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Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Assignment - Capco structure
The Organisational Behaviour is to know about the process through which the individual interacts with each other. This study helps to create an effective and efficient management among the employees. The scientific and other approaches can be applied to the management of the workers through this study. The central idea behind organisational behaviour is to maximise the output from the employees working in an organisation through certain theories and approaches. The Organisational Behaviour gives an application to do research on the behaviour of the individuals. It gives knowledge about the employees lifestyles and the factors that influence it. The Unit 3 Organisational Behaviour Assignment Capco structure covered under this study is the behaviour of the individuals, team process, relation between the team members, leading people, theories and the various approaches that helps the superiors to judge their subordinates. Organisation behaviour is a simple practice to enhance the personalities of the individuals that will ultimately reflect on the working style of them. This will result in the achievement of the goals of the organisation and for the employees too.
1.1 Compare and contrast CAPCO’s structure and culture with another organisation of your choice. Show the differences and similarities in these two organisations.
The organisation behaviour and the culture of CAPCO are:- CAPCO is one the leading consultancy of the United Kingdom. It also expanded its business in financial services and managed services. It has 20 offices around the world where more than 2000 employees are working. The key function of this industry is the ‘Global financial services provider’. This sector comprises of the banking sector, financial sector, investment sector, etc. It is the most creative company who believes in innovation. They have different views according to which there organisational structure designed. (Appannaiah, et. Al., 2010) The organisation has a flat structure rather than a hierarchical structure because it has few levels or many times you found that there is only one layer of the management. In other words, we can say that there is a very short organisational structure in this organisation. Sometimes they also opt for matrix structure which is little bit complex. Under this a specialized team is formed like an HR team, marketing team etc. Matrix structure is basically formed when there is a need to work on a particular project. (Dion, 2012) The hierarchical structure is followed by the innovation and entrepreneurial advantage. They believe in team building and groups. They try to motivate the employees and help them to enhance their skills.(Pinnington, 2011)
The organisation behaviour and the culture of TESCO are:- TESCO is acompany which has a very tall organisational structure because it has a very large and a multiple layers in the organisation. It is not a private company. It has government interventions that force the organisation to spilt its structure into a very complex and large network. The power is divided among two, i.e., power with the government and the power with the locations. The majority of the power is in the hand of the Minister of the Health.(Buelens, 2006) There are many benefits of having a tall structure like the coordination and the efficiency in the working of the employees become better. All the individuals have an idea of their responsibility and requirements. It is the smoothest way to run an organisation as every individual has its own place and own work to do. There is no link between the employees. The main motive is to complete the task on time.(Mondy, et.Al. 2005)
1.2 Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.
There is a deep relation between the organisation’s structure and the culture. It is also related to the behaviour of the leaders, managers and the superiors. As they are the one, who have to decide the structure of the organisation. The culture of an organisation acts as a major element, whether it is happy working culture or not. (Tracy, 2014) The behaviour and the attitude of the employees depend upon the ethos and ethics of the organisation. They are influenced by the acknowledgement and the accomplishment of the policies applied in the organisation. There should be a good interaction and communication lies between the subordinates and the superiors because it will make a great contribution toachieve the company’s goals and objectives. (Steinberg, 2008) As far as the organisation structure is concerned, it involves the hierarchy, decision making and the information flow in the organisation. If there is flat hierarchy in the organisation, employees can easily communicate with each other and the flow of information will be good. This enhances the performance of the individual as well as of the organisation as a whole. Performance o the organisation does not dependent only on the hierarchy and the resource allocation but also have impact of the decision making process. This process is highly influenced by the structure of the organisation and hence influence the organisational performance.
Culture of the organisation involves the framework that focuses on the behaviour of the employees in the organisation. The type of the culture in the organisation influence the performance of the employees working there in positive as well as negative aspects. The organisationsl culture is formed by the relationship between the employees and the top management. The open organisational culture allow the employees to communicate with the top management easily and fosters the employee commitment towards the organisation. On the other hand, if there is strict and closed culture in the organisation, employees work woth fear and it affect their performance in negative way.
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.
There are many factors that influence the behaviour of the ndividual in the organisation. Some of the factors are related to his own personality while some of the factors are from the external environment. Both the types of factors affect the individual behaviour either in positive or negative way.
Team :Team is formed by the associated employees and workers that works together for the common goal. The members in the team and the relationship between those members affect the behaviour of the each and every individual. It is the organisational factor that affects the individual behaviour. More compatibility in the team emebers influences the same to perform effectively.
Leaders:This is also the external factor that affects the individual behaviour at work. The type of the leadership in the organisation affects the relationship between the employees ad the leaders and hence affects their performance and behaviour.
Work environment: Work environment is formed by the culture and structure of the organisation. the beliefs of the employees as well as the polcies of the organisation affects the working of the same and this may have its impact on the individual behaviour. business environment of the organisation supports the individual in positive way and the one behaves accordingly.
Attitude: Attitude refers to the personality and the way of response of an individual. It is the personal trait of an individual that reflects at the workplace during some of the situations. The way an individual handles the situational changes at the workplace determines his behaviour.
Perception: Evry individual perceives the same things differently. The behaviour of the employee alos depends on his perception about the organisational working. If his perception and the organosational culture matches than it proves to be beneficial for the organosation as well as for the individual.
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice.
The leadership style of an organisation decides according to the requirement of the organisation. A leader plays a vital role in leading the groups and the teams. He is responsible to motivate, guide, controls and to provide help to them. (Steinberg, 2008)
- Democratic Leader- These types of leaders are very actively participative leaders. They are the motivators who always try to keep the employees motivation on top. They are the leaders who work for the benefit of the employees, by the employees and of the employees.
- Autocratic: This leadership can be defined by the term dictatorship because the leaders in this style act as dictator. They command the followers and followers follow the command without sharing their views. The decision power is solely in the hands of the leader. Employees under this leadership always feel stressed.
- Laissez faire:This is a very free style of leadership in which, the leaders just act as a guide. They do not take decisions for their followers. The employees themselves take their decisions and can concern with the leaders if they have any doubts regarding the issue. This kind of leadership may have a drawback as the employees with poor decision-making skills can make wrong decisions and affect the organisational performance in negative way. (Mondy, et.Al. 2005)
- CAPCO leadership style: As far as CAPCO is concerned, the organisation uses democratic style of leadership. They allow the employees to share their opinions at the time of decision making. The process of communication in CAPCO helps the employees to communicate with ease and in turn results in participation of the employees in the organisational functions at top management. Democratic leaders in CAPCO focuses on considfering the views of their followers at the time of any important decision making. Thet treat their followers as a part of the decision making process and respect their opinions in order to make great and intelligent decisions.
- Tesco leadership style: Tesco uses the leadership style according to the situation. The two major styles used by the organisation are democratic and laisez faire. Liasez faire leaders allow their employees to take charge of their teams and work accordingly while democratic leaders allow the employees to share their opnions.
2.2 Explain how organisational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management.
An organisational theory is an approach through which employers can analysis the organisation. It acts as a tool that helps to examine the performance of the employees as well the condition of the organisation. It has a direct as well as an indirect impact on the performance of the employees and the employers. There are various types of organisational theory that helps to analyse. They are-
- Classical theory-A classical theory is the oldest among all the theories of organisational behaviour. It was evolved in the first half century by Fredrick Taylor. It is a merger of many other theories like scientific, administrative, etc.(Dion, 2012)
- The neoclassical organisational theory- It is an updated version the classical theory. As it was the oldest, it contains many mistakes and problems. The classical theory had many rigid beliefs also that were not applicable in the changing organisational behaviour. So there was a change in the classical theory and various rectifications were done on it. Neoclassical theory brought innovation in the organisation behaviour.(Appannaiah, et. Al., 2010)
- Contingency theory-This theory helps to manage the organisation at the time of contingencies. To meet the needs of the employees in emergent time, this theory acts as a boon.(Steinberg, 2008)
- System theory- System theory is a theory that helps to have a systematic arrangement of the employees. Now days, the organisation has open systems, an interacting and dynamic working environment. Due to which, organisations required system theory to manage things properly.
- Human relation theory- A theory that purely emphasis on the relations of the employees and to maintain a good environment to work is termed as human relation theory.(Aswathappa, 2010)
- Administrative theory-A theory that helps to manage the administration part of an organisation is termed as administrative theory.
- Bureaucratic theory- The main aim of this theory is to manage the training and development of the employees. This theory makes policies to bring growth and development in the organisation also.(Buelens, 2006
- Scientific theory-The focus of this theory is to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency in the organisation. It is responsible to enhance the quality of work. Under this theory, the emphasis is put on production not on the development of the employees.(Waniek, 2012)
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your own chosen organisation.
There are two main approaches that is, soft and hard approach. Soft approach focuses on employees and hard approach focuses on task completion. The approaches discussed below falls under either of the category.
1. Behavioural approach-
- It is a type of classical approaches that emphasis on the old norms.
- These theories view the organisation from the individual’s point of view.
- It is a soft approach
2. Socio-technical systems approach-
- This approach generally works to create a positive attitude in the social behaviour of the individuals. It also comprises of personal attitude and the behaviour of the groups.
- It is a soft approach.
3. Co-operative social systems approach-
- The main concern of this approach is to observe the interpersonal and behaviour aspects of the employees.
- It is a soft approach.
4. Quantitative approach-
- Its aim is to achieve the objective through perfection and precision.
- It uses mathematical and statistical method.(Waniek, 2012)
- It is a hard approach.
5. Decision theory approach-
- It specifies criteria to make decisions.
- It also helps to develop alternative.
- It is a hard approach.
6. Re-engineering approach-
- It is a type of modern approach
- It focuses on creating change and bring innovations in the organisation
- It redesigns its policies like cost, quality, service etc.
- It is a hard approach.
All the above approaches have been used by different organisation for management purposes. One of the approach that has not been discussed above and is used by CAPCO is “change management”. This approach facilitates the organisation to practice the approaches according to the situations or the contingencies. The organisations with this approach are flexible in nature and always ready to adapt the changes that have made in the management to deal with the current situation. On the other hand, TESCO used a standardised socio-technical approach to management. It focuses on the behaviour of the people as well as the group. This approach helps the organisation to create a cultural bonding between the employees.
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change.
Leadership styles have a significant effect on the motivation of the employees. It happens not only in small businesses, but also in the world’s largest organisations. These styles have great impact on everyone, starting from the top level of management to the bottom level of management. They have the ability to create a corporate culture in the organisation and to influence the performance of the employees.(Aswathappa, 2010)
The different type of leadership styles that creates an impact on the motivation of the employees are-
Autocratic style-This type of leadership is also known as “Authoritarian Leadership”. Under this, there is a clear division between the leaders and the workers. These leaders will make decisions by their own ways. There is no involvement of the employees in the decision making process. They are the most confident and responsible leaders. They make strategic plans and implement them also. Although, it is found that these leaders are not creative leaders. The employees are also remains least motivated under this style of leadership.
Delegate style- This type of leadership is less effective in comparison of autocratic because the leaders rarely make decisions. They leave this task on the employees and not actively participate in the work. They seldom guide employees and distribute the authority of decision making to the team members. Due to this, there is a situation of confusion arises between the hierarchies of management.(Dion, 2012)
Co-operative style- A style which is the most relevant style of the leadership is co-operate style. It is the most comfortable and easily applicable style. Under this style, the employers and the leaders become very comfortable with each other. It safeguards the interest of the employees and provides them guidance to work accurately.(Appannaiah, et. Al., 2010)
Participative style-This style is also known as “Democratic leader”. The companies which are developing in nature generally adopt this style of leadership. This is an opposition of the autocratic leader. Under this, the leader makes decisions by discussing it froman entire team of the employees. They encourage participation and involvement from the employees. This is one of the positivestyle to adopt leadership in the organisation.(De Liso and Leoncini, 2011)
3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories (e.g. Maslow’s and Herzberg theories) within organizational setting.
Maslow’s motivational theories
Herzberg motivational theories
Maslow theory emphases on the needs and the wants of an employee that is required to be fulfilled to satisfy them.
Under Herzberg, Motivational practice is the important part of employee satisfaction.
Parts of the theory
Under this theory, a pyramid shows the needs of an employee. That is-
(Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010)
Under this theory, there are two factors that help the employer to motivate his employees-
Company’s policy Benefits, bonus etc.
It is directly related to the needs and wants.
This theory is directly related to the work place.
In past years, it was applied in developing countries, but now almost every country is adopting this theory.(De Liso and Leoncini, 2011)
This is a theory which is not easily applicable in every country. Developed countries use this theory in their organisations.
It is the oldest theory of motivation.(Subba Rao, 2010)
It is an updated and enlarged version of Maslow’s theory of motivation.
It is descriptive in nature.
It is perspective in nature.
The Need of an employee acts as a motivator. They help the employees to work better.
Under this the satisfiers act as motivators. (Aswathappa, 2010)
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace.
Motivation is very important in the organisation to keep the employees satisfy. As we know that if an organisation wants to accomplish its goal, then it should require financial, physical and human resource collectively. Human resource can work only when they are willing to perform. This gives the organisation a benefit to optimise the use of resources. It also enhances the level of efficiency of the employees. Motivation leads to the achievement of the organisational goals also. It helps to build a good and friendly relation between the employer and the employee. Motivation acts as a tool that brings stability in the organisation. Employees remain motivated and hence the turnover ratio falls down. Employees will learn the concept of management and skills in a very rapid way. This practice gradually turns into self-motivation. (Subba Rao, 2010) A car needs fuel to run on the road. Likewise, employees need some financial and non-financial factors to remain motivated.
Different types of motivational factors are-
- Financial factors-The factors which are related to the money are termed as financial factors. They provide monetary benefits to the employees.
- Salary/wages/basic pay- The monthly income earned by an employee is known as a salary. It is a fixed amount for which an employee performs his work. It is a basic need of a person while performing a job.
- Bonus/benefits-An extra benefit earned by an employee while performing a specific work is known as bonus or benefits. The Bonus is given to the employees once in a financial year. They can be either in the form of money or gifts.(Subba Rao, 2010)
- Incentives- When an employee is able to achieve the targets given by his employer then to reward that employee; his employer provides an extra amount beyond his salary which is known as incentives.
- Promotions-When an employee is transferred from a lower stage to an upper stage of employment than it is called as promotions. It is the most effective and acts as the most appropriate factor of motivation.
- Non-financial factors-These factors are the non-monetary factors that do not provide any benefit related to money. But it provides other benefits that are very important to help the employee to remain motivated in the organisation.
- Holidays- Summer vacations, clinical leaves etc.(Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010)
- Recognition- Recognition refers to the praise an employee or giving him a reward for the good faith. It happens when an employee performed beyond his capacity.
- Responsibility- Delegation of authority and assigning some new task to an employee acts as a tool of motivation. They feel more responsible and work more effectively.(De Liso and Leoncini, 2011)
- Job security
- Secured environment
- Safety measures
Status- Status is also a kind of recognition that an employee wants after reaching to a certain level in the organisation.(Appannaiah, et. Al., 2010)
4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
A team refers to a group of people who share a same interest and have a common goal. They all carry a similar role and responsibility according to which they have to perform. They work together to achieve an objective that is assigned by the employer. A team has some similar traits and also have a common understanding that makes them comfortable to work with each other. (Mondy, et.Al. 2005)
In the case of CAPCO, there are two types of groups-
Formal group- A group of people which is formed for a specific purposeis known as a formal group. These groups are large is size and form a particular type of structure. Under this group, the communication flows from top level of management to the bottom level of management. The principle of scaler chain given by the Henry Fayal is applicable is this type of groups. Formal groups are found in most of the big organisation. (Bryman, 2011)
Informal group- A group which is formed deliberately by the people to achieve their own goals is termed as informal groups. The communication planning freely under this type of group. There is no monitoring work takes place. These groups are small in the size. The structure is not well defined under these groups.(Goldsmith, et. Al., 2010)
CAPCO is an organisation that believes that the work can easily be done through team building. They adopt the thesis of creating a strong bond between the superiors and the subordinates. This organisation has both the groups formal and informalthat has their own responsibilities to be undertaken. The work is dividedamong the teams so that the work can be done on time and in an accurate manner. In this organisation, the teams have their ownmanagers who are responsible in handling the whole team. A theory termed as Berbin theory that give certain behaviour of the employees working in an organisation to accomplish goals.
Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO or your chosen organisation The growth and the development of any team depend upon the manager who manages it. It also depends upon the systematic management that helps to accomplish the desired goals. Managers are the responsiblepersons who guide and monitor the work done by the team. The outcomes should be standardised and effective in nature. There are many factors that affect the effectiveness of the team work. Some factors promote the effectiveness while some other inhibit the effectiveness of the same.
Promoters of team work:
- Leadership style: It is very important to use a relevent leadership style to deal with the team members. If the leadership style is appropriate according to the team purpose and team members than the effectiveness of the team work increases.
- Communication: if there is great communication between the teams, they can work in more effective way as there is better flow of information due to good communication.
- Resources:the resources available for the team work also plays important part in effectiveness and development of the team work.
- Structure: structure of the organisation and the structure of the team has its impact on the team work effectiveness. Liberalised and free structure of the organisation and the team allow members to work freely.
Inhibitors of team work:
- Communication barriers: if there is communication barriers between the team memners than it may affect their working as it obstructs the flow of information between the team members.
- Cultural diversity: diversity in the workforce or the team members results in different opinions of the individuals on the same situation, this m,ay create chaos in the team and results in poor team work.
4.3 Evaluate the impact of the technology on the functioning of team within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
Now days technology has become the basic requirement for each and very organisation. Either the organisation is big in size or small, developed or developing, but technology is used by almost every one. Under the management of team, technology is playing a vital role as it helps to manage the functioning of the employees, budget for the teams, time saving, and allocation of human and other resources, etc. Communication has become very easy with the use of technology. It helps the organisation to make conversation with not only the local clients but also the foreign clients.
The benefits that CAPCO have due to technology is-
- Upgradation of obsolete workforce due to technology
- Budget formation for employees
- Data recording
- Expansion of the business
- Cross-culture advantage
- Time saving
The objective of this study to give the learner a brief knowledge about the organisational behaviour.It acts as an important part of every organisation. Whether the organisation is big or small in size. Under this study, you can learn the different types of styles of leaders, the approaches of the leadership styles, theories of leaders, theories of motivation of Maslow and Herzberg. It is also important for an organisation to adopt a particular structure. It provides a clear understanding of the employees and also their roles and responsibility remains stable. It brings out an effectiveness and efficiencyin the performance of the employees and helps them to work with their interest. There are many factors discussed in this study that tellsus how to keep the employability skills motivated.
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