temperature. Temperature control system is the safety tool that control and maintain the temperature from causing damage to the vegetable, fruits or other eatables products. If not properly analysed the result will be poor, polluted and infected food.
Figure3: Temperature Control System
The following points to be considered for good temperature control system:
It is very important to store the food in correct way so that it can be used at any time for meeting the need in return it save time, money, instant availability and protects from wastage of food. The several methods are used for safe storage are as follows:
Correct temperature control: For proper storage the manager or the chef should aware about the temperature to be maintained for different products. For example: meat products require chilling temperature on the other hand vegetables requires normal temperature.
Labelling: The food labelling is the major importance for storing the food. The Shilpa Indian Restaurant an very well use because the contract which is taken is outside London that help in guiding the chef and other staff when to use which food and it ensure check on expiry dates, ingredients, packaging dates, method to use etc (Heinz, 2013).
Use by date: The‘use by’ date can be shown from labelling the food. With that the manager would know the expiry date so that it can be protected from contamination of food. It is not advisable by the organisation to use the food after expiry even if it looks fresh and smell fine.
Stock rotation: It is important for the managers to have a proper management for inventory of the stock. First in first out should be used so that the older stock can be utilised first on time and newer can be stored which would reduce the consequences of spoilage of food which can be hazardous for the image of restaurant as well to the customers.
It is important for the person to have the hygienic nature while making preparation of food. He/she should ensure that personal hygiene should be maintained to avoid any exposure. Ignorance should not be there as much as possible; the little avoidance can hazardous like: smoking, unclean clothing while cooking, long hair should be tied up with hair net or cap, licking fingers to taste the food, wearing jewellery etc. Shilpa Indian Restaurant can achieve the importance of Personal hygiene through:
While food preparation, the above points are to be considered to protect the food from contamination. It would also help in maintaining the health of the food handler with that the cases of food poisoning is reduced. Not only at restaurant or eating places personal hygiene is necessary but at homes also. Foodsafety management system should be followed in every restaurant and should be taught at the time of training in the Shilpa Indian Restaurant.
Cleaning at workplace is necessary to gain the nutrition support for the individuals. For that the food should be safe from bacteria and germs and it can ensure by using safety procedures for making, serving and storing of food. Improper cleaning can lead to food poisoning. Cleanliness can be assured at the restaurant by cleaning hands necessarily done before preparing, serving or eating the food. Cleaning can be done through use of clean equipment for cutting of vegetables and fruits, surface area should be clean regularly through sanitizer and the management should be responsible to assure the cleaning they can do this by hiring professional cleaning staff, specifying clear procedure in place (Daelman et.al. 2013).
Figure 4 Sample image of cleanliness at Restaurants
Disinfection refers to killing of bacteria and germs with the motive of minimising their number that harms the food so that it neither harm to health or the quality of the perishable foods. With the correct usage of disinfectant item, microorganism can be reducing to required level for food protection. There are different disinfectants like chlorine, quarter nary ammonium compound etc. It also keeps the food article fresh and far from microorganism spoiling the food. The owner and customers would be benefited by clean surface with using of disinfectant or pesticides and it make sure that the restaurant complies with the disinfectant procedures (Lahou et.al. 2015).
The organisation should carefully analyse the best pest control in food processing areas. The appropriate precautions can be taken to prevent the food defect from cockroaches, insects, ants, mice, rats that tries to enter into the food preparation area. Pest control should be done for prevention from food contamination. Shilpa Indian Restaurant should check that any holes to the doors, pipes, drains etc must be filled with durable things that reduce pest control points into food preparation or storage area. Regular checking of this point should be done so that requirement can be known. The pest control is done by appointing pest control organisation. The organisation can be searched on British Pest Control Association (BPCA).
The control over flying insects is sometimes difficult, in food processing area windows need to be with insect proofs screen which can be taken out for cleaning. Insect killer should be placed away from main light source and food preparation area. Sprays should not be used as it involves the risk of chemical contamination to food (Dzwolak, 2014). In addition, with pest control the organisation can have to face the smell which can be diluted in the food if left open and can spoil the same. The pest might contribute to the cross contamination of food and spread diseases.
Figure5: Pest control in Food processing area
The need for hygiene is the first option for every organisation whether a production sector or hospitality industry. With the maintenance of hygienic environment, the organisation can attract the people toward the restaurant. It is also the top most priority because it maintain the brand image and quality food standard. The design and infrastructure of the hygiene food premises should be constructed keeping in mind the following points:
While designing, the floors durability and safety, walls non absorbent, doors and windows prevented from entry of insects etc, washing facilities and washbasins provide hot and cold facilities when required should be there for new premises (Holah, 2013).
Every organisation need to train the employees for maintaining the quality services for customer. The Shilpa Indian Restaurant should provide the training to its employees on several issues like making them aware for hygiene standards and maintain the aura of the environment. The reason behind food poisoning is food deterioration due to microorganisms attracted toward the food particles. Proper training should be given by specialised person who have expertise on the topic food defects, hygiene and its related aspects.
There are numerous food trainings available according to the need of management or food handler. The training sessions will insure that employees are getting knowledge and proper evaluation should be done of their performances (Collado et.al. 2014). As the topic focus on food safety it can be done through training on cleanliness, pest control, food storage, preservation and personal hygiene etc. In the long run, with this hygiene training, the employees will develop the habit of remaining hygienic at services and home which would be beneficial for the society as well.
The main purpose of the report was on health & safety of food management at workplace. It had concluded that the food spoilage plays a critical part in causing damage to food that lead to the food borne diseases. Report had discussed the several ways for food preservation and safe storage of food. It had also identified personal hygiene as an important tool to prevent the food from contaminated. The study had covered various points like understanding on temperature control system, problems for pest control, cleaning and disinfection for food safety. At the end, it further summarised on the importance of hygiene environment while designing of new premises along with training on quality assurance.
Books and journals
Aung, M.M. and Chang, Y.S., 2014. Temperature management for the quality assurance of a perishable food supply chain. Food Control, 40, pp.198-207.
Collado, L.S., Corke, H. and Dizon, E.I., 2014. Food safety in the Philippines: problems and solutions. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 7(1), pp.45-56.
Daelman, J., Jacxsens, L., Lahou, E., Devlieghere, F. and Uyttendaele, M., 2013. Assessment of the microbial safety and quality of cooked chilled foods and their production process. International journal of food microbiology, 160(3), pp.193-200.
Doyle, M.P. aRemove Anchornd Buchanan, R.L. eds., 2012. Food microbiology: fundamentals and frontiers. American Society for Microbiology Press.
Dzwolak, W., 2014. HACCP in small food businesses–The Polish experience. Food Control, 36(1), pp.132-137.
Heinz, H.J., 2013. Principles and practices for the safe processing of foods. Elsevier.
Holah, J., 2013. Food Safety Management: Chapter 24. Hygiene in Food Processing and Manufacturing. Elsevier Inc. Chapters.
Jay, J.M., 2012. Modern food microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kirezieva, K., Jacxsens, L., Uyttendaele, M., Van Boekel, M.A. and Luning, P.A., 2013. Assessment of food safety management systems in the global fresh produce chain. Food research international, 52(1), pp.230-242.
Lahou, E., Jacxsens, L., Verbunt, E. and Uyttendaele, M., 2015. Evaluation of the food safety management system in a hospital food service operation toward Listeria monocytogenes. Food Control, 49, pp.75-84