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Organizational behaviour is the study of the way in which employees interact with each other and organization. Study of organizational behaviour is necessary to understand the employees’ satisfaction and organizational benefits from individuals. The Unit 3 Organization & Behavior Assignment CAPCO Ltd will go through the culture and structure of a CAPCO organization. CAPCO is a global finance and technology consultancy organization in United Kingdom. The study will highlight the impact of culture and structure on the performance of employees. Later to it, study will determine the impact of historical theories on management practices and identifies effectiveness of leadership style and management approaches in workplace. In next section of report, implementation aspects of different motivational theories will be described with the role of line mangers and leadership styles. The study will also define group dynamics and factors on effective team resources development and functioning. The report will study the subject in context of CAPCO organization for better understanding.
Comparison of structure and culture of CAPCO and Tesco
CAPCO organization implements divisional structure to make use of narrow span of control. Span of control defines the managerial position within the structure of organization. CAPCO empowers the management with appropriate power to control subordinating activities. In comparison of structure of Tesco which is based on traditional bureaucracy structure as it has large chain of levels and less control at each level, CAPCO’ structure has small and flatten chain of levels to manage the organization. In divisional structure, CAPCO divides the organizational objectives in modules to distribute among the levels and executes the tasks with non-hierarchical and team-driven structure. Culture at CAPCO is more flexible, creative and risk-taking whereas Tesco’s culture is centric to use skills in specific tasks and manage stability (Alvesson, 2012). CAPCO’ culture uses the bottom up approach with little bureaucracy to accomplish objectives whereas Tesco is uses top to bottom approach to ensure the workflow and control.
Similarities in culture and structure of CAPCO and Tesco
Additional to differences, CAPCO and Tesco possess some similarities in structure and culture of organization. Both the organization uses the formal and informal structure to accomplish their tasks. Structure of both the organizations encourages the use of technical changes to meet the new demands and standards of industry. CAPCO and Tesco make the use of matrix structure to ensure the more productivity in less input. Culture of both organizations is similar in role of leaders, communication path, core competence and autonomy. Both organizations foster the productivity from employees as well as simplicity towards the achievements of goal (Brown and Harvey, 2011). CAPCO and Tesco are also similar in social and working context of employees.
Strategies of management towards the behaviour, attitude and disposition of employees play an important role to define the culture in workplace. CAPCO’s structure makes the use of vertical as well as horizontal distribution of power and control to achieve more through put in given efforts. Critical decisions and organizational goals are defined by top authorities and management to regulate on following levels in structure whereas lower levels are empowered to make their own rules and decisions to deliver performance at upper level. This proper distribution of roles and controls in structure helps to deliver and manage high performance in industry. Structure of CAPCO creates the highly flexible and innovative culture. Structure defines the right way to control information flow among levels and employees which result is a well-communicated and coordinating culture (Zheng.et.al.2010). This culture finally delivers the high performance and productivity. Training, workshops, events and diversity management is at core of CAPCO structure to determine the culture and performance at each level.
CAPCO’ structure is flexible to define their own strategies and rules to achieve assigned objectives. Organization encourages employees to participate in decision making process and structural improvements to enhance the cultural values and ethics of employees. Personal growth is managed parallel to organizational growth to deliver high experience in workplace. CAPCO believes that satisfied and skilled employees are most valuable assets of organization to achieve high performance. In order to achieve performance, CAPCO uses the intrinsic benefits and motivations from structure and culture of organization to direct the employees towards the achievement of quality and performance (Jiménez-Jiménez and Sanz-Valle, 2011). Management respects the social needs of employees and listen from them to feedback the structure and culture of organization. As managing diversity at each level, organization encourages individuals to perform their best in workplace.
Individual’s behaviour in CAPCO workplace is driven by five factors: demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality.
Leadership style is necessary to drive human resources towards the desired functionality. Overall productivity and performance of CAPCO and Tesco organization is not solely depend on capabilities of employees but also on leaders. Effectiveness of different leadership style in CAPCO is compared with Tesco.
Management of CAPCO implies several theories to ensure good employees’ behaviour parallel to the achievement of organizational goals. Theories help to standardize the organizational structure and suggest the approaches to manage the resources in more appropriate manner. CAPCO implies three theories in workplace for management of practices in organization.
CAPCO and Tesco organization use variety of approaches to apply needs of management. According to requirement of objectives, CAPCO and Tesco use the following management approaches to ensure smooth organizational operations.
An organization needs to go through several stages to create brand value and economic status. An organization may be in stage of formation, sustainability, maturing and take-off. Effectiveness of different leadership styles are described in context of CAPCO organization.
Motivation is required in an organisation like CAPCO to direct the behaviour of the workforce so that they perform well and give their hundred percent towards the growth of the organisation. Managers of CAPCO motivate their employees by identifying and satisfying their needs using the Maslow’s and Herzberg motivational theories.
Figure 2: Maslow's theory
In any organisation the implementation of rules and regulations in the lower level are done by the managers. In the same way, the manager of CAPCO is liable for implementing the theories of motivation in the organisation in an effective manner. He is responsible to look whether the employees or the workforce working in the CAPCO are properly being motivated or not. For this, manager can use various analysis and methods for measuring the needs and expectation of employees and to ensure that employees’ requirements are properly fulfilled or not (Pacesila, 2014). Manager of CAPCO can organise an event or can have regular feedback from employees to improve their satisfaction level in the workplace. Formal and flexible communication can be used by the manager to contact or communicate with the employees.
When the needs and requirements of the workforce are identified by the manager of CAPCO, he further makes the decision of implementing the theories to meet the expectations. A manager after identifying the required needs of the employees, he then chooses and selects the theory which should be applied practically. For example, Manager of CAPCO can motivate their employees by providing job security, good and healthy work place, benefits like promotion, bonus, rewards, etc to motivate the employees so that they perform their task dedicatedly. CAPCO spends a lot in understanding the behaviour of their employees which would indirectly help them in fuller utilization of human resource and reducing the employees’ turnover in the organisation (Mitchell, 2013). Thus, a manager of CAPCO should study briefly the needs and behaviour of the workforce and the theory which is to be implemented accordingly.
A group is the collection of individuals who are in regular contact and have a frequent interaction and work together to achieve the common set of objectives. The groups are basically formed with the motive of fulfilment of prestige, power, satisfaction, social needs, etc. Groups help in fulfilling personal and professional needs (Conway, 2010.). In CAPCO, employees form group to manage their task easily and effectively. The grouping may form on the basis of the similarities of their job or responsibility. There are many types of groups such as primary and secondary, formal and informal, autocratic and democratic group, etc. In CAPCO, two types of group are identified. These are as follows:
Teamwork is a crucial part of any business. An effective teamwork is the process of working together and trying to cooperate with the group of people with the purpose of achieving the desired goals. Development of effective teamwork is essential to achieve the goals and objectives of an organisation efficiently and effectively. There are many internal and external factors which cause both positive and negative impact on the development of effective teamwork (Hu & Liden, 2015). The factors which have positive or negative impact on the development of effective teamwork in CAPCO are as follows:
In this changing scenario, there is a very tough competition prevailing in the market. To stand and to have a sustain position in the market an organisation trying to use newly developed technologies in their day-to-day operations to achieve its goals and good brand name. To increase the profit, CAPCO uses various technical tools (Weller.et.al.2014). The use of latest technology in CAPCO has improves and in some cases hinder the functioning of the team. These technologies prove in the improvement of customer satisfaction in CAPCO and helps in achieving the needs and demands of customers. It improves the control and coordination required in completing the task in teamwork. Introduction of various new technologies in CAPCO requires organising the training for providing the guidance to the employees related to use of technology safely and appropriately (Pinjani & Palvia, 2013).
Use of e-mails helps members of a team to communicate asynchronously but the negative impact on the team functioning will be if there is any misuse of e-mails. Any type of misuse of confidential mails may hinder the functioning of the team. Use of mobile phones allows member to communicate from anywhere outside the employers premises but sometimes having access always can also hinder the functioning of the team (Mathieu.et.al.2014). Computers enable the members to do any type of complex task easily and accurately but if the information is hacked by someone will also hinder the team functioning. Groupware also enables the team members to plan meetings and to collaborate with virtual environment which can be accessed easily from any part of the world.
The Unit 3 Organization & Behavior Assignment CAPCO Ltd has been concluded the structural and cultural comparison of CAPCO and Tesco organization alongside the relationship with performance factors. The report also determined the influence of factors in the individual’s behaviour in workplace. The study has been made to understand the effectiveness of different leadership styles (transaction, autocratic and democratic leadership style) and organizational theories to map the management approaches with organization. The study has been evaluated the impact of historical motivational theories (Maslow’s motivation and Herzberg theory) in current context to define the role of line managers and leadership styles. Various implementation methods have been described to apply motivational theories in organization. Addition to it, the report also has been identified the nature of groups (formal and informal groups) and their significance, factors affecting development of effective teamwork and role of technology in organizational functioning. The study has been made around the organizational structure and culture of CAPCO and compared with Tesco organization.
Books and Journals
Alvesson, M., 2012. Understanding organizational culture. Sage.
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Brown, D.R. and Harvey, D., 2011. An experiential approach to organization development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bucic, T., Robinson, L. and Ramburuth, P., 2010. Effects of leadership style on team learning. Journal of Workplace learning, 22(4), pp.228-248.
Chaudhry, A.Q. and Javed, H., 2012. Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7).
Conway, S., 2010. Employing social network mapping to reveal tensions between informal and formal organisation. Social interaction and organisational change: Aston perspectives on innovation networks, pp.81-123.
De Board, R., 2014. The psychoanalysis of organizations: A psychoanalytic approach to behaviour in groups and organizations. Routledge.
De Jong, J. and Den Hartog, D., 2010. Measuring innovative work behaviour.Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(1), pp.23-36.
Ekaterini, G., 2010. The impact of leadership styles on four variables of executives workforce. International Journal of Business and Management,5(6), p.3.
Frankel, A. and PGCMS, R., 2016. What leadership styles should senior nurses develop?. nursing, 10, p.32.
Frederickson, H.G. and Ghere, R.K., 2013. Ethics in public management. ME Sharpe.
Hu, J. and Liden, R.C., 2015. Making a difference in the teamwork: Linking team prosocial motivation to team processes and effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), pp.1102-1127.
Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D.A., 2010. Organizational behaviour. Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Jansen, A. and Samuel, M O., 2014.. Achievement of organisational goals and motivation of middle level managers within the context of the two-factor theory. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(16), p.53.
Jiménez-Jiménez, D. and Sanz-Valle, R., 2011. Innovation, organizational learning, and performance. Journal of business research, 64(4), pp.408-417.
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