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Unit 31 Assignment on Food Safety Management
Diploma in Hospitality Management
Unit Number and Title
Unit 31 Food Safety Management
Food business is required to follow certain laws to ensure that the food they sell is not harmful and cause illness to the consumer of the food. Assignment on food safety management is for the company that is requires to follow certain safety measures which protects the food from getting spoiled. The common problems which the consumer faces due to consuming spoiled food are food poisoning, diarrhoea, and vomiting and stomach pain and may cause headache, fever and joint pain. The food generally contains high level of food poisoning –bacteria which may make the customer ill. The creation of toxin in the food can be controlled by controlling the temperature of food by either keeping it very cold or hot. The food business is required to control the temperature of the food to prevent the poisoning of the foods. Some foods don’t need to be kept in either cold or hot temperature because the bacteria don't develop in such food. Keeping food hot or cold is not effective in certain type of food. The best way to stop the bacteria in this type of food is through preventing the food from getting contaminated. These foods are unsafe until these foods are reproduced or cooked. The food needs to be kept either very cold or hot to prevent the bacteria from food contamination. It is offence to sell the food which is spoiled and may affect the health of the customer. Some food which is not hazardous can cause harm if the alteration is made in the food in some way. The business engaged in food product needs to focus more on the safety of the consumer. If any of the customer health gets affected from the company product will cause the huge loss to the company and legal action against the company.
1.1 A review of the controls available to prevent food contamination.
Food contamination is the situation when the food is spoiled by the presence of harmful and microorganisms in the food which can cause the illness and the food poisoning to a person. The food contamination is the unhealthy food which can generate illness to a consumer. To prevent food contamination there are some controls available which are-
- Washing hands- Without washing hands the food should not be used this can cause the inserting of the Pathogens bacteria in the food from the infected human body. The pathogens are transferred from the amount of faecal matter on the hands to the food. Hand washing and the hygiene policy should be followed.
- Cross contamination- The cross contamination of food can occur from the environment. The food and the kitchen and the environment may get contaminated by the raw foods such as meat. Using same knife from which the raw or the contaminated food has been cut and the same utensils of the contaminated food can also introduce the microbes and generate contamination in the food. The cooked food can also get contaminated if it comes with the touch of the raw contaminated food and the animal fat included in the raw food which contains the pathogens. The food should be prevented from getting the cross contamination from the harmful bacteria from person, object or the place (Islam. et.al, 2013).
- Food storage and cooking temperature- The disease can be caused by increasing number of the pathogens bacteria in the food. Refrigerating and freezing food can help in preventing the food from getting the bacteria and the pathogens in a food. By cooking and heating food on fire the food can kill the different germs and bacteria, viruses, parasites etc. The high temperature helps in killing the many bacteria and also in preventing food from getting contaminated.
- Food contamination by animal waste- Meat and the poultry become the contaminated food during the cutting of the small contents of the meat. The fresh food can get contaminated by washing them with the water contaminated from human sewage and the animal manure.
The food contamination can be prevented by keeping the cleanliness and the hygiene environment, by keeping the raw food and the contaminated food away from the fresh food, by cooking the food thoroughly and refrigerating and freezing it to avoid bacterial insertion in the food, by keeping the food at the safe and prescribed temperatures the food can be avoided, usage of safe water or the fresh water instead of the contaminated water can probably save the food from getting contaminated and buying the food needed and not extra which can get contaminated by getting into contact with the food and gets waste (Banach, et. al, 2015).
1.2 An analysis of the different sources of food contamination.
The sources from which the food gets conta minated are the different bacteria and the viruses which can affect the food. These contaminations can cause the harmful disease and cause the bacterial infection in the human resourses body. The different sources of the bacteria and the viruses which occur in the food by the contact of air or the dirty water or the unhygienic environment are discussed below:
- Salmonella-These bacteria occurs in the intestinal tracts of human and the animal’s body. These bacteria are the dangerous and very harmful for the humans. They go through the food chain because of the contaminated meat, fish, eggs, milk. This causes the disease of diarrhoea, vomiting and fever to the contaminated body. These bacteria show their symptoms within twelve to thirty six hours of intake of the food. The children and the elders are the most infected person of this disease. These bacteria can be eliminated by cooking the food properly.
- Campylobacter- It is similar that of salmonella and is very harmful too. It is transferred from the chicken, shellfish, milk and mushrooms. It causes the same disease that of salmonella that is diarrhoea, vomiting and fever. This can be killed by the cooking.
- Staphylococcus- These bacteria causes the pimples, pus-laden, boils. They grow quickly and generated the diseases like nausea, vomiting and the diarrhoea. It causes because of unhygienic methods of cooking and grows in the warm temperatures or high temperatures. These can be killed by refrigerating and freezing the foods properly instead of cooking (Van Bossuyt, et. al, 2016).
- Perringens- These are also called the cafeteria germ. It is found in the human and animal intestines and in the soil and sewage. These bacteria occur remaining in the stem for the long period or left in the room temperature. It contaminated the food such as gravy, beef, turkey, casseroles. The food can be prevented from these bacteria by using the hygienic handling environment and avoiding in keeping the food at room temperature.
- Botulinum- This is the highly infected bacteria which generates the poison and kill the human or the infected body. It generates from the soil and the water and is contaminated in the foods which are not cooked properly. They can be found in the canned bottles. The food which shows the milky substance in it throws the food immediately. Do not taste the food as it can cause the death.
- Yersinia- The bacteria which are founded in the lymph and faeces of the human body. This cannot be killed by refrigerating. Cooking the food properly can kill these bacteria. It is found in the milk, tofu and vegetables. This can cause appendicitis (Van Bossuyt, et. al, 2016).
1.3 A discussion of food preservation method and an evaluation of their effectiveness.
Food preservation can be done by various methods such as:
- Chilling and freezing- By chilling the foods or refrigerate them in a proper way the food can be preserved.
- Canning- Canning is to preserve the food by keeping in cans and storing them in cans or the package in which they can be kept for a particular duration of time.
- Dehydrating- Dehydration is the process of keeping the food away from water as water for a long duration in a food can spoil it.
- Fermenting- Fermenting is the process of spoiling the food but some food can be kept preserved by fermenting them.
- Salting- Salting is to keep the food by spreading or including content of slat in them. The salt is the important content which can preserve the food (P, & L, 2013).
2.1 A summary of the methods for the safe storage of food, with an emphasis on temperature control system?
To protect the food from spoilage the company needs to follow certain measures which generally include maintaining the temperature of the food or adding the preservative to the food items. The following are the ways which can be followed to protect the food for contamination.
- The workers should not use the food equipment when they are ill.
- The workers need to wear proper safety measures while packaging the food for the company.
- The workers need to wash and dry their hands when they get into contact with the food item.
- Storing the food in the temperature which protect the bacteria from distribution and the food getting contaminated.
- Adding the preservative to the food item which helps in protecting the food from getting affected 1from the bacteria.
- The workers should avoid handling ready to eat items with hands.
- The workers need to clean and wash the equipment which it uses on the food items.
- The staff must produce the food hygienically and should protect the food from contamination.
The foods which are of hazardous nature and cause illness to the consumer needs to be kept under proper temperature to protect it from spoilage. These are food which contains food -poisoning bacteria and are capable of easily developing such bacteria which causes food to be unsafe for consumption. The example of few hazardous products is sea food, dairy product, processed fruits, raw and cooked meat and other eatables product. On the other hand there are certain foods which are not hazardous such as canned and bottled food, dried fruits, dried meat, cheese etc. These foods are less affected by bacteria but need to be preserved in the long run. The preventing of food by controlling the temperature generally applies to all the business environment that sells potentially hazardous product. The businesses which are required to fulfil such regulations are restaurant, super market, take- away, caters, club etc. This applies to all the type of the business weather it is private, public, charity or any cooperative group. This also applies to the mobile premises, vans, market stall and business which operate from home (Bhattacharya, 2014).
To ensure safety of the food it is either stored at very cold temperature or very hot temperature. The temperature of storing the food should be on the basis of recommendation of experts of the particular field. The food should be kept at certain temperature unless you find the alternate solution to the problem. Certain food are required to be kept frozen at the time of delivery to the customer and until the product is used by the customer. The manufacture should mention the detail of how to protect the product from spoilage by mentioning on the package of the product. The temperature is generally required to maintain the quality of the product (Abdelsamie, Rahman, & Mustafa, 2014). The company is required to keep the food under certain temperature to protect it from spoilage when it receives the potential hazardous food. The company should consider the safety of the food item till it is consumed by the customer. The ready to eat items shouldn’t be preserved for the long time after preparing it as the bacteria development process is faster in these type of the product. The government also regulates over these companies as the product they manufacture has the impact on the health and safety of the customer. The government sets certain rules and standards which these organization needs to follow while delivering the product to the customer. These organization needs to obtain license from the government to operate their business. The government regularly checks that the company is taking measures for the safety of the customer (Martín & Sobrino, 2011).
The company can choose the alternative way of protecting the food if it helps in protecting the food. The business can demonstrate the safety of the alternative product by conducting the food safety program between the public. They can use the alternative way if they have the scientific evidence that the process will not affect the health and saferty of the customer. The industry in which company is currently indulged also helps in providing the various alternatives to protect the food from getting spoiled (Chen, 2015).
2.2 An evaluation of the importance of personal hygiene, cleaning, disinfection and pest control.
The businesses which are engaged in the production or supply of the food items are required to consider personal hygiene, cleaning, disinfection and pest control at their workplace. This is generally done to protect the food from getting affected from bacteria as the product this company sells has a great effect on the health of the consumer. This is done to control the food from getting hazardous by protecting it from microbiological, chemical and physical hazards. This rule is applicable to all the company weather it operates at the small level or very huge level. The company which follows these policies avoids the circumstances which cause loss to the business (Carrió & Rosselló, 2014). The company needs to ensure adequate and appropriate maintenance and cleaning of the premises and the equipment to provide safety to food Item. For this the company should timely ensures that the equipment which are used to produce and process the food items are functioning well. The premises also need to be kept clean to prevent the food from the bacteria. The organization needs to prevent the hazards to enter the food items. For this the company needs to prepare checklist and guide periodic inspection of the establishment. The notes should be prepared while inspection to find the ways to protect the food from hazard. After that the result of the inspection needs to be evaluated and recommended action should be taken against the associated risk. The company needs to keep the record of such inspection to avoid future occurrence of the hazards. The company can also have information from the similar company what measures to follow to protect the food from hazards. The company should timely maintain the equipment to ensure absence of physical and chemical hazards. Equipments need to function properly particularly if it involves in hygiene control step. The company which are engaged in food business needs to routine check there machines performance on frequency of cherries in output, Husk fragments, broken beans and control air-borne contamination occurs during hulling (Carrió & Rosselló, 2014).
This company should also conduct cleaning program to ensure food residues and dirt, which may be a source of contamination are removed from all the part of the establishment and equipment used to manufacture food. The company needs to keep cleaning method and material as per the requirement of the particular type of business. The chemicals which are used for the cleaning purpose should be used carefully to avoid any contamination to food and must be stored safely as per the instruction. Both physical as well as chemical method can be used for maintaining cleaning. Physical method generally includes heat, scrubbing, turbulent flow, vacuum cleaning on the other hand chemical method are detergent, alkalis and acids. The cleaning process generally involves removing gross debris from the surface, applying detergent to loosen soil and bacteria films, rinsing with water to remove residue, dry cleaning and other similar method and other method to control dissatisfaction. The cleaning and disinfection program needs to be monitored. It should specify the area, items and equipments and utensil to be cleaned, responsibility for the particular task method and frequency of cleaning and monitoring arrangements. Cleaning program should be documented to avoid the adverse circumstances due to hazards (Carrió & Rosselló, 2014).
Pest is the one of the major threat to the safety and suitability of the food items. The pest may cause the food hazardous for the consumer. Infection from pest generally enters the food at breading sites and supply of food. The enterprise needs to maintain good hygiene to control the infection from the pest. Good sanitation and proper inspection of the incoming material will help in avoiding risk of infection from the pest. For controlling pest the building must be kept repaired and in good condition to prevent pest access and to eliminate potential breeding sites. The windows, doors and ventilation needs to kept protected and the holes and drains should be sealed to prevent entering of pest in the establishment. The potential food should be stored in pest- proof container stacked above the ground and away from the wall. The surrounding area and establishment should be regularly examined to protect from infection. The organization should check that the pesticides used to control the pest don’t affect the food items. The pest control should not affect the safety and suitability of the food items (Carrió & Rosselló, 2014).
The organization should properly dispose the waste outcome of the product. Wastages should not be accumulated at the establishment, other working area and adjoining environment. The company should also maintain hygiene at the establishment and needs to ensure that those who directly or indirectly come into the contact with the food are not contaminating the food. Food handler needs to wear suitable protective clothing and wash and dry their hands while working. The workers should be refrained from the behaviour which may affect the food such as smoking, spitting and eating at the workplace. They should also not use perfume and other product which affect the food items and the personal effect should not be brought into food handling area. (Kaale, & Eikevik, 2014.)
2.3 A justification of the need for hygienic design of premises and hygiene training.
All the organization are required to prepare hygiene design of premises and hygiene training to make the food safer for the consumer. The organization should design the layout, design, construction and the size of the premises to allow the staff to clean the premises easily and protect against the build up dirt, toxic material. It facilitate to stop toxins and dirt to enter the food item and prevent the food contamination. The effective pest control followed by the company will prevent the food from infection which are caused due to pest. The hygiene design and training will help the employees of the company to know the procedure to follow at the workplace to protect the food from infection. It will provide the guidelines which are too followed at the workplace to protect the food. The company can also supervise its employees in relation to the rules they are following during the work to maintain hygiene of the product. The government also want these company to follow certain rules for the safety of the customer. An effective hygiene design will help in avoiding government interference in the business of the company. For maintaining the effective hygienic design the business needs to develop the structure of the business in the way which facilitate to clean the premises easily. The company is also required to make an effective drainage system which help in removing the wastage without affecting the food items. The hygiene design will help in building trust of the customer as this is the most important thing which the customer prefer while choosing the product in food industry. It also helps in avoiding the circumstances which may affect the functioning of the business. The health of the customer should be the main focus for the food businesses (Carrió & Rosselló, 2014).
Task - 3
3.1 A food hazard risk assessment.
Risk assessment involves identifying analyzing, characterizing the risk which are related with consuming the spoiled and infected food. It provide the business the kind of approach which the business needs to be followed to protect the food from contamination. It helps in proving the information, knowledge about the hazard in your business and the step which the business needs to follow to avoid such hazard. The assessment of the hazard related to the business may be determined by walking around the premises of the business and finding the factor which may affect the business. The manager can also take the help of the staff to access the risk related to business or may look the previous incidence to avoid similar situation. The manager needs to write down the hazards which may occur at the premises. After that the manger needs to finds the control measures which can be followed to avoid such hazard. The manager should also implement the measures to avoid the circumstances which affect the profitability of the business. The company should build the guide lines which the workers needs to follow during the workplace to avoid the occurrence of such hazards. The company is required to timely review the risk assessment process if the changes occurs at the workplace.
3.2 A food safety control system.
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) is a system to check the food business over the procedure which they follow for the safety of the food items. The food control safety system is necessary to protect the health of the consumer by reducing the risk which is caused due to food born disease. It also contribute to the economic development by maintaining the confidence of the consumer in the food system and increase the domestic as well as foreign trade of food items. The food safety control system must provide high level of health protection to the customer. It should provide high quality, transparency, and scientific advice for assessing, managing and communicating risk related to the food business. The system provides the precautions and measures to the food business to avoid the hazard related to the business. It should protect the right of the customer related to the information over the product which the company offers. The system should facilitate the proper track over the product and the problem which occurs in the product. It should also ensure that the product which are safe for the customer are only offered to them. The system should have clear provision indicating the responsibility for food safety and quality which are to be followed by the customer (Neuman, Cohen, Bekerman & Nave, 2012).
3.3 A food safety guide meeting legal requirements.
The food safety guide lines helps the company in complying with food safety legislation and achieve best practice to deliver the product which is safe for the customer. These guidelines help the company in complying with the food hygiene regulations. The companies through these guidelines may learn the ways to make the product safer for the consumer. They provide the knowledge to the company about the practices to effectively handle food product. The company should display food safety messages depending upon the type of the food being sold and mention special instruction on the product if needed. The companies needs to keep record demonstrating that the food safety procedure are effective. This also increases the efficiency of the company by avoiding the wastage of food items. These guidelines also help in providing training to the staff for maintaining the safety of the products. These guidelines help the staff and manger of the company to prevent the spread of infection by advising which illness and symptoms staff should report and the management should respond over it. They also help the food businesses to control the risk of contamination from the bacteria which can cause serious illness or death (Kaale & Eikevik, 2014).
So it may be conclude that the safety of the food is most essential for the company which is engage in the food manufacturing business. The company needs to follow the appropriate measures to maintain the quality of the food and preserving them from getting spoiled. The government shows high involvement in such business as the product has the direct effect on the health of the consumer. All the food companies should use various preservative methods to stop the development of the microorganism in the food. It can be done by maintaining safety at the establishment where food are produced and processed. It is the responsibility of the producer to check the safety of the food item which is delivered by them to the customer.
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